(Translation) 1480年 金孝之 妻 黃氏 分給文記

장서각위키
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Introduction

  • 개요
- 黃氏/수취: 우형원(禹亨元) , 김효로(金孝盧) , 명주(明珠) , 김씨(金氏) , 정인로(鄭仁老) , 김효원(金孝源) , 정씨(鄭氏) , 이씨(李氏) , 김씨(金氏) , 김장룡(金長龍)
- 작성지역 경상도 안동 / 경상북도 안동시
- 원문정보: 『고전자료총서 82-2 광산김씨 오천고문서』(한국정신문화연구원 편, 한국정신문화연구원, 1982). G002+AKS+KSM-XE.1480.4717-20101008.B001a_001_00311_001
  • history
-1480년(成宗11)에 金孝之의 처 黃氏가 繼後子 生員 金孝盧, 收養女子, 侍養三寸姪女, 三寸姪, 四寸孫子, 四寸孫女, 三寸姪婦, 孽子 四寸孫子 등 9인에게 각각 그 공로를 논하여 차등적으로 노비를 나누어 준 分給文記이다. 成化16년 12월 15일에 작성된 본 분재기에 앞서 황씨는 11월 25일에도 분재기를 작성하였다. 9인에게 차등적으로 노비를 상속한 본 문서와 달리 11월 25일 문서에서는 전답과 가옥을 나누어 주었으며, 상속인도 계후자 김효로, 收養女子 明珠, 侍養三寸姪女 金氏 3인으로 국한하였다. 전답이나 가옥에 비해 노비가 분할상속이 자유로웠기 때문에 평소 자신에게 효도를 하고 도움을 준 친척들에게 정의를 표시할 수 있었으리라고 생각된다.

About the successor Kim Hyoro金孝盧: He was originally the second son of Kim Hoe金淮, an elder brother of Kim Hyoji. However, as Kim Hyoji did not have any child to succeed his family, so he adopted his nephew.

Original Script

Classical Chinese English

①成化拾陸年庚子 拾貳月拾伍日 許與爲臥乎事段 女矣身亦 無子息爲沙餘▣…▣

賤妾子女無白乎等用良 吾矣使用爲如乎 家翁邊奴婢乙 繼後子收養侍養▣…▣

中論功差等分給爲臥乎

②繼後子生員孝盧衿 婢龍粉二所生奴凡伊年貳婢▣…▣

今年拾壹 三所生婢貴非年玖 婢訥叱之二所生奴嚴同年貳 婢內隱伊二所生▣…▣

捌 婢龍德四所生婢龍莊年拾捌 奴紅萬良妻幷産二所生奴加音金年拾陸▣…▣

年拾貳 婢甘時三所生婢耳德年肆拾參 婢四月二所生婢正月年參拾壹 五所生▣…▣

拾參 婢內隱伊四所生奴小山年拾 婢耳莊二所生婢義今年拾參 主祀婢亏乙莊▣…▣

參拾捌 婢內隱德二所生逃奴金仇知

③收養女子明珠衿 婢求瑟二所生婢屎▣…▣ 二所生婢德今年拾 婢甘莊一所生婢桂樹年拾參 婢四月一生故婢仍邑德▣…▣參 奴莫知良妻幷産二所生奴亡乃年拾肆 奴龍粉一所生婢權德年玖 婢亏▣…▣ 年參拾陸 同婢一所生奴嚴山年伍 婢元非一所生婢元今年貳拾壹 婢耳德一▣…▣婢內隱加年陸 奴紅萬良妻幷産一所生婢訥叱非年拾玖

④侍養三寸姪女 故別侍衛▣…▣婢屎非一所生婢屎今年拾參 婢甘莊五所生奴貴山年壹

⑤三寸姪別侍衛鄭仁老▣…▣槨准備爲沙餘良 連連進退爲旀 女矣得病時 盡情侍養爲臥乎等用良 奴莫知良妻幷▣…▣拾婢內隱伊一所生婢內隱代年貳拾貳 婢亡吾之四所生婢四月年伍拾柒

⑥四寸孫子忠贊▣…▣矣父母上京爲去乙 二年乙 女矣家長養爲沙餘良 時時往來 孝道爲臥乎等用良 婢內隱▣…▣婢今伊所生逃奴內隱松

⑦四寸孫女別侍衛周鐵守妻鄭氏段 數數來往 孝道爲臥乎等▣…▣ 音代年拾陸

⑧三寸姪故參軍金蔡妻李氏段 其矣家翁死後良中置 來往孝道爲臥乎▣…▣隱伊年肆拾捌 二所生婢耳莊年肆拾陸

⑨四寸孫女幼學權叔平妻金氏段 數數往來 孝道▣…▣ 生婢哲非年拾陸

⑩孼四寸孫子金長龍段 兒時始叱往來孝道爲旀 女矣得病時 晝▣…▣良 遠處奴婢等乙 有功捉來爲臥乎等用良 婢耳莊一所生婢文德年貳拾柒同婢一所▣…▣生奴末之年貳拾玖

爲等如 各衿亦中 分給爲臥乎 各各後所生幷以 子孫傳持鎭長使用爲▣…▣爲行去等 此文字事意乙用良 告官辨爲乎事是亦在


財主 故別侍衛金孝▣…▣

證保 錄事▣…▣

證保 勵節校▣…▣

四寸孫壻▣…▣

筆執 前▣…▣


① Gyeongja [MR: Kyŏngja, pinyin: Gengzi] the 16th Year of Chenghua,[1] 15th Day of the 12th Month. As for what I pass down, although I do not have children… Because there is no child from the lower class concubine, … the slaves from the side of the patriarch that I have been using… my successor, my adopted child, my foster child… Among [them], I evaluated the merits [of each one] and, according to [each one’s] rank, I distribute:

② The successor Licentiate Hyoro‘s (MR: Hyoro) share:
Female slave Yongbun’s (MR: Yongbun) second-born male slave Beomi (MR: Pŏmi), aged 2.
Female slave ...geum (MR: gŭm) aged 11; third-born female slave Gwibi (MR: Kwibi), aged 9.
Female slave Naejilji‘s (MR: Naejilji) second-born male slave Eomdong (MR: Ŏndong), aged 2.
Female slave Naeeuni’s (MR: Naeŭni) second-born …, aged 8.
Female slave Yongdeuk’s (MR: Yongdŭk) fourth-born female slave Yongjang (MR: Yongjang), aged 18.
Together with a commoner wife, male slave Hongman‘s (MR: Hongman) second-born male slave Gaeumgeum (MR: Kaeŭmgŭm), aged 16.
… aged 12.
Female slave Gamsi’s (MR: Kamsi) third-born female slave Yideuk (MR: Yidŭk), aged 43.
Female slave Sawol‘s (MR: Sawŏl) second-born female slave Jeongwol (MR: Chŏngwŏl), aged 31; fifth-born …, aged 13.
Female slave Naeeuni‘s (MR: Naeŭni) fourth-born male slave Sosan (MR: Sosan), aged 10.
Female slave Yijang’s (MR: Yijang) second-born female slave Uigeum (MR: Ŭigŭm), aged 13.
Female slave responsible for sacrificial rites Hyueuljang (MR: Hyuŭljang)…, aged 38.
Female slave Naeeundeuk’s (MR: Naeŭndŭk) second-born escaped male slave Geumguji (MR: Kŭmguji).

③ Son of adopted daughter Myeongju’s (MR: Myŏngju) share:
Female slave Guseul’s (MR: Kusŭl) second-born female slave Si... (MR: Si)
… second-born female slave Deukgeum (MR: Tŭkkŭm), aged 10.
Female slave Ganjang‘s (MR: Kanjang) first-born female slave Gyesu (MR: Kyesu), aged 13.
Female slave Sawol’s (MR: Sawŏl) first-born deceased female slave Yingeupdeuk (MR: Yingŭpdŭk) … 3.
Together with a commoner wife, male slave Makji’s (MR: Makchi) second-born male slave Mangae (MR: Mangae), aged 12.
Male slave Yongbun’s (MR: Yongbun) first-born female slave Kwondeuk (MR: Kwŏndŭk), aged 9.
Female slave Hyu... (MR: Hyu), aged 36.
Same female slave’s first-born male slave Eomsan (MR: Ŏmsan), aged 5.
Female slave Wonbi’s (MR: Wŏnbi) first-born female slave Won’geum (MR: Wŏn’gŭm), aged 21.
Female slave Yideuk’s (MR: Yidŭk) first-... female slave Naeeunga (MR: Naeŭnga), aged 6.
Together with a commoner wife, male slave Hongman’s (MR: Hongman) first-born Naejilbi (MR: Naejilbi), aged 19.

④ Foster niece of the third degree, the late Special Royal Guard…
Female slave Sibi’s (MR: Sibi) first-born female slave Sigeum (MR: Sigŭm), aged 16.
Female slave Ganjang’s (MR: Kanjang) fifth-born male slave Gwisan (MR: Kwisan), aged 1.

⑤ Nephew of the third degree Special Royal Guard Jeong Inno (MR: Chŏng Inno)... Not only did he prepare the outer coffin, but also came and went [visiting me] one after another. And when I got sick, [he] served and supported [me] wholeheartedly; for this reason [I give him]:
Together with a commoner wife, male slave Makji’s (MR: Makchi) … 10.
Female slave Naeeuni’s (MR: Naeŭni) first-born female slave Naeeundae (MR: Naeŭndae), aged 22.
Female slave Mangoji‘s (MR: Mangoji) fourth-born female slave Sawol (MR: Sawŏl), aged 57.

⑥ Grandson of the fourth degree, Loyal Assistant Guards ... when his parents went to the capital, for two years, he was brought and raised in my house. Besides, he came and went [visiting me] time and time again. Because of his filial piety [I give him]:
Female slave...
Female slave Geumi’s (MR: Kŭmi) son escaped slave Naeeunsong (MR: Naeŭnsong).

⑦ Granddaughter of the fourth degree, Special Royal Guard Ju Cheolsu’s (MR: Chu Ch'ŏlsu) wife, Lady Jeong (MR: Chŏng) came and went [visiting me] many and many times. Because of her filial piety [I give her]:
…Eumdae (MR: Ŭmdae), aged 16.

⑧ Nephew of the third degree, the late Adjutant, Gim Chae’s (MR: Kim Ch'ae) wife, Lady Yi (MR: Yi), even after her patriarch's death, came and went [visiting me], and because of her filial piety [I give her]:
…Euni (MR: Ŭni), aged 48; second-born female slave Yijang (MR Yijang), aged 46.

⑨ Granddaughter of the fourth degree, Scholar-in-Waiting Gwon Sukpyeong’s (MR: Kwŏn Sukp'yŏng) wife, Lady Gim (MR: Kim), came and went [visiting me] many and many times. … filial piety…
… -born female slave Cheolbi (MR: Ch'ŏlbi), aged 16.

⑩ Secondary grandson of the fourth degree Gim Jangryong (MR: Kim Changryong), since his childhood, was filial and came and went [visiting me]. And when I got sick, … day… [runaway] male and female slaves in distant places. Because of his merit of catching [them I give him]:
Female slave Yijang’s (MR: Yijang) first-born female slave Mundeok (MR: Mundŏk), aged 27.
Same female slave first-...
… -born male slave Malji (MR: Malchi), aged 29.

In summary, each and every descendants of the slaves that I distribute to each share will all be passed on and held by the sons and grandsons to be used throughout the generations. By using this document and its matter and intention, I report to the official so that he can make a judgement.

Property owner: the late Special Royal Guard Gim Hyo... (MR: Kim Hyo)

Witness: Recording Official...

Witness: Colonel of Encouraging Integrity...

Granddaughter of the fourth degree’s husband...

Scribe: former...

Discussion Questions


Further Readings


References

  1. 成化 (pinyin: Chénghuà): title of the reign of Zhu Jianshen 朱見深 (r. 1465-1487), 8th emperor of the Ming Dynasty.

Translation

(sample) : Jaeyoon Song


  • Discussion Questions:


Student 1 : (Write your name)


  • Discussion Questions:


Student 2 : (Write your name)


  • Discussion Questions:


Student 3 : Hu Jing


keywords: properties distribution, female status, adoption practice

  • Discussion Questions:

1. Referencing to other properties distribution documents, what the difference between female and male with regard to the measurement of the distribution?

2. Why did Joseon people refer to pass down slaves to their inheritor(s) instead of real estates like house or land?

Student 4 : (Write your name)


Inheritance and Filial Piety in Joseon, Adaption and Sucessors

  • Discussion Questions:

Student 5 : Inho Choi


Filial Piety Inheritance and the division of property Choson family system Adoption custom


  • Discussion Questions: What are the criteria that Ms.Huang use to evaluate the filial piety of the inheritors?

Is 孝 in this document have the same meaning as 孝 in Confucian classics?

Student 6 : (Write your name)


  • Discussion Questions:


Student 7 : King Kwong Wong


  • Keywords:

property distribution and right, slave as property, filial piety and economic benefits, Neo-Confucianism

  • Discussion Questions:
  1. According to this document, secondary sons received part of the property. What does this document tell us about the difference in status between primary children and secondary sons?
  2. How does the property owner justify the portion of the distribution? What did she deem as important?

Student 8 : Younès M'Ghari


  • Key Concepts:

Chosôn social history, inheritance, filial piety


  • Discussion Questions:

Can a person actually be allowed to give his/her properties to someone absolutely not legitimate by writing such a document? Are the authorities in power to cancel the clauses of this document? In the case they would, what would be the minimum requirements for them to do so?

Student 9 : (Write your name)


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Student 10 : (Write your name)


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Student 11 : Lee Goeun


  • Key Concepts: property division, adoption system, family tree
  • Discussion Questions:

Why this document does not mention 봉사위 or anything related to ancestral rites? (Compare this one to the next document written by 김씨 in 1535 which heavily emphasized 봉사위) In this sense, this document might prove the Confucian transfer in the 16th century.

Student 12 : (Write your name)


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Student 13 : (Write your name)


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Student 14 : (Write your name)


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