|Korean(RR)||도응 왕지(Do Eung wangji)|
|Translator(s)||Participants of 2018 JSG Summer Hanmun Workshop (Advanced Translation Group)|
This brief document, discovered in the family archive of the Seongju Do (Sŏngju To) lineage, is an royal decree of appointment issued in 10/1393 by the Joseon (Chosŏn, 1392-1897) founder King Taejo to Do Eung (都膺, To Ŭng), a former Goryeo (Koryŏ) official. The seal on this document reads: “Joseon wang bo” (朝鮮王寶, the Royal Seal [Treasure] of the Joseon King).
Although Do Eung was Taejo's childhood friend, he would become one of the so-called "seventy-two sages of Domun-dong" (杜門洞七十二賢) who chose to remain in Gaesung in resistance to the founding of the Joseon Dynasty. Taejo offered Do Eung official posts five times; however, Dong Eung consistently rejected them. The document, the earliest of the five, appoints Do Eung as Grand Master for Court Service (朝奉大夫, RR: jobong daebu, MR: chobong taebu)  and Deputy Superintendent of Standard Medicine (典醫少監; RR: jeonui sogam, MR: chŏnui sogam).
For its short text length and minimal components, this document shows vast change in style and form. Such changes reflect the newly adopted domestic control system of the Joseon dynasty as well as its diplomatic relations with the Yuan (1271-1368) and Ming (1368-1644) dynasties.
First of all, the document overall employs the office names and titles of the late Goryeo period as well as the format of the document. Starting with a word “Wang ji” (王旨; MR: Wang ji] and the structure indicating the recipient’s name and appointments is enclosed by the set phrase “Wi… ja” (為... 者; MR: Wi… cha). The end of the document only indicates the date. This is aberrant from the documents issued before the Mongolian invasion and the Joseon dynasty from the fifteenth-century onward. For instance, the style prevalent in the previous Tang and Song dynasty models (which Korea had also adopted) includes the references of office and officer names at the end of the document that indicates the drafting and review procedures. The use of “爲...者,” according to Shim Yeong-hwan, is transliteration of Mongolian language, in which “者” means ‘to order.’  Although no comparable examples of Yuan dynasty documents survive today to confirm the suggestion, simplicity of the document’s features is presumed to take after the Mongolian style of documents that simply conveys the royal command, omitting the bureaucratic references.
On the other hand, the heading “王旨,” which represents the king’s “intention” or “order,” was used since the reign of Goryeo King Chungnyeol (r. 1274-1308), who became the son-in-law of Kubilai Khan (r. 1260-1294). Although this event had Goryeo affiliated to the Mongolian kesig system and replace the previous term “宣旨” (proclamation by the emperor), “王旨” was employed distinctively from the typical headings of the Yuan court documents, such as “鈞旨” for the sons of the emperor.  The components such as “王旨” and “爲...者” was again replaced by “敎旨” (instruction) since 1460, as a new standard of documents was regulated in the Great Code of State Administration (經國大典; RR: Gyeongguk Daejeon; MR: Kyŏngguk Taejŏn).
The sealmark on the document, which reads, “The Royal Seal [Treasure] of the Joseon King (朝鮮王寶),” is also particular of this period. While it was customary under the Sinitic tributary system for a kingdom to receive the official seal of the monarch from the Son of Heaven (the emperor), this seal was a domestically cast signature of the king that was temporarily used from 1393 to 1401, from the second year of Taejo’s reign until his son Taejong formally received “Joseon gugwang ji in 朝鮮國王之印” (Seal of the King of the Joseon State) from Jianwen emperor of Ming. In the founding year of Joseon (1392), the documents were stamped with the pre-Yuan period seal of the Goryeo King, “Goryeo gugwang-ji Yin” (高麗國王之印; MR: Koryŏ Kugwang-ji Yin). It signifies the circumstances of King Taejo and the newly founded Joseon dynasty during the concurrent period of transition from Yuan to Ming. It is the only known example of a domestically produced signature of the king in Korean history.
Another feature of this document is that it is written in cursive script, after the calligraphic style of Zhao Mengfu (趙孟頫; 1254-1322), commonly known as Songxueti (松雪體; RR: Songseolche; MR: Songsŏlch’e). Renowned as an official, literati, painter and calligrapher, Zhao Mengfu was a descendant of the Song imperial family who served at the government under the reign of Khubilai Khan. When King Chungseon (忠宜; MR: Ch'ungsŏn, r. 1298, 1308-13) had resided in Yuan, Zhao was frequently invited along with many other scholars for exchange at the king’s study called Mangwondang (萬卷堂; MR: Mankwondang). When the king and his esteemed scholar official Yi Jehyeon (李齊賢; MR: Yi Chehyŏn, 1287-1367) later returned to Goryeo, they brought piles of Zhao's paintings and calligraphy along with their collection of books, thus making Zhao's calligraphic model widely available and prevalent throughout the early Joseon period. The document had been once mislabeled as a royal calligraphy of King Taejo when it was mounted for the Do family archive,  however, given the inconsistency of the scripts of the four documents and the customary employment of scribes to transcribe such documents, the cursive script is presumably not of the king.
As the oldest surviving examples of the Joseon wangji (royal announcement) documents, the set was designated Treasure 724 in 1981. The documents are preserved in Do Gigap Collection, Nonsan-gun, South Chungcheong Province.
1393年(太祖 2) 10월에 都膺을 朝奉大夫·典醫少監에 任命하는 告身이다. 이 文書는 같은 시기에 發給된 朴剛生 告身과 함께 現在까지 알려진 朝鮮 初期 告身 가운데 가장 이른 時期의 것으로서 [朝鮮王寶]가 安寶되어 있는 가장 이른 시기의 文書이기도 하다. 朝鮮이 建國된 이후 1392年(太祖 1) 10月 25日에 高麗에서 使用되었던 告身式을 改定하여 1品에서 4品의 官員을 任命할 때 王旨를 내려주도록 하였는데 이를 官敎라고 하였다.(<<太祖實錄>> 卷2, 1年(1392) 10月 25日(癸酉). 改告身式: 一品至四品, 賜王旨曰官敎, 五品至九品, 門下府奉敎給牒曰敎牒.)
王旨는 國王의 意志를 나타내는 用語로서 元나라의 影響에 의해 高麗 忠烈王 때부터 旣存의 宣旨 대신 使用되기 시작하였다. 조선이 건국되고 나서도 문서 양식 면에 있어서 큰 차이 없이 이어졌으나 1435년(세종 17) 9월에 <<경제육전속전(經濟六典續典)>>의 개정 내용을 반영하여 실제 문서에서 사용하는 용어를 ‘교지(敎旨)’로 변경하도록 하였다.(<<太祖實錄>> 卷3, 2年(1393) 3月 9日(甲寅). …送納高麗恭愍王時所降金印一顆. <<太宗實錄>> 卷5, 3年(1403) 4月 8日(甲寅). …今特遣使, 賚朝鮮國王金印及誥命, 使爾用昭寵榮.) 이 告身은 <<經國大典>>의 四品以上告身式이 施行되기 이전까지 署經權의 變化에 따라 여러 次例 任命 對象 官員의 範圍가 바뀌었지만 대체로 國王의 命에 따라 1品에서 4品의 文武官員을 任命할 때 吏曹와 兵曹에서 發給하였다.
<朝鮮王寶>는 朝鮮이 建國되고 나서 <高麗國王之印>을 返納하고, 이후 明惠宗이 내린 <朝鮮國王之印>을 사용하기 전인 1393年(太祖 2)부터 1401年(太宗 1)까지 一時的으로 使用한 朝鮮의 國璽이다.(太祖實錄>> 권3, 2년(1393) 3월 9일(갑인). …送納高麗恭愍王時所降金印一顆. <<태종실록>> 권5, 3년(1403) 4월 8일(갑인). …今特遣使, 賚朝鮮國王金印及誥命, 使爾用昭寵榮.) 朝鮮時代 國內에서 만든 國璽는 [朝鮮王寶]가 유일한데, [朝鮮國王之印]과 달리 ‘印’자가 아닌 ‘寶’자를 使用하고 있는 것은 明으로부터 朝鮮國王으로 冊封되기 이전의 特殊한 性格을 보여준다고 할 수 있다.
[朝鮮王寶]는 이후 滅失된 것으로 보이나, 1744年(英祖 20) 英祖가 朝鮮 初期에 發給된 康舜龍의 告身을 보고나서 여기에 安寶된 朝鮮王寶를 模倣하여 새로 鑄造하여 敎命과 冊禮時에 사용하게 하였으며(<<太祖實錄>> 권1, 太祖 1年(1392) 7월 28일(정미). …從四品 朝散大夫·朝奉大夫), <<英祖實錄>> 권60, 20년(1744) 12월 24일(정묘). …今覽朝鮮王寶篆, 又奇矣. 今則朝臣敎旨, 皆用施命之寶, 其來已久. 此則雖不可改, 然旣覽寶篆, 尤豈泯焉, 國家敎命及王后世子冊禮時, 當以此用之. 仍命尙方, 摸鑄以入.) 1876年(高宗 13) 12月에 改鑄하였다. 改鑄한 [朝鮮王寶]는 銀으로 만들어 淘金하였고, 龜紐로 粧飾하였으며, 크기는 方 4寸 4分이었다.
이 文書는 草書體로 作成되었다. 朝奉大夫는 開國 初 文武百官의 官制를 制定할 때 東班 從四品의 品階로 規定되었고, <<經國大典>>에서도 同一하게 維持되었다.
典醫少監은 診視와 和劑 等의 일을 管掌하는 典醫監에 所屬된 官職으로 品階는 從4品이며 2名을 두었다.(<<太祖實錄>> 권1, 태조 1년(1392) 7월 28일(정미). 典醫監 掌(胗)〔診〕視和劑等事 判事二 正三品 監二 從三品 少監二 從四品), 1414년(太宗 14) 1月 18日에 少監에서 副正으로 名稱을 改定하였다.(<<太宗實錄>> 권27, 태종 14년(1414) 1월 18일(계사). …繕工司宰軍資濟用軍器典醫諸監 從三品監稱正 四品少監稱副正 五品監丞稱判官)
都膺(?~?)의 字는 子藝이고, 號는 靑松堂이며, 本貫은 星州이다. 高麗 恭愍王 때 重大匡․門下侍中贊成事를 지냈다. 太祖의 竹馬故友로서 朝鮮 建國 以後 太祖가 여러 次例 벼슬을 내렸으나 모두 辭讓하고 洪州 老隱洞에 隱居하였다. 李行의 <<騎牛集>>에서는 都膺을 杜門洞에 들어간 72賢 가운데 한 名으로 記錄하기도 하였다. 이 文書를 包含한 告身 4件과 1394年에 發給된 祿牌 1件이 寶物 724號로 指定되어 現在 忠淸南道 論山市 連山面에 있는 星州都氏 宗家의 御筆閣에 所藏되어 있다.
(2) 都膺, 爲朝奉大
(1) King's Order:
(2) Do Eung, shall be the Grand Master for Court Service
(3) and the Deputy Superintendent of Standard Medicine.
(4) 10th lunar month, 26th year of Emperor Hongwu's reign
- What implications does this document hold for our understanding of Sino-Korean relations in the Joseon founding?
- Why do you think this document was written in cursive style?
- “보물 제724호 성주도씨 종중 문서 일괄.” 문화재 기본 정보. 문화재청 고객지원센터. http://www.e-minwon.go.kr:8072/lfmn/CpmsmastR___01.do?p1=1123407240000&RADIO_NO=0
- Bak Seongho (MR: Pak Sŏngho). “현재 전하고 있는 王旨의 眞僞 고찰” [Inquiry into authenticity of the surviving wangji documents]. 정신문화연구 33, no. 3 (Fall, 2010): 171-202.
- Cheon Hyebong 千惠鳳 (MR. Chŏn Hyebong). Seoye-Jeonjeok 書藝-典籍 [Calligraphy-Texts]. Vol 12 of Gukbo 國寶 [National Treasure]. Seoul: Yegyeong Saneopsa, 1985.
- Shim Yeong-hwan (MR: Sim Yŏnghwan). “몽골시대 高麗의 王命” [Royal commands of Goryeo in era of Mongol Empire]. 태동고전연구 29 (2012): 189-226.
- Shim Yeong-hwan (MR: Sim Yŏnghwan). “조선시대 공신문서의 연원: 대려난망의 세계” [The origin of the Joseon period documents for meritorious officials]. 功臣敎書 錄券 會盟錄 賜牌. In vol. 6 of 古文書精選, edited by Jangseogak 藏書閣, 6-24. Seongnam: Hangukhak Jungang Yeonguwon, 2015.
- 10/1393 refers to the tenth month of 1393, the second years of Taejo's reign
- This document is one of the four decrees of appointment issued to Do Eung (in 1393, 1394, 1395, and 1397, respectively); in addition, another document was issued to Do Eung: the 1394 certificate of salary/fief (祿牌; RR: nokpae, MR: nokp’ae).
- Although an identical term also appears in the Chinese office titles, the function of the office and the usage of the title in Goryeo dynasty has not yet been clarified. See: A Hucker, Charles O. Dictionary of Official Titles in Imperial China. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1985.
- Shim Yeong-hwan (M/R: Sim Yŏnghwan). “몽골시대 高麗의 王命” [Royal Commands of Goryeo in Era of Mongol Empire]. 태동고전연구 29:212-13
- For an example of such, see http://dh.aks.ac.kr/jsg/index.php/(Translation)_%E6%9D%8E%E6%BF%9F%E9%96%8B%E5%9C%8B%E5%8A%9F%E8%87%A3%E6%95%8E%E6%9B%B8
- 筆苑雜記. Vol. 1 “竊謂。高麗忠宣王入元朝。構萬卷堂。日與當世名儒六七人。從容談論。趙公其一也。我國文儒如李先生齊賢。侍從亦多。王之東還。文籍書畫。馱載萬籤。趙之手跡滿於東方。蓋由是也。” http://db.itkc.or.kr/dir/item?itemId=GO#/dir/node?dataId=ITKC_GO_1307A_0020_000_0010
- For images of the objects, see http://ehistory.go.kr/page/view/photo.jsp?photo_PhotoID=1530&photo_PhotoSrcGBN=PT