|Korean(RR)||봉림대군 봉작상사교지(Bongnimdaegun bong-jag-sang-sa-gyo-ji)|
|Translator(s)||Participants of 2018 Summer Hanmun Workshop (Advanced Translation Group)|
Following is the citation from
This is the royal documents of bestowal(賜牌, sap'ae) that is given to The Great Prince Bongnim(鳳林, 1619-1659). He was the second son of King Injo(仁祖, Inho). "This document records the special bequeathal of King Injo's slaves to his second son Great Prince Bongnim(鳳林, 1619-1659) on the 10th day of the 8th month, 1632. Ho is his given name. He was entitled as Great Prince by the king in 1626. Later, he became King Hyojong(孝宗, Hyojong). His older brother Crown Prince Sohyeon was first designated as heir apparent but suffered premature death.
Sap'ae is an royal certificate that bestowed slaves to the designated official or the royal relative. This document is one from the series of five such documents that were given to the prince. Three were issued on the twenty eighth day of the second month, 1631, and two, including the current document, on the tendth day of the eighth month, 1632. The list of slaves in this documents contains a total of fifty slaves that are distributed throughout the country. Also, they are being transferred from diverse governmental offices, both central and local. The local government listed include places such as Kimhae, Samch'ŏk, Hoeyang, Kangnŭng, Chŭngsan, Samdŭng and others. Many different central administrative offices also provided slaves including Bureau of Hospitality's(禮賓寺), Bureau of Royal Nourishment's(內資寺), Treasury(司贍寺) and others.
This document also list the names of slaves which provides a glimpse into the perception of slaves by the Choson royal family and elites. The names portrays slaves as if they are animals and plants of particular characteristics or tools for the daily life. For example, one slave is named Parigae(件里介). The first character of this name seems to be read following the sound of the Korean word that the Chinese characters represent. This names refers to a made-up fense used in threshing. In another example, we found a slave named Kaei(介伊) which means gnarls of trees.
Reference. The Academy of Korean Studies. 2017. More than Wills: Property Distribution Documents of the Joseon Dynasty. Seongnamsi: The Academy of Korean Studies Press, pp. 78-81.
香年己酉生, 婢禮生年辛亥生, 奴益海
年辛亥生, 奴長洽年甲辰生, 淮陽官奴鄭
鶴年丙午生, 婢愛生年癸丑生, 平康案
春月年乙巳生, 婢德春年丁巳生, 婢件里
介年丙午生, 奴應官年庚申生, 司贍寺婢
介伊年庚戌生, 婢分今年乙巳生, 婢分伊
年丙午生, 婢奉加年乙巳生, 婢奉眞年
丁未生, 禮賓寺婢今化年乙巳生, 婢今玉
年甲寅生, 婢銀化年癸丑生, 婢莫德年
丙午生, 婢彦介年乙巳生, 婢許弄介年
戊午生, 江陵官婢羅八里年己酉生, 婢小
戌生, 遂安官婢香代年甲辰生, 婢禮化
年戊申生, 婢愛鶴年甲辰生, 延安官奴
支同年丙午生, 奴己生年丙午生, 婢土只
年己酉生, 婢愛叔年戊申生, 奴戒得年
巳生, 內直院婢難今年丁未生, 婢吾莊年
乙卯生, 奴暹伊年丙辰生, 禮賓寺婢士
終年丁未生, 奴士弘年庚戌生, 甑山官
應秋年乙卯生, 奴汝方年丙辰生, 掌隷
生, 等特賜賞爾, 可傳永世者
When entitling you Ho(淏, Ho)(how to translate 惟), the Great Prince Pongnim(鳳林, Bongnim), these following items,
attached to Kimhae from Treasury(司贍寺), male slave Ŭnsang, born in the year of Kapchin;
Samch'ŏk municipality's female slave Ik'yang, born in the year of Kiyu, female slave Yesaeng, born in the year of Shinhae, male slave Changch'i, born in the year of Gabjin;
Hoeyang municipality's male slave Chŏnghak, born in the year of Pyŏngo, female slave Aesaeng, born in the year of Kyech'uk;
attached to P'yŏnggang from Bureau of Royal Rituals(奉常寺), female slave Kyŏnghwa, born in the year of Ŭlsa;
Bureau of Royal Nourishment's(內資寺) female slave Ch'unwŏl, born in the year of Ŭlsa, female slave Tŏkch'un, born in the year of Chŏngsa, female slave Parigae(件里介), born in the year of Pyŏngo, male slave Ŭnggwan, born in the year of Kyŏngshin;
Treasury's female slave Kaei(介伊), born in the year of Kyŏngsul, female slave Pun'gŭm(分今), born in the year of Ŭlsa, female slave Puni(分伊), born in the year of Pyŏngo, female slave Pongga, born in the year of Ŭlsa, female slave Pongjin, born in the year of Chŏngmi;
Bureau of Hospitality's(禮賓寺) female slave eumhwa, born in the year of Ŭlsa, female slave Kŭmok, born in the year of Kabin, female slave Ŭnhwa, born in the year of Kyech'uk, female slave Maktŏk(meaning virtueless), born in the year of Pyŏngo, female slave Ŏn'gae, born in the year of Ŭlsa, female slave Horongkae, born in the year of Muo;
Kangnŭng municipality's female slave Nap'ari, born in the year of Kiyu, female slave Sogwidae, born in the year of Chŏngmi;
Hwangju municipality's female slave Myŏngju(明珠, shiny bead), born in the year of Imja;
Pongsan municipality's female slave Aehyang, born in the year of Pyŏngo, male slave Kaeiji, born in the year of Imsul;
Suan municipality's female slave Hyangdae, born in the year of Kapchin, female slave Yehwa, born in the year of Mushin, female slave Aehak, born in the year of Kapchin;
Yŏnan municipality's male slave Chidong, born in the year of Pyŏngo, male slave Kisaeng, born in the year Pyŏngo, female slave T'oji, born in the year of Kiyu, female slave Aesuk, born in the year of Mushin, male slave Kyedŭk, born in the year of Chŏngmi;
attached to Haeju from Bureau of Stataionary(造紙署), male slave Isaeng, born in the year Ŭlsa;
Office of Court Attendants'(內直院) female slave Nan'gŭm, born in the year of Chŏngmi, female slave Ojang, born in the year of Ŭlmyo, male slave Sŏmi, born in the year of Pyŏngjin;
Bureau of Hospitality's female slave Sajong, born in the year of Chŏngmi, male slave Sahong, born in the year of Kyŏngsul;
Chŭngsan municipality's female slave Hyangi, born in the year Pyŏngo, female slave Ponghyang, born in the year of Mushin;
attached to Samdŭng from Office of the Crown Prince(仁壽府), male slave Ŭngbu, born in the year of Kapchin, male slave Ŭngch'u, born in the year of Ŭlmyo, male slave Yŏbang, born in the year of Pyŏngjin;
Office of slaves'(掌隷院) female slave Sŭngok, born in the year of Imja, local bureau of punishments'(刑曹) male slave Ilsaeng, born in the year of Ŭlmyo;
attached to Yangdŏk from Treasury, male slave Inam, born in the year of Chŏngmi, and others,
will be specially bestowed as an award to you. It shall be possible to inherit them permanently.
10th day, 8th month of the fifth year of the Emperor Chongzhen(崇禎, Sizong).
- Why were the bestowed slaves spread all around country? Given that the royal prince resides mostly in the capital, he cannot receive direct services from these slaves. Was he simply getting tributes from these slaves for his daily expenditure? If so, who conducts the collection of the tribute?
- What was the nature of this transfer? Is it a transfer of public slaves to the private holdings of the prince himself? Perhaps, it is likely because he was called by his personal name Ho in the document. Or is it given to the government office or agency that takes care of the affairs of the royal prince?
- What happens to these slaves once the prince himself becomes a king? Are they given back to the government? Or does he maintain his own private holding of slaves although he will be nominally the master of the whole country?
- a name for a made-up fense used in threshing
- probably meaning gnarls in trees
- It probably refers to the already dismantled office of the same name that was installed for King T'aejong(太宗, Taejong) when he was a crown-prince. This office was dismissed during the reign of King Sejo(世祖, Sejo).