(Translation) 陳忠貴王旨

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Introduction

This royal command of appointment issued in 1394 for Jin Chunggwi 陳忠貴 (?-1412) is similar in structure to the royal command (1393) Do Eung(To Ŭng). See 都膺王旨.

However, there are also a few differences between the two documents that warrant a closer look. Most obvious are the different posts and titles conferred to Jin Chunggwi by the new King Taejo. The title of Grand Master of Admirable Tranquility (gajeong daebu 嘉靖大夫), sometimes also found as gaui daebu 嘉義大夫 or gaseon daebu 嘉善大夫, was given to civil officials and had the rank of 2b in the hierarchical order of nine classes (pum 品). These titles mostly refer to ceremonial tasks performed by their holders within the palace. Jin Chunggwi’s position as Deliberator in the Privy Council (Sangui Jungchuwonsa 商議中樞院事) indicates that he was allowed to attend and discuss within the meetings of the Privy Council, the title of Royal Secretariat during the Goryeo dynasty, but did not hold an official post within the council. The Privy Council concerned itself with a large range of matters like forwarding reports to the king, relaying of royal orders to the public, military strategy, palace security, etc. This position also directly corresponds with his role as Officer in the Supreme Council, which was created with the founding of the new dynasty in 1392 and in 1400 changed into the State Council (uijeongbu 議政府). Jin Chunggwi also served as military commander and magistrate of Uiju county, in the northwest of Pyeongan province.

Little is known about Jin Chunggwi, beside what is mentioned in this document and that he was elevated as meritorious minister of the state founding in 1395. A year later he was sent to China and after his return in 1397 served in the Ministry of Taxation.

The co-existence of two council offices held by Jin Chunggwi, that essentially refer to the same position during different time shows that while the titles of the new dynasty gradually changed away from the Goryeo system, an overlap of titles and institutions existed during this transition. The document is also produced in regular script, which stands in difference to most documents of appointment during the early Joseon period.


1394年(太祖 3)에 3月 27日에 陳忠貴를 嘉靖大夫·商議中樞院事·都評議使司使·兼義州等處都兵馬使·義州牧使에 任命하는 告身이다.

朝鮮이 建國된 以後 1392年(太祖 1) 10月 25日에 高麗에서 使用되었던 告身式을 改定하여 1品에서 4品의 官員을 任命할 때 王旨를 내려주도록 하였는데 이를 官敎라고도 하였다.[1] 王旨는 國王의 意志를 나타내는 用語로서 元나라의 影響에 의해 高麗 忠烈王 때부터 旣存의 宣旨 代身 使用되기 始作하였다. 朝鮮이 建國되고 나서도 文書 樣式 面에 있어서 큰 差異 없이 이어졌으나 1435年(世宗 17) 9月에 『經濟六典續典』의 改定 內容을 反映하여 實際 文書에서 使用하는 用語를 ‘敎旨’로 變更하도록 하였다.[2] 이 告身은 『經國大典』의 四品以上告身式이 施行되기 以前까지 署經權의 變化에 따라 여러 次例 任命 對象 官員의 範圍가 바뀌었지만 大體로 國王의 命에 따라 1品에서 4品의 文武官員을 任命할 때 吏曹와 兵曹에서 發給하였다.

[朝鮮王寶]는 朝鮮이 建國되고 나서 [高麗國王之印]을 返納하고, 이후 明 惠宗이 내린 [朝鮮國王之印]을 使用하기 前인 1393年(太祖 2)부터 1401年(太宗 1)까지 一時的으로 使用한 朝鮮의 國璽이다.[3]

朝鮮時代 國內에서 만든 國璽는 [朝鮮王寶]가 唯一한데, [朝鮮國王之印]과 달리 ‘印’字가 아닌 ‘寶’字를 使用하고 있는 것은 明으로부터 朝鮮國王으로 冊封되기 以前의 特殊한 性格을 보여준다고 할 수 있다. [朝鮮王寶]는 以後 滅失된 것으로 보이나, 1744年(英祖 20) 英祖가 朝鮮 初期에 發給된 康舜龍의 告身을 보고나서 여기에 安寶된 朝鮮王寶를 模倣하여 새로 鑄造하여 敎命과 冊禮時에 使用하게 하였으며,[4] 1876年(高宗 13) 12月에 改鑄하였다. 改鑄한 [朝鮮王寶]는 銀으로 만들어 鍍金하였고, 龜紐로 粧飾하였으며, 크기는 方 4寸 4分이었다.

草書體로 作成된 大部分의 朝鮮 初期 告身들과 달리 楷書體로 作成되어 있는 점이 獨特하다.

嘉靖大夫는 朝鮮 開國 初期 文武百官의 官制를 制定할 때 東班 從二品 上階로 規定되었고,[5] 『經國大典』에서도 同一하게 維持되었다.

商議中樞院事는 啓復, 出納, 兵機, 軍政, 宿衛, 警備, 差攝 等의 일을 管掌하는 中樞院의 從二品 官職이다.

都評議使司使는 都評議使司의 官職으로 1392年(太祖 1) 7月 28日에 制定된 文武百官 官制에 따르면 正2品인 判中樞院事가 擔當하도록 되어 있었다. 그러나 같은해 12月 13日에 商議中樞院事도 都評議使司의 官職을 겸하게 하면서 本 告身에서처럼 商議中樞院事인 陳忠貴가 都評議使司使를 兼職하게 된 것으로 보인다. 都評議使司는 高麗時代 非定期的인 會議機構였던 都兵馬使의 後身으로 1279年(忠烈王 5)에 都評議使司로 改稱되면서 構成과 機能이 擴大되어 國政의 中心機構로 變化하였으며 이러한 性格은 朝鮮 建國 以後에도 이어졌으나 1400年(定宗 2)에 議政府로 改編되었다.[6]

都兵馬使는 朝鮮初期의 外官職으로 後에 都節制使, 僉節制使 等으로 名稱을 改定하였다.[7]

牧使는 高麗 成宗代에 처음 設置된 外官職으로 『經國大典』에서는 義州牧使를 正3品 外官職으로 規定하고 있다.[8]

陳忠貴(?~1412)의 本貫은 三陟이다. 朝鮮 建國 以後 僉節制使, 商議中樞院事, 義州都兵馬使 等을 歷任하였고, 1395年(太祖 4)에 開國原從功臣에 策錄되어 錄券과 함께 田 30結과 奴婢 3口를 받았다. 이 錄券은 寶物 1160號로 指定되었고, 陳忠貴 告身은 寶物 1161號로 指定되어 國立中央博物館에 所藏되어있다.


  1. 『太祖實錄』 卷2, 1年(1392) 10月 25日(癸酉). 改告身式: 一品至四品, 賜王旨曰官敎, 五品至九品, 門下府奉敎給牒曰敎牒.
  2. 『世宗實錄』 卷69, 17年(1435) 9月 3日(辛未). 吏曹啓: “『續典』, 改判爲敎, 改王者爲敎旨, 而官敎爵牒及外吏正朝安逸差貼, 仍稱王旨, 實爲未便, 請竝改以敎旨.” 從之.
  3. 『太祖實錄』 卷3, 2年(1393) 3月 9日(甲寅). …送納高麗恭愍王時所降金印一顆.
     『太宗實錄』 卷5, 3年(1403) 4月 8日(甲寅). …今特遣使, 賚朝鮮國王金印及誥命, 使爾用昭寵榮.…
  4. 『英祖實錄』 卷60, 20年(1744) 12月 24日(丁卯). …今覽朝鮮王寶篆, 又奇矣. 今則朝臣敎旨, 皆用施命之寶, 其來已久. 此則雖不可改, 然旣覽寶篆, 尤豈泯焉, 國家敎命及王后世子冊禮時, 當以此用之. 仍命尙方, 摸鑄以入.
  5. 『太祖實錄』 卷1, 太祖 1年(1392) 7月 28日(丁未). …從二品 嘉靖大夫·嘉善大夫…
  6. 『定宗實錄』 卷4, 定宗 2年(1400) 4月 6日(辛丑). 命門下侍郞贊成事河崙, 更定官制. 改都評議使司爲議政府…
  7. 『世宗實錄』 卷22, 世宗 5年(1423) 11月 22日(己亥). 吏曹啓 凡稱都兵馬使·兵馬使 乃前朝之制 今旣改以兩府以上稱都節制使 三品稱僉節制使 惟各鎭兵馬使仍舊未便 請各鎭兵馬使 三品則稱僉節制使 四品則同僉節制使 從之
  8. “(正三品)…牧使三【安州 定州 義州】 ” 『經國大典』 「吏典」 外官職/平安道.

Original Script

Classical Chinese English

(1) 王旨

(2)  陳忠貴, 爲嘉靖大夫·商議中樞

(3)  院事․都評議使司使․兼義州等

(4)  處都兵馬使․義州牧使者.

(5)  洪武二十七年三月二十七日.

The Kings command,

Jin Chunggwi (陳忠貴, Chin Ch'unggwi) is to serve as Grand Master of Admirable Tranquility, Deliberator in the Privy Council, Officer in the Supreme Council, and concurrently as Military Commander of Uiju and other places, as well as County Magistrate of Uiju.

The 27th year (1394) of Emperor Hongwu's Reign , 3rd month, 27th day.

Discussion Questions

  1. This document suggests that by the second year of the Joseon founding, the official titles had already been established. Where did these officials titles come from?
  2. Given the remoteness of his post, how can we account for his concurrent service as member of the council in the court?
  3. Against what historical backgrounds or in which political contexts did this appointment take place?
  4. Given that Yi Seonggye literally "usurped" the throne, how do you think Goryeo ministers would have responded to his orders of appointment?

Further Readings


References


Translation

(sample) : Jaeyoon Song


  • Discussion Questions:


Student 1 : (Write your name)


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Student 2 : (Write your name)


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Student 3 : Hu Jing


  • Discussion Questions:

Even though it was the second year after Joseon was founded, we can see the official title had been well formatted. With regard to the formulation of official titles, did Joseon inherit from the previous dynasty or learn from Ming China?

Student 4 : (Write your name)


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Student 5 : (Write your name)


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Given Uiju is very far from the capital. How was it possible for this person to serve as both local magistrate and the member of the council in the capital?

Student 6 : (Write your name)


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Student 7 : King Kwong Wong


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Considering the date of this document, what historical background and situation of the time can be linked to this appointment? Why did Taejo bestow these titles and appointments to Jin?

Student 8 : Younès M'Ghari


  • Discussion Questions:

How many such documents have Yi Seonggye written to give positions to his subjects? Have a number of these positions been rejected by the recepients after Yi Seonggye usurpated the throne?

Student 9 : (Write your name)


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Student 11 : (Write your name)


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Student 12 : (Write your name)


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Student 14 : (Write your name)


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