(Translation) 李濟開國功臣敎書

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Introduction

In 10th month of the year 1392, the first year of Choson Dynasty, this document was issued to entitle Ije(李濟, Ije) as First Rank Meritorious Minister of State Founding. The title of Meritorious Minister of State Founding is given to those who participated in Isŏnggye(Iseonggye, 李成桂)'s, King T'aejo(Taejo,太祖), overthrowing of the Koryŏ(Goryeo) state. In 8th month of the same year, Isŏnggye ordered to establish the directorate of Meritorious Ministers which will minister the registration of meritorious ministers.


1392年(太祖 1) 10月에 朝鮮을 開國하는데 功勳을 세운 李濟를 開國功臣 1等으로 錄勳하면서 發給한 功臣敎書이다. 開國功臣은 高麗 末期에 太祖 李成桂를 도와 朝鮮을 開國하는데 功을 세운 臣下에게 내린 功臣號이다. 1388年(禑王, 1365-1389)에 威化島 回軍을 通해 政權을 掌握한 李成桂는 1392年 7月에 朝鮮을 開國하고 卽位하였다. 李成桂는 1392年 8月 2日 功臣都監을 設置하였으며, 이후 功臣都監에서 朝鮮 開國에 功을 세운 臣下를 開國功臣으로 錄勳하였다. 그러나 朝鮮 初期에 政治的인 狀況으로 因하여 一部 開國功臣은 削勳되거나 復勳되었고, 最終的으로 <<國朝功臣錄>>에 39人이 수록되었다.

<<國朝功臣錄>>에 收錄된 開國功臣은 1等 功臣에 益安大君 芳毅·裵克廉·趙浚 等 15人이고, 2等 功臣에 尹虎·李敏道·趙英珪 等 9人이며, 3等 功臣에 安景恭·金稇·柳爰廷 等 11人이었다. 이 가운데 이제 開國功臣敎書가 唯一하게 現傳하고 있다. 이제 開國功臣敎書는 高麗國王之印이 安寶되어 있다. 高麗國王之印은 1370年(恭愍王 19) 5月에 高麗가 明(1368-1644)으로부터 받은 寶印으로 󰡔高麗史󰡕의 記錄에 따르면 材質은 金이고, 形態는 龜紐이며, 크기는 方 3寸이었다.

實際로 이제 開國功臣敎書에 安寶된 高麗國王之印의 크기는 9.2×9.2㎝인 것을 확인할 수 있다. 李濟(?~1398)는 高麗 末·朝鮮 初의 文臣으로 本貫은 星州이다. 曾祖는 李兆年이고, 父親은 李仁立이며, 婦人은 李成桂의 셋째 딸 慶順公主이다. 李成桂를 도와 朝鮮을 開國하는데 공을 세워 開國功臣 1等에 錄勳되었다. 1392年 8月에 興安君에 封해졌고, 義興親軍衛節制使에 任命되었으며, 1393年(太祖 2) 10月에 右軍節制使에 任命되었다. 1398年(太祖 7) 第1次 王子의 亂 때에 죽임을 당했다. 이후 世宗 年間에 伸冤되었으며, 太祖의 廟庭에 配享되었다. 諡號는 景武이다.


齊宣王問曰:「湯放桀,武王伐紂,有諸?」孟子對曰:「於傳有之。」傳,直戀反。放,置也。書曰:「成湯放桀于南巢。」曰:「臣弒其君可乎?」桀紂,天子,湯武,諸侯。曰:「賊仁者謂之賊,賊義者謂之殘,殘賊之人謂之一夫。聞誅一夫紂矣,未聞弒君也。」賊,害也。殘,傷也。害仁者,

凶暴淫虐,滅絕天理,故謂之賊。害義者,

顛倒錯亂,傷敗彝倫,故謂之殘。一夫,

"言眾叛親離,不復以為君也"

書曰:「獨夫紂。」蓋四海歸之,則為天子;天下叛之,則為獨夫。所以深警齊王,垂戒後世也。王勉曰:「斯言也,惟在下者有湯武之仁,而在上者有桀紂之暴則可。不然,是未免於篡弒之罪也。」

from the 교서 it self.

以暴於民, 而民不歸心.

(20) 衆叛親離, 宗祀以〔墜〕

Original Script

Classical Chinese English

(01) 敎

(02)    純忠佐命開國功臣·興安君·兼義興

(03)    親軍衛節制使·知〔書〕筵事 李濟

(04) 王若曰: 自古王者之革命, 應乎天順乎

(05) 人而已. 時必有偉人間生, 爲之輔翼. 如

(06) 湯武作於上, 伊呂應於下. 整頓乾坤, 扶

(07) 翊日月. 其〔英〕風茂烈, 輝〔暎千古〕. 〔有不〕可

(08) 掩者矣. 卿稟性淑均, 秉心謹恪. 寡欲以

(09) 養其心, 持正以守〔其節〕. 〔幼佩〕義方〔之訓〕,

(10) 長無紈綺之習. 〔慶鍾〕積善之餘, 家傳〔萬〕

(11) 石之美. 妻之以女〔而〕琴瑟和, 孝於其親

(12) 而宗族順. 春秋尙富, 而有老成之德. 爵

(13) 位雖高, 而存謙恪之心. 凜凜風采, 可〔以〕

(14) 破奸雄之膽. 堂堂議論, 可以扶社稷之

(15) 計. 忠義之氣, 與秋色爭高. 眞可〔謂命世〕

(16) 而生, 伊呂之亞流也. 王氏之末, 天厭其

(17) 德. 勦節其命, 僞辛竊位. 十有六年, 予及

(18) 二三大臣. 尙求其裔, 俾主其祀. 以聽〔於〕

(19) 天, 而天不悔過. 以暴於民, 而民不歸心.

(20) 衆叛親離, 宗祀以〔墜〕. 天命歸於有德, 人

(21) 心懷于有仁. 卿以至誠之知, 察天人之

(22) 幾. 與門下左侍中裵克廉, 門下右侍中

(23) 趙浚等大臣, 首倡大義, 〔決疑於危〕貳之

(24) 間. 定策於幾微之際, 赤心〔推戴〕, 化家爲

(25) 國. 輔潛德而發幽光, 杖景運而創大業.

(26) 卽祚之初, 市不易肆. 談笑之間, 措國泰

(27) 山. 其功莫盛, 人無間言. 〔可謂鼎彛〕不泯,

(28) 帶礪難忘. 是以加爵命之〔數〕, 而不滿於

(29) 心. 下獎諭之綸, 而未足〔於〕懷. 乃命有司,

(30) 籍人口以爲厮養, 錫土田以爲世祿, 繪

(31) 形像於丹靑, 視功載於奕葉. 封卿之母,

(32) 爲惠寧翁主. 命卿之婦, 爲慶〔順宮〕主. 爵

(33) 贈三世, 宥及子孫. 今遣金帶壹腰, 段子

(34) 貳匹, 絹子柒匹, 至〔可領〕也. 於戱! 乾稱父

(35) 坤稱母, 侯王豈有種而生. 風從虎雲從

(36) 龍, 臣子必同聲而應. 益篤君親之念, 毋

(37) 輕甥舅之恩. 故玆敎〔示〕, 〔想〕宜〔知悉〕.

(38) 〔洪武〕貳拾伍年〔拾月〕 日.

(translation)


Discussion Questions


Further Readings


References


Translation

(sample) : Jaeyoon Song


春秋尙富, 而有老成之德. 爵

(13) 位雖高, 而存謙恪之心. 凜凜風采, 可〔以〕

(14) 破奸雄之膽. 堂堂議論, 可以扶社稷之

(15) 計. 忠義之氣, 與秋色爭高. 眞可〔謂命世〕

(16) 而生, 伊呂之亞流也. 王氏之末, 天厭其

(17) 德. 勦節其命, 僞辛竊位. 十有六年, 予及

(18) 二三大臣. 尙求其裔, 俾主其祀. 以聽〔於〕

(19) 天, 而天不悔過. 以暴於民, 而民不歸心.

(20) 衆叛親離, 宗祀以〔墜〕. 天命歸於有德, 人

(21) 心懷于有仁. 卿以至誠之知, 察天人之

(22) 幾. 與門下左侍中裵克廉, 門下右侍中

(23) 趙浚等大臣, 首倡大義, 〔決疑於危〕貳之

(24) 間. 定策於幾微之際, 赤心〔推戴〕, 化家爲

(25) 國. 輔潛德而發幽光, 杖景運而創大業.

  • Discussion Questions:

1. How does Yi Seonggye justify his take over? 2. According to Yi, Why did the Goryeo dynasty have to collapse? 3. According to Yi, what are the purposes of establishing a new dynasty? 4. What can we learn from this document about the actual relationships between the king and his ministers in the Joseon founding?

Student 1 : ( Ren Ruixin )


  • Translations:

王若曰:自古王者之革命,应乎天顺乎人而已。 The King declared that from ancient time, he who would rule as King is willing to renew the mandate following the sign from heaven and heart of the people. There comes a time when a great person comes into being from among the people to be his assistant. Just as Tang and Wu rise from the above, Yi and Lv response from the below. They restore the order between heaven and earth, support the sun and moon. The influences of their activities are immortal and can not be hidden.

春秋尚富,而有老成之德。爵位虽高,而存谦恪之心。 He is young in age and still got plenty of time in his life, but he behaves like a mature person with righteous virtue. His title is very high but he maintains a modest mind. His imposing appearance is enough to discourage enemies. His powerful and confident argument is enough to facilitate the policy of the state. His loyalty and righteousness can compete with the height of the autumn sky. It can be said that he was born in response to the demand of time and can almost be compared to 伊 and 吕.

王氏之末,天厭其德,勦節其命,僞辛竊位,十有六年, 予及二三大臣,尙求其裔,俾主其祀,以聽於天, 而天不悔過。以暴於民,而民不歸心,衆叛親離,宗祀以墜。 Towards the end of Wang Dynasty, the heaven hated its awful moral character and cut up their lineage. Then Xin usurped the throne .For 16 years, I along with another 2 or 3 ministers have tried to find the descendants of the Wang family, made them to serve the heaven, and obey the order of the heaven.But judgment made by the heaven can never be reversed. They tortured people and people chose not to reverse their mind. The Wang family was deserted by his followers and its linage fell. The mandate of heaven goes with he who has righteous virtue, the mind of people go with he who has kindheartedness. You minister perceived the subtle movements of heaven and people with your great intelligence. Along with 門下左侍中裴克廉, 門下右侍中趙浚 and some other ministers, you initiated the great movement. Settled down problems in hardships and came up with ideas in crucial times. You supported my work with sincere loyalty, converted a family into a state. Supported the hidden virtue and revealed the obscure light. Caught the auspicious opportunity and established a great enterprise.


卽祚之初, 市不易肆. 談笑之間, 措國泰山. When I first ascended the throne, people do business without having to move around a lot. We accomplished our enterprise and established a new state while laughing and talking cheerfully.


  • Discussion Questions:

(1) How does Yi Seonggye describe his relation with ministers who have helped him in the foundation of the new state. (2) What is the purpose of writing this passage. To justify his take over? To praise Yi Je’s personal contribution? Or as a way of showing his respect to minister who has rendered outstanding services?

Student 2 : Ze, Xiaoyi


  • Translations:

王若曰: 自古王者之革命, 應乎天順乎人而已. 時必有偉人間生, 爲之輔翼. 如湯武作於上, 伊呂應於下. 整頓乾坤, 扶翊日月. 其〔英〕風茂烈, 輝〔暎千古〕. 〔有不〕可掩者矣. The King says, since ancient times, a person would rule as sovereign renews the mandate by following the signs of heaven and hearts of people. When a great people coming to be, it would provide aids to him. It is like the Tang and Wu acted from the above, and Yi and Lü (footnotes) responded from the bottom. (The person) would reorganize the world and assist the sun and moon. The person’s heroic influence was fervent, radiating perpetually. Nothing can conceal the great person's great abilities.

  • in progress

He is young in age(having lots of years left in his life), but has virtues of old accomplishments. Although his position is high, he has a modest and respectable mind. His imposing appearance can break unscrupulous schemes. His impressive discussions can become symbolic foundation supporting the state. His atmosphere of being loyal and righteousness can compete with the view of autumn. He was born with talents, comparing favorably to the lower tributary of Yi and Lü. Towards the end of the Koryo dynasty, heaven hated (the old dynasty’s) virtues, cut off their mandates, and he seized the throne. Six years out of ten, along with two or three ministers, looking for their descendants and managing rituals. So as to listen to the heaven’s wills, but the heaven did regret the decisions it made. Using Tranny towards people, but people will not convey their hearts.

其功莫盛, 人無間言. 〔可謂鼎彛〕不泯, 帶礪難忘. His accomplishments are beyond comparable; no one can argue about it. These achievements can compare to vessels, which can not be erased and be remembered for years.

  • Discussion Questions:

There were a great numbers of 功臣 selected in the Chosǒn dynasty, what was the purpose for the Kings to do this?

Student 3 : Hu Jing


Royal Instruction

To Lee Je, Meritorious Minister of Chwungcwamyeng • Lord Hungan concurrent Military Commissioner of Uyhung Royal Garrison • Administrator of Classics Colloquium:

His Majesty spoke: since ancient times, people who (is going to) rule the world renew the heavenly mandate did nothing but act in accordance with the heaven and in response to people. At the shift of the mandate, there must be great people to assist the transition, as Tang and Wu rose from the heaven and Yi and Lv responded to the people. They restored the order of the heaven and earth and assisted the sun and moon. His heroic posture and glories shine through the ages, which is not possible to be cover.

春秋尙富, 而有老成之德. 爵位雖高, 而存謙恪之心. Although he is still at a young age, he has a mature virtue; His official rank is high but he holds a modest and reverent mind.

凜凜風采, 可〔以〕破奸雄之膽. 堂堂議論, 可以扶社稷之計. 忠義之氣, 與秋色爭高. His awe-inspiring mien can repel arch-careerists; his imposing discussion can facilitate dynasty plans, and his spirit of loyalness and righteousness is magnificent that can compare to the (high) sky in autumn.

眞可〔謂命世〕 1) 而生, 伊呂之亞流也. He was indeed born to rescue the world, who is next (only) to Yin Yi and Lǚ Shang 2).

王氏之末, 天厭其德. 勦節其命, 僞辛竊位. At the end of the Goryeo dynasty, Heaven detested the virtue of Wang family and exterminated and restricted the mandate. The illegitimate successors from Sin Don 3) stole the throne.

十有六年, 予及二三大臣. 尙求其裔, 俾主其祀. For sixteen years, I and several ministers had striven to supplicate (the legitimate) successors to ascend the throne and rule the state.

以聽〔於〕天, 而天不悔過. 以暴於民, 而民不歸心. (At that harsh time,) they acted by obeying Heaven, while Heaven did not reserve its decision; They forced the people by inflicting violence, people did not return the mind.

衆叛親離, 宗祀以〔墜〕. They were opposed by the masses and deserted by their followers. Therefore their enterprise inherited from the ancestors collapsed.

天命歸於有德, 人心懷于有仁3). However, the heavenly mandate finally returns to morality and people cherish those who are benevolent.

卿以至誠之知, 察天人之幾. My Minister scrutinized the subtle indication of (the shift) of Heaven and man by his knowledge with extreme sincerity.

與門下左侍中裵克廉, 門下右侍中趙浚等大臣, 首倡大義, together with Director of the Chancellery Bae Geukryum and Vice Director of the Chancellery Jo Jun, My Minister launched a righteous revolt.

〔決疑於危〕貳之間. 定策於幾微之際4), My Minister made a resolution in dire peril and made a strategic decision at the point of the subtleties just show.

赤心〔推戴〕, 化家爲國. You support me assuming the leadership with sincere loyalty and founded the state.

輔潛德而發幽光, 杖景運5)而創大業. (Becuase of My Minister,) My unbeknown virtue was able to glimmer. Relying upon good opportunity, I was able to create the great enterprise.


帶礪難忘. 是以加爵命之〔數〕, 而不滿於心. His merit is so great that people cannot forget about it through the ages (till the Yellow River dries up to a belt and the Mountain Tai slakes to a stone). Therefore, no matter how many honorary titles I award him, I can never feel satisfied.


  • Discussion Questions:

1. This royal instruction does not only praise Lee Je's personal merits but also elaborates much on the situation when Lee Seonggye and his ministers founded the dynasty. Do you think the purpose of this royal instruction was to prove the legitimacy of Lee Seonggye's foundation of Joseon in an indirect way?


1) 漢.趙岐.孟子題辭:「可謂直而不倨,曲而不屈,命世亞聖之大才者也。」

2) Yin Yi (伊尹) was the assistant of the king of the Shang dynasty and Lǚ Shang (吕尚) was the minister of King Wu of Zhou. Yin Lǚ (伊吕) generally refers to worthy officials who assisted the king.

3) 《書·太甲》 :"伊尹申誥于王曰:嗚呼!惟天無親,克敬惟親。民罔常懷,懷于有仁。"

4) 《周易本义》:“幾微之際,聖人所謹”

5) 周書.卷十六.獨孤信傳:「今景運初開,椒闈肅建。

Student 4 : Martin


  • Translation:

(1-12)

Royal Instruction,

to steadfastly loyal and mandate assisting meritorious minister of the state founding, Lord of Heungan (Hŭngan) and concurrently Deputy commander of the Imperial Guard in Uiheung (Ŭihŭng) and Administrator in the Bureau of Explaining the Classics, Yi Chae.The king spoke: Since antiquity, the dynastic shifts of rulers were only the result of answering Heaven and following the people. At these times great people come forward among the people and are assisted in this, like when Tang#1 and Wu#2 took action from above, Yi#3 and Lü#4 responded below. They restored the order of heaven and earth and assisted the sun and moon. Their heroic conduct and great acts, shine brightly through the ages and cannot be obscured. My minister, naturally pure and balanced, carries a heart that is prudent and staunch. He diminishes his desires in order to nurture his mind (5#) and firmly holds on to what is proper in order to maintain his steadfast moral character. From childhood he carried with him the teachings of righteousness and in age he has not taken on the habits of donning undeserved robes. A superabundance of happiness and accumulated goodness (#6) is handed down in the family like the brilliance of Lord Wanshi (#7). I gave him my daughter as wife and they are in conjugal harmony like the lutes and harps (#8). He is respectful towards his parents and conforms to his lineage.

1#: Tang 湯 the first ruler of the Shang dynasty overthrew Jie 桀 of the Xia

2#: Wu 武 first ruler of the Zhou dynasty overthrew Zhou 紂 of the Shang

3#: Yi Yin 伊尹 was a minister of Tang 湯, who helped in the overthrow of the Xia dynasty

4#: Lü Shang 呂尚 stands for Jiang Ziya 姜子牙, who helped Wen and Wu to overthrow the Shang dynasty

5#: reference to Mencius 7B:35

6#: reference to Yijing, 2. Kun 10.

7#: Shi Fen 石奋, also known as Lord Wanshi, was a high official under Liu Bang 刘邦, the founder and Emperor Gaozu of the Han Dynasty 漢高祖.

8#: reference to Zhongyong 15.


(15) 計. 忠義之氣, 與秋色爭高. 眞可〔謂命世〕 His loyalty and righteousness are competing with the height of the autumn sky. It truly can be said he was sent forward by heaven

(29) 心. 下獎諭之綸, 而未足〔於〕懷. 乃命有司 Awarding Instructions in my words [to him], still I do not feel content in my chest, therefore I command the officials to

敎 Royal Instruction, 純忠佐命開國功臣·興安君·兼義興親軍衛節制使·知〔書〕筵事 李濟 To Yi Je (Yi Che), meritorious minister of the state founding and coronation, Lord of Heungan (Hŭngan) and concurrently Deputy commander of the Imperial Guard in Uiheung (Ŭihŭng) and responsible in the matter of explaining the classics. 王若曰: 自古王者之革命, 應乎天順乎人而已. The king thus said: From old, rulers were deprived of their mandates; this was according to the will of heaven and the people nothing more. 時必有偉人間生, 爲之輔翼. 如湯武作於上, 伊呂應於下. At these times great people come forward among the people and are assisted in this, like when Tang#1 and Wu#2 took action from above, then Yi#3 and Lü#4 responded below. 整頓乾坤, 扶翊日月. Restoring order between heaven and earth, assisting sun and moon. 其〔英〕風茂烈, 輝〔暎千古〕,〔有不〕可掩者矣. Their heroic conduct and great acts, shine brightly in history and cannot be obscured.

[...]

春秋尙富, 而有老成之德. His years are rather young; yet his virtue is that of a wise old men. 爵位雖高, 而存謙恪之心. Even though his position is high, he maintained a modest and respectful mind. 凜凜風采, 可〔以〕 破奸雄之膽. His awe inspiring integrity can shatter the courage of opportunist ministers. 堂堂議論, 可以扶社稷之計. His magnificent rhetoric/speech could support the policies of the state. 忠義之氣, 與秋色爭高. 眞可〔謂命世〕而生, 伊呂之亞流也. His loyalty and righteous style are competing with the height of the autumn sky. And it truly can be said he was sent by heaven being equal to Yi and Lü. 王氏之末, 天厭其德. In the final days of the Wang Family, heaven was displeased with their virtues. 勦節其命, 僞辛竊位. It cut of their mandate, and crooked Sin usurped the throne. 十有六年, 予及二三大臣. 尙求其裔, 俾主其祀. For sixteen years. I with other a few great ministers, sought to find their descendants to lead them to administer the rites. 以聽〔於〕天, 而天不悔過. They listened to heaven, but heaven did not show remorse. 以暴於民, 而民不歸心. They oppressed the people, but the people did not submit. 衆叛親離, 宗祀以〔墜〕. With the multitude of rebellions and their friends leaving, their lineage fell. 天命歸於有德, 人心懷于有仁. The mandate of heaven returns to those of virtue, and the hearts of men embrace those that hold compassion. 卿以至誠之知, 察天人之幾. My minister with the knowledge of complete sincerity investigated the manifestations/signs of heaven and the people. 與門下左侍中裵克廉, 門下右侍中 (趙浚等大臣,首倡大義,〔決疑於危〕貳之間定策於幾微之際, 赤心〔推戴〕, 化家爲國. With left director of the chancellery Bae Geugnyeom (Pae Kŭngnyŏm) and left director of the chancellery Jo Jun (Cho Chun) and other great ministers, he first advocated the right cause/way and settled the danger of doubts and then secondary set up even the smallest policy and with sincerity endorsed to transform the royal house for the state. 輔潛德而發幽光, 杖景運而創大業. He held up unknown virtue and brought forward light that was obscured, he held on to good fortune and establish the great enterprise. 卽祚之初, 市不易肆. 談笑之間, 措國泰山. At the beginning of the reign, the markets are not crowded with stores#5. In casual conversations, the country was placed in front of Mt. Tai.

1#: Tang 湯 the first ruler of the Shang dynasty overthrew Jie 桀 of the Xia

2#: Wu 武 first ruler of the Zhou dynasty overthrew Zhou 紂 of the Shang

3#: Yi Yin 伊尹 was a minister of Tang 湯, who helped in the overthrow of the Xia dynasty

4#: Lü Shang 呂尚 stands for Jiang Ziya 姜子牙, who helped Wen and Wu to overthrow the Shang dynasty

  • Discussion Questions:

1. How is the notion of "heaven" used in the Instruction given by King Taejo?

2. What was Yi Je's involvement in the overthrow of the Koryo dynasty? Can we tell from the text?

Student 5 : (Inho Choi)


  • Translation

~(8) Instruction for Ije, The Faithful Left Honor, State Founding Meritorious Minister, Prince Heungan(Hŭngan), Uiheung(Ŭihŭng) Royal Guard Commander and Record Keeper and Colloquium Official(?). From the ancient times, the renewal of the mandate by the he who would rule simply responds to the heaven and follows people. There comes a time when a great person is born among lives, and for him the aides (appears). When Tang and Wu initiates from above, Yi and Lu responded from below. (They) restored order in Heaven and Earth and supported the sun and the moon. Their beautiful names(1) and great achievement(2) brightens the eternal history and cannot be hidden.

(1) 文選.孔稚珪.北山移文:「張英風於海甸,馳妙譽於浙右。」http://www.zdic.net/c/1/73/116533.htm (2) 《金史·乐志下》:“懿德茂烈,金书发扬” https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E8%8C%82%E7%83%88/2404245?fr=aladdin

(8)-(10) You Minister, your natural tendency is pure and balanced. Your nurturing of mind(1) was respectful and prudent. By moderating desire, you nourished the mind. By holding onto the rightness, you preserved the principle. As a child, you carried the lessons of righteous way. You have never developed the habits of luxury and corruption.


(1)君子秉心。——《诗·小雅·小弁》

(10)-(12) 慶鍾積善之餘, 家傳萬石之美. 妻之以女而琴瑟和, 孝於其親而宗族順 The effect of accumulated goodness repeatedly made good occasions, and the family continued the beauty of ten thousands grain packs. As you marry your daughter to a house, the couple lived in conjugal harmony. As you are being filial to your parents, the greater family was without trouble.

(12)-(25) Although he is young in age, he has a virtue of a mature person. Though his title is high, he preserves the mind of respectfulness. His imposing appearance was sufficient to destroy the guts of enemy. His confident speech was enough to facilitate the plans of the state. His spirit of loyalty and righteousness competed with the height of the Autumn atmosphere. Truly it can be said he was born as the fate demands of the time and was of the type of Yi and Lu. As to the last descendants of the Wang family, the heaven hated their character and cut their mandate(life?), yet the false Xin usurped the throne for 16 years. I and several others (?) searched for the descendants have them administer their ancestral rites. Just by listening to Heaven, it will not regret what's passed. Just by listening to people, people will not return their mind. People turned their back, and the relatives of the Wang family scattered. The state at this moment fell, and the mandate of Heaven returned to those who have virtue, and people's mind faced toward those with the perfect virtue. Your honor by the exhaustive understanding carefully watched the subtle movement(beginning) of the Heavenly principle and people's desire. With 與門下左侍中裵克廉, 門下右侍中趙浚等大臣, you proclaimed the great righteousness and resolved the doubt in the moment of the royal heir's crisis. You fixed the plans right at the subtle beginning and promoted (the future crown) with loyalty. You edified the family and establish the state. You supported the hidden virtue and revealed the occluded light grasped auspicious fortune and established the great enterprise.

(26) 卽祚之初, 市不易肆. 談笑之間, 措國泰山(00). 其功莫盛, 人無間言. 可謂鼎彛不泯, 帶礪難忘. 是以加爵命之數, 而不滿於心. 下獎諭之綸, 而未足於懷. 乃命有司,

籍人口以爲厮養, 錫土田以爲世祿,

繪形像於丹靑, 視功載於奕葉

When I arose to the throne, in the market, they did not shift the store.(0) While having casual conversations, you put the state on Mountain Tai(00). The greatness of Your achievement is incomparable, and people had no slandering words. We can indeed say that the merits carved on bronze vessels(1) do not disappear and that the pledge of the belt and whetstone(2) is difficult to forget. Due to this, although I increase the number of titles and offices, yet it was not satisfying to the mind, and although I sent down the encouraging and instructing royal teaching, yet it was not enough to the heart. Then, I ordered the officials to register a few people as his dependents(slaves), to bestow fields as his inheritable benefice, to paint his portrait with the Dancheng(Tanch'ŏng) colors, and to show the merits to posterity.

(00) stabilizing

(0)梁惠王下: ...孟子對曰:「臣聞七十里為政於天下者,湯是也。未聞以千里畏人者也。《書》曰:『湯一征,自葛始。』天下信之。『東面而征,西夷怨;南面而征,北狄怨。曰,奚為後我?』民望之,若大旱之望雲霓也。歸市者不止,耕者不變。誅其君而弔其民,若時雨降,民大悅。《書》曰:『徯我后,后來其蘇。』

(1) 《文选·任昉》:“前郡尹温太真、 刘真长 ,或功铭鼎彝,或德标素尚。”李善注:“《礼记》曰:鼎有铭,铭者,论撰其先祖之德美、功烈、勋劳,而酌之祭器。《左氏传》:臧武仲曰:大伐小,取其所得,以作彝器,铭其功,以示子孙。

(2) 史記, 高祖功臣侯者年表. 太史公曰:古者人臣功有五品,以德立宗廟定社稷曰勳,以言曰勞,用力曰功,明其等曰伐,積日曰閱。封爵之誓曰:「使河如帶,泰山若厲。國以永寧,爰及苗裔。」始未嘗不欲固其根本,而枝葉稍陵夷衰微也。

(31) 封卿之母, 爲惠寧翁主. 命卿之婦, 爲慶順宮主. 爵贈三世, 宥及子孫. 今遣金帶壹腰, 段子貳匹, 絹子柒匹(1), 至可領也. 於戱! 乾稱父坤稱母, 侯王豈有種而生. 風從虎雲從龍, 臣子必同聲而應. 益篤君親之念, 毋輕甥舅之恩. 故玆敎示, 想宜知悉. 洪武貳拾伍年拾月 日.

I entitle your honor's mother as Princess-Ordinary Hyeryeong(Hyeryŏng) and appoint honor's wife as Lady of the Palace Gyeongsun(Kyŏngsun). Titles will be given for three upper generations, and indulgences will be applied to the descendants. Now I send one strip of gold belt, two bolts of thick silk, and seven bolts of white silk, and you shall receive it. Ah! Heaven is called father, and Earth is called mother; Would lords and kings are born through a lineage? Wind follows tiger. Cloud follows dragon; the followers must have responded with the same voice. You further deepened the care for the lord and the parent, and did not take lightly the grace from maternal family. For these reasons, I thus proclaim and think all should be known. 10th Month ...., 25th year of Hongwu(1392) reign.


  • Discussion Questions:

1) What are the explicit evidences used in this document that the last Goryeo(Koryŏ) dynasty lost the mandate of heaven and that the new dynasty received it?

2)

3) What are the possible manifestations of one's virtues?

Student 6 :


  • Translations:


  • Discussion Questions:

Student 7 : (King Kwong Wong)


  • Translations:

敎 Royal Instruction to:
純忠佐命開國功臣·興安君·兼義興親軍衛節制使·知書筵事 李濟 The meritorious subject of pure loyalty in aiding the founding of the state, Yi Che [RR: Yi Je], the Lord of Hŭngan [RR: Heungan], concurrently the commander of Righteousness Flourishing Royal Guard, and the Administrator of lectures for the Crown Prince.
王若曰: 自古王者之革命, 應乎天順乎人而已. The king said as such, "Since antiquity, the dynastic changes of those who rule were only the result of answering the Heaven and following the people.
時必有偉人間生, 爲之輔翼. There must come a time when an extraordinary man comes into being among people, as well as those who aid him,
如湯武作於上, 伊呂應於下. just as Tang and Wu rose from atop and Yi and Lü answered from below,
整頓乾坤, 扶翊日月. restoring the order in Heaven and Earth, assisting the moon and sun.
其英風茂烈, 輝暎千古. Their heroic spirits are loftily noble that shine upon the ages,
有不可掩者矣. and could not be concealed.
卿稟性淑均, 秉心謹恪. My minister, your disposition is gentle and fair, and you keep in your heart prudence and reverence.
寡欲以養其心, 持正以守其節. You limit your desires to cultivate your mind (孟子.盡心下:「養心莫善於寡欲。其為人也寡欲,雖有不存焉者,寡矣。」), you uphold impartiality (主持正道,無所偏私。漢書.卷五十四.蘇建傳:「不平心持正,反欲鬥兩主,觀禍敗。」) to preserve moral rectitude.
幼佩義方之訓, 長無紈綺之習. Since childhood, you carry the teaching of righteousness (合乎正義的道理。左傳.隱公三年:「臣聞,愛子教之以義方,弗納於邪。」); after coming of age, you do not have the habit of those come from rich families.
慶鍾積善之餘, 家傳萬石之美. This is the remaining grace of cumulating goodness (​語出《易經·坤卦·文言曰》:「積善之家,必有餘慶;積不善之家,必有餘殃。」餘慶,餘留的德澤。全句指多行善事,必有後福。) and the beauty of inheriting the family stipend of ten thousand sŏk [RR: seok].
妻之以女而琴瑟和, 孝於其親而宗族順. Marrying him with a daughter, lutes and cithers will harmonize with each other (比喻夫妻感情和睦 "窈窕涉女,琴瑟友之。——《诗·周南·关雎》" "妻子好合,如鼓琴瑟。——《诗·小雅·常棣》"); Being filial to his family, lineage and clan will be put into order.


春秋尙富, 而有老成之德. His time is still abundant, but already has the virtue of the matured.
爵位雖高, 而存謙恪之心. His aristocratic rank albeit high, he keeps a humble and respectful heart.
凜凜風采, 可以破奸雄之膽. His awe-inspiring demeanor is able to break the guts of treacherous villains.
堂堂議論, 可以扶社稷之計. His dignifying remark is able to aid the plan for the state.
忠義之氣, 與秋色爭高. His spirit of loyalty and righteousness competes height with the Autumn colors.
眞可謂命世而生, 伊呂之亞流也. It can truly be said that he was born to be known by the world, second to Yi and Lü.
王氏之末, 天厭其德. As to the last years of the Wang clan, the Heaven detested its morals.
勦節其命, 僞辛竊位. Shortening its fate, the illegitimate Sin clan stole the throne.
十有六年, 予及二三大臣. 尙求其裔, 俾主其祀. For 16 years, I and another two to three high ministers kept seeking its descendant, so that he hosted the sacrificial rites.
以聽於天, 而天不悔過. In order to hear the judgment from the Heaven, but the Heaven did not budge.
以暴於民, 而民不歸心. Thereby forcing its will on the people, but their hearts did not return.
衆叛親離, 宗祀以墜. The crowd opposed and the intimates deserted, by which the ancestral rites fell from favor.
天命歸於有德, 人心懷于有仁. The Mandate of Heaven returns to those who possess virtues, and the hearts of the people incline to those who are benevolent.
卿以至誠之知, 察天人之幾. My minister, by the awareness of utmost sincerity, you noticed the subtle movement of the heavenly principles and human desires.
與門下左侍中裵克廉, 門下右侍中趙浚等大臣, 首倡大義, Together with Left Chancellor Pae Kŭkryŏm [RR: Bae Geukryeom], RIght Chancellor Cho Chun [RR: Jo Jun], and other such high ministers, you first led the great righteous cause,
決疑於危貳之間, 定策於幾微之際, solved the uncertainty in between danger and betrayal. settled the throne at the moment of subtle signs,
赤心推戴, 化家爲國. and supported me with sincere loyalty, transformed my clan into a dynasty,
輔潛德而發幽光, 杖景運而創大業. assisting the hidden virtue to emanate serene light, relying on the bright fortune to establish a great undertaking.


卽祚之初, 市不易肆. At the beginning of ascension ((皇帝)即位登基。三國 魏 曹操 《陳損益表》:“陛下即祚,復蒙試用,遂受上將之任。”), shops in the markets remain unchanged (三国魏·钟会《檄蜀文》:“百姓士民,安堵乐业。农不易亩,市不回肆。”).
談笑之間, 措國泰山. At the moment of talking and laugthers (又说又笑 "谈笑有鸿儒。——唐· 刘禹锡《陋室铭》" "谈笑间。——宋· 苏轼《念奴娇·赤壁怀古》"), I handle the state as firm as Mount Tai (形容象泰山一样稳固,不可动摇。汉·枚乘《上书谏吴王》:“变所欲为,易于反掌,安于泰山。”).
其功莫盛, 人無間言. His vigorous merit is matched by none, and people do not have gossip.
可謂鼎彛不泯, 帶礪難忘. This can be called as the sacrificial vessels that do not perish, and as the fidelity vows that are unforgettable. (帶,衣帶。礪,砥石。河山帶礪是古代帝王分封功臣的誓辭,意指即使黃河細如衣帶,泰山小如砥石,但國家依舊存在,誓約依舊有效。「礪」文獻異文作「厲」。語本《史記·卷一八·高袓功臣侯者年表·序》:「封爵之誓曰:『使河如帶,泰山若厲。國以永寧,爰及苗裔。』」比喻國基堅固,國祚永存。唐·陸贄〈賜李納王武俊等鐵券文〉:「子孫代代,為國勛臣,河山帶礪,傳祚無絕。」)
是以加爵命之數, 而不滿於心. Therefore, after increqsing several times your noble rank, it still does not fulfil my heart.
下獎諭之綸, 而未足於懷. After betowing upon you the tassel of praise, it has yet satisfied my bosom.
乃命有司, As a result I ordered relevent officicals, (指官吏。古代设官分职,各有专司,故称. "陛下可将彼家属送有司问罪。——《三国演义》" "召有司案图。——《史记·廉颇蔺相如列传》" "宜付有司论其刑赏。——诸葛亮《出師表》" "授之于有司。——宋· 王安石《答司马谏议书》")
籍人口以爲厮養, 錫土田以爲世祿, to register people to be your servants(供使役的人。唐.白行簡.李娃傳:「生遂下階,拜而謝之曰:『願以己為廝養。』」), to confer lands and fields to be your hereditary stipend,
繪形像於丹靑, 視功載於奕葉. to draw your figure and image in painting (丹和青是我国古代绘画,常用的两种颜色,借指绘画, "竹帛所載,丹青所畫。--《漢書.蘇武傳》"), and to show your merit record (記功的冊籍。《書·洛誥》:“惟命曰:‘汝命命篤弼,丕視功載,乃汝其悉自教工。’” 蔡沉 集傳:“功載者,記功之載籍也。”) to your posterity (累世,代代。漢 蔡邕 《瑯邪王傅蔡郎碑》:“奕葉載德,常歷宮尹,以建于茲。”).
封卿之母, 爲惠寧翁主. 命卿之婦, 爲慶順宮主. I enfeoffed your mother as Prince-Ordniance Hyeryŏng [RR: Hyeryeong], appointed your wife as Princess Kyŏngsun [RR: Gyeongsun].
爵贈三世, 宥及子孫. Noble ranks are bestowed to your previous three generations, and pardons are extended to your children and their children.
今遣金帶壹腰, 段子貳匹, 絹子柒匹, Now I sent you one sash of golden belt, two p'il [RR: pil] of satin, and seven p'il of silk.
至可領也. 於戱! Take them as they arrived, hooray!
乾稱父坤稱母, 侯王豈有種而生. Heaven is our father and Earth is our mother (語出北宋哲學家張載《西銘》, this in turn refer to the Book of Change 「大哉乾元,萬物資始」); from marquises and king, none is born with such nobility. (語出《史记·陈涉世家》王侯將相,寧有種乎。)
風從虎雲從龍, 臣子必同聲而應. Tiger is followed by winds and dragon is followed by clouds (語本《易經·乾卦·九五》); ruler will surely be echoed by subjects in unison.
益篤君親之念, 毋輕甥舅之恩. Increasingly you should deepen the yearning for your ruler and family, and do not treat lightly the grace of being the nephew of your uncle.
故玆敎示, 想宜知悉. Therefore now I instruct and notify you, hopefully and appropreiately you know about it.
洪武貳拾伍年拾月 日. In the 10th month of the 25th year of the Hongwu reign

  • Discussion Questions:

How does the author justify the dynastic change from the Koryo [RR: Goryeo] to the Chosonn [RR: Joseon]?
How does the author use rhetoric from Confucian and Neo-Confucian classics?
How does the author praise the personality of the receiver of this royal instruction? And what does that imply?

Student 8 : Younès M'Ghari


  • Translations:


(01-08) Instructions:

To the meritorious subject who aided with great loyalty at founding the State, Duke of Yeoan1, holding a concurrent function as Vice-Field Marshal of the Loyal Army and Record Keeper, Yi Je2. The King says: From antiquity, those who were ruling were only responding to the Mandate of the Heaven, to the people. At times a great person would necessarily be born, people would support him, like Tang and Wu3 taking actions from above and Yi and Lü4 responding from below, restore order in Heaven and Earth5, aiding the Sun and the Moon. This heroic character would be splendid and intense, shining through a thousand antiquities 6. It would be impossible to hide him.

...

(12-18) You are young in age, but you have the virtue of old accomplishment. Your titles are high, but you maintained a modest mind. Your imposing appearance would be capable to break treacherous pretenders. Your impressive ability to discuss would be capable to break support the plans of the altar7. Your vive of loyalty and righteousness compete with the autumn scenery. You can really be called ,命世. And 生, you would be almost like Yi and Lü. As for the last descendance of the Wang familly, the heaven hated its morals, cut off their mandate, left them as corrupted miserables on the throne. For sixteen years, me and two or three ministrers were looking for its posterity, managing its rites.

...


(33-34) As for posthumus titles, I offer them to your three generations. As for amnesty, I provide it to your descendance. Presently, I send [you] a golden belt, two pieces of satin, seven pieces of strong silk ; when they arrive, you can have them. Hurrah!

...


1 Yeoan (與安;toponym)

2 Yi Je: (李濟;one of the scholars who helped Yi Seong-gye too become the first king of the new Joseon dynasty in the same year)

3 Tang and Wu (湯; r. 1675-1646 BCE; 武; r. 1046–1043 BCE), the first kings of the Shang and Zhou dynasties who respectively overthrew Jie (桀; r. 1728-1675 BCE) of the Xia dynasty and Zhou (紂 ; r. 1075-1046 BCE) of the Shang dynasty.

4 Yin Yi and Lü Shang: (伊尹 and 吕尚), scholars who respectively helped the kings Tang and Wu to establish the Shang and Zhou dynasties

5 乾坤: _____

6 千古: through the ages, for all time

7 社稷: like the word 'throne' in English, the word meaning 'altar' in Classical Chinese can mean the 'kingdom'


  • Discussion Questions:


1. Who helped him writing this document and how would he choose that(those) scholar(s)?

2. Why chosing Yi Je?

3. Is he giving Yi Je a great position because he fears not to be able to convince him and his peers to support him?

4. Are the references he chooses enough to "impress" this person (e.g. quoting the king Wu of Zhou who only lasted 3 years before dying)?

5. How many royal instructions of that sort did the new king send, and for what kind of positions?

Student 9 : (Mengheng Lee)

  • translation:

敎 純忠佐命開國功臣·興安君·兼義興親軍衛節制使·知〔書〕筵事 李濟

The royal instruction on 純忠佐命開國功臣·興安君·兼義興親軍衛節制使·知〔書〕筵事I je:


王若曰: 自古王者之革命, 應乎天順乎人而已. 時必有偉人間生, 爲之輔翼. 如湯武作於上, 伊呂應於下. 整頓乾坤, 扶翊日月. 其〔英〕風茂烈, 輝〔暎千古〕. 〔有不〕可掩者矣 As the king said: from the ancient time, the dynastic transition launched by the men who would rule as sovereign simply follow the sign of heaven and the heart of people. At that time, it should be great persons who emerge among people, aiding in the transition, such as Tang_of_Shang's rising above and Jiang Ziya and Yi Yin's responding below. They restored the order of the heaven and earth, and supported Sun and Moon. Their heroic acts were great and were reflected in the history, which could not be obscured.

春秋尙富, 而有老成之德. 爵位雖高, 而存謙恪之心. 凜凜風采 可以破奸雄之膽. 堂堂議論, 可以扶社稷之計. 忠義之氣, 與秋色爭高. 眞可〔謂命世〕而生, 伊呂之亞流也. 王氏之末, 天厭其德. 勦節其命, 僞辛竊位. 十有六年, 予及二三大臣. 尙求其裔, 俾主其祀. 以聽〔於〕天, 而天不悔過. 以暴於民, 而民不歸心.衆叛親離, 宗祀以〔墜〕. 天命歸於有德, 人心懷于有仁. 卿以至誠之知, 察天人之幾. 與門下左侍中裵克廉, 門下右侍中趙浚等大臣, 首倡大義, 〔決疑於危〕貳之間. 定策於幾微之際, 赤心〔推戴〕,化家爲國. 輔潛德而發幽光, 杖景運而創大業

Although he is young in age, he is mature in virtue. Although he was in a high level, he maintains a humble and righteous heart. His admiring behaviors can scare the evil guys; his confident argument can maintain the persistence of the state. The vividness of his upright behaviors can be compared to the color of autumn. It is able to say that he was ordered by the heaven to come to the world and that his contribution was close to Jiang Ziya and Yi Yin. During the last decades of Wang's reign, the heaven disliked the royal Wang family's virtue, cutting the Wang's mandate. Even though the hypocritical U of Goryeo occupied the throne for 16 years, a few officials and I still tried to find his descendants, made them perform ancestor worship. The rulers of Wang family waited for the judgment from the heaven, but the heaven did not regret its mistake; they exposed themselves to people, but could not win people's heart. The mass rebelled, the people who were closed to the Wangs left, and the ancestor worship was therefore no longer conducted. The mandate of Heaven is given to the one who has virtue, and people's heart was won by the one who is benevolent. You minister invested the subtle sign of heaven and people by using the sincerest wisdom. With Baegeungnyeon/ Paegŭngnyŏn, who was 門下左侍中, and Jo Jun/ Jo Joon, who was 門下右侍中, you minister were the first one who supported the righteousness, making the decision when the situation was worsening and there was the sign for changes. You aid [me] with the sincere heart, turned a clique into a state. You assisted the hidden virtue and made it visible as dim light, seized the opportune moment and made the great enterprise.


(34[from 33]) 今遣金帶壹腰, 段子貳匹, 絹子柒匹, 至〔可領〕也. 於戱! 乾稱父坤稱母, 侯王豈有種而生.

Now I bestowed on you one golden belt, two pil of satin, and seven pil of thick stiff of silk, and you will be receiving it. Alas! As Heaven is our father and Earth is our mother, markis and kings have no special kinds.


  • Discussion Questions:

What's the main purpose of this royal instruction?

According to the text, who were the key men supporting the dynastic transition?

Student 10 : (Ji-Hyun)


(Lines 12-25) Abundant of years ahead, yet thou possess the virtuous quality of an old man's maturity. Lofty of thy title and rank, yet thou preserve the modest and respectful heart. Thy august demeanor is capable of break the daringness of a treacherous hero. Thy confident argument is capable of supporting the dynastic plans. The spirit of loyalty and righteousness competes with the color of autumn for loftiness. Truly worth being called 命世 a life of a sort next to Yi Yin and Lu Shang. As to the last ones of the Wang family, Heaven was fed up with their moral quality, so it destroyed the link to their mandate and had hypocritical Sindon 辛旽 to usurp the position. For sixteen years, I reached a few great ministers still searching for a descendent so that he will administer the sacrificial rites. [But] hearing the judgement of Heaven does not get the Heaven to repent what has already been done and forcing people does not get the people to submit their hearts. Many betraying each other and families separating, the dynastic affairs collapsed. The Mandate of Heaven belongs to the possessor of a virtuous quality and hearts of people are embraced by the benevolent. Thou, with utmost sincere wisdom, observe the [subtle] signs in heaven[ly principle] and human [desire]. Together with 좌시중 Bae Geungnyeom (Pae Kŭngnyŏm), 우시중 Jo Jun (Cho Chun), and other great ministers, thou became the first ones to advocate the cause of righteousness and resolved doubts amid the crisis and division. Thou set up policies based on observation of subtle signs, endorsed me with sincere heart to transform a family into a dynasty. Supplement the hidden virtue, disclose the dimmed light, hold onto good fortune, and establish the great enterprise.


(35-36) 乾稱父

(35) 坤稱母, 侯王豈有種而生. 風從虎雲從

(36) 龍, 臣子必同聲而應. 益篤君親之念, 毋

(37) 輕甥舅之恩. Qian named as our Father, Kun named as Mother, how could ministers and kings be born of [different] kinds? Wind follows the tiger, clouds follow the dragon, and the minsters must respond in unanimous voices. Continuously strengthen the ideas of the ruler and parents and never belittle the charity of your maternal relatives.

  • Discussion Questions:

1. How does Yi Seonggye justify his takeover of the throne? 2. Why, according to Yi Seonggye, did the Goryeo dynasty have to collapse?

Answers to Q 1-2. The instructioin argues that despite the attempts of the righteous officials to continue the dynastic rule by the descendents of the Wang family, it turned out that the Mandate of Heaven has already been lost that it is no longer reversible. The instruction also complements the righteous quality of Yi Je and his fellow officials who stabilized the state and later chose to endorse Yi Seonggye.

Student 11 : Goeun Lee


  • Translation:

春秋尙富 而有老成之德. 爵位雖高, 而存謙恪之心. His age to come remains plentiful, yet he possesses the virtue of a senior. His bestowed status is high, yet he remains in humble and restrained mind.

凜凜風采, 可〔以〕破奸雄之膽. 堂堂議論, 可以扶社稷之計. The sturdiness of his appearance is enough to break down the guts of enemy. His confident speech is enough to support the state agenda.

忠義之氣, 與秋色爭高. 眞可〔謂命世〕而生, 伊呂之亞流也. His spirit of loyalty and righteousness compete its height with the color of autumn. He can be compared to people like Jin Ga 眞可1), Yī In 伊尹 and Lǚ Shang 呂尙 2).

王氏之末, 天厭其德. 勦節其命, 僞辛竊位. At the end of Wang clan, Heaven abandoned its virtue and severed its mandate [so that] the cunning Shin Don3)can usurp the throne.

十有六年, 予及二三大臣. 尙求其裔, 俾主其祀. During that sixteen years, I and two or three ministers, tried to find Wang family's descendent to have him conduct rituals.

以聽〔於〕天, 而天不悔過. 以暴於民, 而民不歸心. By doing so Heaven would have listened, yet Heaven never regret its errors; people might have been offended, thus they will not return their heart.

衆叛親離, 宗祀以〔墜〕. 天命歸於有德, 人心懷于有仁. Many people betrayed, relatives scattered and the state has fallen down. Heavenly mandate should be restored to virtuousness, the people's heart should be filled with benevolence.

卿以至誠之知, 察天人之幾. You, by the means of your most sincere knowledge, examine the heavenly principle and human desire

與門下左侍中裵克廉, 門下右侍中趙浚等大臣, with senior ministers including Chancellors Bae Geuknyeom 裵克廉 (1325~1392), Jo Jun 趙浚 (unknown) and others.

定策於幾微之際, 赤心〔推戴〕, 化家爲國. Make policies in accordance with the sign of heaven and people,

輔潛德而發幽光杖景運而創大業. support them [so that their] hidden virtue and gleam light up, to grab an auspicious fortune and accomplish a great work.


1)Jin Ga 眞可 was a governor during the reign of King Goi 古爾王, the 8th ruler of Baekje.

2)Yī In 伊尹 and Lǚ Shang 呂尙 were meritorious subjects of Shang 商 dynasty and Zhou 周, respectively.

3)Shin Don 辛旽 (unknown~1371) was a monk in late Goryeo period who was favored by King Gongmin. His domination of power and attempt to usurp the throne resulted in resistance among aristocrats and eventually he was executed.

  • Discussion Questions: 1. How many people were bestowed such an announcement by Taejo? What was the status of 李濟 among them? There were 正功臣 and 原從功臣, and this document is the only surviving one bestowed to 正功臣.

2. What does the king intend by issuing this announcement? 3. How is the King justifying his intention in his writing?

Student 12 : (Sanghoon Na)


〔洪武〕貳拾伍年〔拾月〕 日.

In the 9th month of the 25th year of the reign of Hongwu. / In the 9th month of the 25th year of the Hongwu era.





  • Discussion Questions:

Student 13 : (Write your name)


  • Discussion Questions:


Student 14 : (Write your name)


  • Discussion Questions: