(Translation) 李睟光 外國3

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Introduction

In this section of on Foreign Countries(外國), Isugwang lists countries ranging from those around Japan all the way up to the Islamic world around the central Asia.

One interesting point is that here he mixed empirical record and thing that seems fantastical to us. However, based on his assertion in his own preface, he might well have taken all of these description to be faithful to the reality in some sense. In his preface, he says "as to the things mythical and strange, I did not record a single item(若事涉神怪者, 一切不錄)."[1] Thus, things such as the Country of Beasts and black tigers that transforms into human shapes might have been real enough to be recorded in his book.

As for the apparently fantastic countries, he seems to have been affected by both the Classic of Mountains and Seas(山海經, Shanhaijing) and Matteo Ricci's Complete Geographical Map of Ten Thousand Countries(Kunyu wanguo quantu 坤輿萬國全圖)." Ricci himself incorporated the fantastic animals and countries in his new world map. For example, the Country of Beasts Isugwang describes is located on the northeast of Japan near the North Pole in Ricci's map. This location roughly matches Isugwang's description. According to a research on 坤輿萬國全圖, Ricci was also using the Classic of Mountains and Seas to supplement the information he heard from the European explorers.[2]

the Country of Beasts appearing in the 1708 Korean edition of 坤輿萬國全圖[3]

Original Script

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17. 海東有毛人國。其國人遍體生毛幾數寸。服屬於倭。楊生萬世入日本時見之云。按山海經云毛國居大海中。韓文曰海外毛人夷亶之州是也。又楊生言女國近於日本。亦有夜叉國。遇人輒啖。日本人畏之。按事文玉屑等書曰。女國在東南海中。裸形感風而生。又曰俯視井底水。照見其形。以爲交感。夜叉國在流鬼國北。流鬼國在黑水靺鞨之東北。東南際海云。

18. 按眞臘國本扶南。地方七千餘里。在占城西南海中。距暹羅半月程。國甚雄富。俗尚華侈。故古有富貴眞臘國之稱。其地四時常如五六月。自四月至九月。每日下雨。自十月至三月。絶無點雨。禽有孔翠鸚哥。獸有犀象野牛山馬。無鴻鵲鶯燕。鼠大如猫。正月間荷花開。有茄樹與木綿樹。高可過屋。出風土記。

19. 小說。眞臘國人。不飮酒比之淫。惟與妻飮房中。又西

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番忽魯謨國。飮酒者棄市。棄市酷矣。而不飮。尤可尚也。

20. 爪哇。古名闍婆其國富饒。地廣人稠。爲東洋諸番之雄。男蓬頭女椎髻。男必腰刀。刀極精利。刑無鞭朴。罪不問輕重。刃殺之。尚氣好鬪。顔色黝黑。猱頭赤脚。飮食無匙筯。啖蛇蟻蟲蚓。與犬同寢食。不爲穢也。有水葬火葬犬葬。惟死者所欲。按唐史。南蠻驃國。亦號闍利婆。國最富。王居以金爲甓。屋覆銀瓦蓋是也。

21. 古俚大國。西洋諸番之會。去中國十萬里。王好浮屠。敬象牛。老不傳子。傳外孫。否則傳弟。無外孫弟。傳善行人。俗尚信義。行者讓路。道不拾遺。以葫蘆爲樂器。蓋海中絶國。而有上古三代之風。可尚也。

22. 滿剌加。舊名五嶼。在南海中。氣候朝熱暮寒。王白帛纏頭。俗淳朴。尚回回敎。旁海人畏龜龍。龜龍高四尺四足。身負鱗甲。遇人卽嚙。嚙卽死。山有黑虎。視虎差小。或變人形。白晝群入市。覺者擒殺。按皇明給事中陳嘉猷。嘗奉使其國。有詩集。

23. 榜葛剌。東印度也。國最大。財物豐衍。甲於隣國。王及諸官。皆回回人。祝髮白布纏頭。氣候常熱如夏。陰

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陽醫卜百工技藝。大類中國。曆有十二月無閏。風俗朴厚。好耕殖。一年二熟。婦女不施脂粉。自然嬌白。飮食。男女不同處。夫死不再嫁。妻死不再娶。若孤寡無倚。一村輪養之。有兜羅錦。闊四五尺。厚可五分。背面皆毳絨。

24. 錫蘭山在大海中。王尚釋重象牛。飮牛乳不食其肉。殺牛者罪死。國富饒。地廣人稠。亞於爪哇。民上裸下纏帨。有珠池。諸番賈爭來市。有赤印島。人皆穴居。男女皆裸若野獸。不粒食。食魚蝦芭蕉子波羅蜜。按波羅蜜産南海中。形如東瓜云。

25. 溜山在西海中。四面皆海。無城郭。依山聚居。皆以溜名。無慮三千。舟行遇風失入溜卽溺。土人曰此弱水三千也。人巢居穴處。啖魚蝦無衣。草木葉蔽前後。按韻府曰。弱水在西海中。不能負羽。蓋是也。又晉書。扶餘國在玄菟北。北有弱水。肅愼氏東濱大海。北極弱水。續仙傳曰。蓬萊隔弱水三萬里。非飛仙莫至。然則東北亦有弱水矣。

26. 撒馬兒罕。漢罽賓也。去嘉峪關萬里。東西相距千里。風景偉麗。土田膏腴。頗類中原。西南番賈多聚於此。俗尚回回敎。有拜天屋。靑石雕鏤極精巧。人物

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秀美多藝能。舊有照世杯。光明洞徹。照之可知世事。按吾學編。載其國王表文。略與中國文字相同。

27. 天方。舊名天堂。俗用回回曆。風景融和。四時皆如春。田沃稻饒。居民樂業。風俗好善。亦無刑罰。自然淳化。不作盜賊。佛書所謂天堂。疑指此也。

28. 渴石。在撒馬兒罕西南。城周十餘里。四面水田。故元駙馬居也。山多奇樹。有石峽。兩壁懸崖。宛如斧劈。行二三里。出峽口有門。謂之鐵門關。岑參使交河郡詩曰。鐵關控天崖。萬里何遼哉。卽此也。

29. 土魯番。在火州西百里。古交河縣。亦曰車師國。氣候多煖少雨雪。土宜麻麥。人皆屋居信佛法。有靈山周二十餘里。悉五色砂石。光焰灼火。四回峻壑。天巧奇絶。草木不生。禽獸鮮少。蓋佛書所稱靈山是也。

30. 黑婁。近土魯番。山川草木禽獸皆黑。男女亦然。有鹽澤産石鹽。堅白如石。可琢爲器。以盛酒食。不鹽而鹹。哈烈等地亦産云。

31. 哈烈。去嘉峪關萬三千里。四面大山而少雨。男髡首。衣尚白。乃喪易靑黑。人多善走。日行三百里。氣候常煖。男女瀆亂無恥。然有學舍。講習經義。省刑薄

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斂。寡爭好施。務農桑。蓋其俗亦淳朴矣。

32. 于闐大國。在葱嶺北。東西五千里。南北千里。人機巧。喜浮屠法。相見輒跪。得問遺書。戴于首乃發之。稍知尊卑禮節。狀貌亦似華人。有白玉河,綠玉河,黑玉河。産玉珊瑚膃肭臍。

33. 火州。漢車師前後王地。去長安九千里。元帝置戊己校尉。屯田於前王庭。以地勢高敞。名高昌。唐太宗平高昌置西州。後陷於吐蕃。元號畏兀兒。今號火州。俗類匈奴。事天神信佛法。按宋史曰。高昌人多壽。率百餘歲。無夭死。其山川。靈山,蒲類海,交河爲大。其地山色如火。天氣多熱。史記相如傳註。崑崙之北。有炎火之山。投物輒然。岑參詩云暮投交河城。火山赤崔嵬是也。

34. 魯陳。一名柳城。在西域中。經大川沙磧無水草。馬牛過此輒死。大風倏起。人馬相失。道傍多骸骨有鬼魅。行人失侶。白日迷亡。謂之旱海。西有流沙河。北有火焰山。山色如火。氣候和煖。土宜麻麥。有小蒲萄。甘甜無核云。所謂流沙河。蓋卽禹貢流沙也。

35. 忽魯謨斯。在西南海中。土厚宜耕種。人質直。狀貌偉碩。喜作佛事。産獅子駞鷄福鹿靈羊馬哈獸。按韓

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詩貨通獅子國註。獅子國在南海中。人長丈五尺。船極高大。梯而上之云。疑卽此也。


  1. "자서(自序)." http://www.krpia.co.kr/viewer?plctId=PLCT00004513&tabNodeId=NODE04082994#none
  2. Zhang, Qiong. 2015. Making the New World Their Own: Chinese Encounter with Jesuit Science in the Age of Discovery. Leiden: Brill. pp.73-35.
  3. https://artsandculture.google.com/asset/%EC%8B%A0%EA%B3%A4%EC%97%AC%EB%A7%8C%EA%B5%AD%EC%A0%84%EB%8F%84-%E6%96%B0%E5%9D%A4%E8%88%87%E8%90%AC%E5%9C%8B%E5%85%A8%E5%9C%96/twGEi2Om9Nmouw?ms=%7B%22x%22%3A0.49989971418491963%2C%22y%22%3A0.18538077425881158%2C%22z%22%3A12.006697790604882%2C%22size%22%3A%7B%22width%22%3A0.2273922011013367%2C%22height%22%3A0.3003427245780979%7D%7D