(Translation) 湖西慰諭御史封書

장서각위키
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Introduction

Original Script

Classical Chinese English

湖西尤甚之次四十四郡一鎭慰諭使洪大協賫去封書

湖西一路接千里之周甸勤九重之殷憂雖在豊年樂歲

其所顧恤而軫念有倍於他道況今歉荒挽近罕有自秋

徂冬旰余食宵余衣耿耿不能忘者唯湖西爲最盖邇能而

後遠柔近者悅而後遐者懷若使蠲恤之政拯濟之方反讓

於兩南則捨邇而取遠貴遐而忽近予豈爲是哉此所以有

拔例超常之擧而並及於之次之邑者也尤甚泰安石城

平澤燕歧瑞山庇仁舒川稷山新昌恩津尼城永同唐津

沔川韓山天安牙山禮山藍浦海美二十邑之次扶餘林川

鴻山保寧結城德山溫陽淸州陰城鎭岑懷德淸風淸

安永春連山靑山報恩大興洪州延豐文義木川沃川

忠州平薪二十五邑鎭進獻之停封貢賦之寬免錄在諭

書下方爾須殫竭誠力詳細曉諭於士民父老奠厥攸居

俾無一夫失所之歎合行條件開列于左尤甚邑則僻迂坊曲一一▣▣(遍踏)之次邑則除非沿路分遣褊裨慰諭

一停減代三條混淆則易分槪則難爾須秩秩區別播告防

 曲使軍民曉然知其分數俾無吏鄕售奸之弊之次邑之並擧

 者卽兩南所未施之惠盖其名雖之次實則尤甚比如並日

 而食者日中而食者同坐一處而並日而食者人之饋之不翅

 方丈日中之食者無一所饋豈無向隅之歎乎此所以寧失

 於濫不欲從略而然須悉此意面面慰諭

一慰諭之行雖異於按廉入境詢俗聽言考績自可有領會

 者就其中大不法最不堪者劃卽狀聞論罪以爲列郡

 望風解綬之地

一進獻諸種尙此除減若因營邑之卜定吏胥之誅求依舊貽

 弊於水陸編戶其可曰道有監司邑有守令乎各別廉察隨

 現隨聞

一抄戶之際貧富相蒙豊殘難辨或以勢力而當漏者入或

 以窮孱而當入者漏張三李四絶若別界南村北里判若各

 天特恩之特恩別例之別例將無所施以關以面除尋常嚴飭

 期有實效

一目今之先務曰戢盜也付之守令各淸其境已有廟堂之

 行會如有不勤者營將以下拿入棍治兵使狀聞論勘守

 令之慢忽者小則替治大則狀聞

一料販之申禁還賑之精抄冤枉之莫伸孝廉之未㫌軍丁之

 寃徵屯稅之濫捧一一探察大則狀聞小則還朝後陳奏

一堂下守令之乘轎路傍幼穉之遺棄果無違令踰則之嘆

 乎一體照察

一祀典所重京外何異  祭享之致愼壇壝之精掃亦皆探察

一安眠島風落松已令許民發賣以補賑資面飭營邑俾有

 實效

Letter presented to Hong Daehyeob (Hong Taehyŏp) at his leave as Comforting and Admonishing Official to the forty-four counties and one town under severe and secondary emergency in the Hoseo region.


The area Hoseo[1], next to the suburbs of the capital region, gives a great deal of worries. Even in years of good harvest and happiness, much more compassion and concern are needed there than in other provinces. Moreover, this year is a year of poor harvest that hasn’t be seen in recent times. From autumn to winter, I get up early and eat my dinners late at night, as what troubles me most in my mind is Hoseo. If we are kind to those who are close and try to comfort those who are faraway, then people close will be pleased and people faraway will be delighted to come and submit. If we abandon policies that are applied to reduce the taxation and strategies that are used to save the people, but on the contrary apply these in Yangnam[2], then that would be to abandon what is close and seek for what is far. How could I value what is distant and neglect what is close? That is the reason why there are some actions beyond convention and common practice, which also should be applied to cities and towns designated as secondary emergency. Under severe emergency are the following twenty counties, Seokseong,Pyeongtaek,Yeongi,Seosan,Biin,Seocheon,Jiksan,Sinchang,Eunjin, Iseong, Yeongdong, Dangjin, Myeoncheon, Hansan, Cheonan, Asan, Yesan, Nampo, Haemi and the following twenty five counties and one town are under secondary emergency Buyeo, Imcheon, Hongsan, Boryeong, Gyeolseong,Deoksan,Onyang, Cheongju, Eumseong, Jinjam, Hoedeok, Cheongpung,Cheongan, Yeongchun, Yeonsan, Cheongsan, Boeun, Daeheung, Hongju, Yeonpung, Munui, Mokcheon, Okcheon, Chungju, Pyeongsin. As recorded in the lower part of this letter these places are instructed to stop offering tributes and to enact reduced taxation. You should exert all your strength and wisdom to clearly instruct the fellow countrymen and provide them with stable residence, so that nobody will sigh because of the loss of residence. The articles to be administered are listed on the left [below].

One: [In terms of taxation,] it is easy to mix up "exemption", "remission", and "substitution", but difficult to distinguish them. You should [know how to] correctly discriminate and announce the measures without distortion. Thereby both common people and soldiers will be clear about the amount of their subvention, and local clerks will have no chance to commit irregularities. As to those counties graded as secondary emergency, which were not included when reliving Yeongnam and Honam area, though they are designated as secondary emergency, as a matter of fact, the situation is as the same as the regions of severe emergency. So to speak, people who have only one meal every two days and people who have one meal every day sit together. What the people who have one meal every two days received is so abundant that exceeded one square zhang. In contrast, the people who have one meal every day received nothing. How he could not heave a sigh at the corner? Therefore, we would rather make mistakes by indiscrimination than leave any people affected by famine out. My Minister should entirely know my intention and carry out the mission by covering all bases.

One: Even though relief measures are different from comforting local people, the way to understand the local situation is to enter the region, to inquire about the local customs, to listen to the people and to examine achievements. As for those who commit major crimes that cannot be tolerated and should be immediately report to the king and be judged, acting as examples for other regions.

One: The various goods submitted as tributes still can be reduced, however, if like in the past that people were unreasonably pressured or plundered by officials, there should be inspection officers in each province and magistrate in each district to perform individual inspections, listening and report to the king.

One: When appraising the households poor and rich can be delusive, plenty and scarce can be hard to distinguish. Some that should be excluded will use their power to be included and some that are poor and weak and should be included will be excluded. Chang and Yi live in different worlds; the southern and northern village each has its own heaven. This special grace is a special grace, and a special instant is a special instant, that will not be instituted again. Use the papers and instructions, discard the regular, be strict and precise and in time there will be concrete results.

One: The first most important task is now said to be the apprehension of thieves. It has been passed on to the local leaders and in order for each to clean up their territory the court has issued a proclamation. If there are some that are not diligent in this, grab those below the military generals and flog them. The soldiers should be used to report to the king and for punishment. If local leaders are neglectful, if their wrongs are small they are to be replaced and punished, if they are big it is to be reported to the king.

One: [As for the matters of] the prohibition of trading supplies, the clear distinction between households that are to receive relief and that are to repay it, not managed wrongful treatment, not yet commended filial behavior, grievances of the soldiers, and abuses of tax collection are to be investigated one by one. If the offense is large it is to be reported to the king, if it is small it is to be presented after the return to the court.

One: When the leaders outside the palace ride sedan chairs and on the side of the roads there are abandoned children, Make sure that surely there is no neglect of orders or grievances for crossing over.

One: With rituals it is important that they are different in the capital and outside of it. Make sure that worship is done cautiously and the ritual spaces are all clean.

One: Winds are felling the pine trees of Anmyeon Island. It was already ordered to allow the people to sell them off to support the relief efforts. Let this have concrete results for ordering the counties and managing the villages.

Discussion Questions


Further Readings


References

  1. The Province of Chungcheong
  2. lit. the two souths, Honam: The Province of Jeolla, and Yeongnam: The Province of Gyeongsang

Translation

(sample) : Jaeyoon Song


  • Discussion Questions:


Student 1 : (Ren, Ruixin)


translation:

湖西一路,接千里之周甸,勤九重之殷憂,雖在豊年樂歲,其所顧恤而軫念,有倍於他道, The area 湖西 is close to the suburbs of the capital city. It's a place bears a great deal of severe concerns. Even in the year of harvest and happiness, compassion and anxiety that are needed on that place are much more than other places. 況今歉荒,挽近罕有,自秋徂冬,旰余食,宵余衣,耿耿不能忘者,唯湖西爲最。Moreover, this year is a year of bad harvest that hasn’t be seen recently. From autumn to winter, I get up early and eat dinners late at night, what troubles me most in my mind is problems of 湖西. 盖邇能而後遠柔,近者悅,而後遐者懷。If we be kind to those who are close to us and then try to comfort those who are faraway, then people close to us would be pleased and people faraway would be delight to come and submit to our authority. 若使蠲恤之政,拯濟之方,反讓於兩南,則捨邇而取遠,貴遐而忽近,予豈爲是哉。If we abandon government’s policy that are applied to reduce the taxation and strategy that are used to save people, and apply it in 两南, that is abandon what is close and seek for what is far away. Value what is in a distant place and look down upon what is closer. How can I do that? 此所以有拔例超常之擧,而並及於之次之邑者也。That is the reason why there are some acts beyond convention and common practice. And those acts also applied to cities and towns suffered less from the problems. 尤甚泰安,石城,平澤,燕歧,瑞山,庇仁,舒川,稷山,新昌,恩津,尼城,永同,唐津,沔川,韓山,天安,牙山,禮山,藍浦,海美二十邑, those are towns that suffered most from the disaster 之次扶餘,林川,鴻山,保寧,結城,德山,溫陽,淸州,陰城,鎭岑,懷德,淸風,淸安,永春,連山,靑山,報恩,大興,洪州,延豐,文義,木川,沃川,忠州,平薪二十五邑鎭。 And these are towns that suffered less from the disaster. 爾須殫竭誠力,詳細曉諭於士民父老,奠厥攸居,俾無一夫失所之歎。You should exert all your strength and wisdom, to make it clear to the fellow countryman. Provide them with stable residence, so that nobody would sighs because of the loss of residence. 合行條件,開列于左。And all the strategies that you should applied are listed on the left side.


  • Discussion Questions:

Student 2 : (Write your name)


慰諭之行。雖異於按廉。入境詢俗。聽言考績。自可有領會者。就其中大不法最不堪者。劃卽狀聞論罪。以爲列郡望風解綬之地。 Even though relieving actions are different from comforting local people, there are means to understand local situations by entering the region, inquiring local situations, listening to words and examining local achievements. If there are people committed big crimes, it should immediately be made as known by making劃卽狀聞論罪, acting as examples for other regions.

進獻諸種。尙且除減。若因營邑之卜定。吏胥之誅求。依舊貽弊於水陸編戶。則其可曰道有監司。邑有守令乎。各別廉察。隨現隨聞。 The goods submitted as tributes still can be reduced, however, if like what happened in the past that people were unreasonably enforced or plundered by officials, there should be inspection officers in each province and magistrate in each district to perform induvial inspections, listening while observing.


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Student 5 : Inho Choi


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Political Structure. Economic Structure. 停減代三條.

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