(Translation) 李睟光 外國2
|Translator(s)||Participants of 2018 Summer Hanmun Workshop (Advanced Translation Group)|
(sample) : Jaeyoon Song
- Discussion Questions:
Student 2 : Ze, Xiaoyi
Japan is used to be named as Wa state. It started contacts with China during the Han dynasty and changed its name to Japan during the Tang dynasty. It is as far as more than five thousand Li from east to west, hundreds of li from south to north. Only its eastern mountains and eastern sea regions are 唯東山東海等道。南北千餘里。Because it is narrow from south to north and wider from east to west, it is named as the state of One (Chinese character). According to Book of Han, the King of Wa state reside in Yamatai. According to the (Reorganization and Studies)General Rectification of Literature, Wa people have hundreds of states, and Yama is one of them. According to Kang Hang's Munkyŏnlok, the old capital of the Wa King was named as Yamatai (野馬臺). It has four hundred and eighty extremely splendid temples, which can be compared with the four hundred and eighty temples of the Southern dynasties.
In Japan, one region is one state, and Mutsunoshū is the biggest state. It is in charge of fifty-four counties, sixty-day farther from the east to west. It has a golden mountain in the ocean, and its northern area connects to Emishi. Its people are tall and big, with hairy body. It is famous for local productions of fish and mink. Nomadic people of Shanrong also live there, with their own communities. Its land is broad and endless. It is said that it was only thirty Li from Izumi Taira of Ōshū to Hokaido, where connects with the nomadic people of our state. In the past, when Tang envoys visited Chongsǒng-gun(鍾城) and tried to convince barbarians, Wa people were at that place and heard about that. Ikai is also named as Ishima. As for Emishi, they look like the hairy people. According to Shin Suk-chu(申叔舟)’s Haetongchekukki (海東諸國記), its land began from the north of Heilongjiang.
8. 按日本國圖。八道六十六州。壹岐，對馬二島不與焉。此外又有永良部，平戶島，五島，三島，八丈島等地方。其鄕有九萬二千。其村九十萬九千八百餘。田八十九萬九千一百六十町。 fields畠十一萬二千一百四十八町。佛宇二千九百五十八。神宮二萬七千六百十三。男口十九億九萬四千八百零。女二十九億四千八百零。凡城池所在。謂之鄕。五十五間爲一町。三十六町爲一里。其一里准我國十里云。
According to the map of the state of Japan (based on my observation of Japanese map), it has eight provinces and sixty-six prefectures. The island of Iki and Tsushima do not belong to it. Besides, it includes areas such as Noerabu-jima (永良部), hirado island (平戶島), Gotō(五島), Mishima(三島), Hachijō-jima(八丈島). Japan has ninety-two thousand counties and more than nine million nine thousand and eight hundred districts. There are 899,160 chou (町) fields, 112,148 chou new fields, 2,958 temples and 27,630 shrines. Its male population is 1,90,094,800 and female population is 2,900,004,800. Wherever is a city wall, that place can be named as a county. 五十五間爲一町。三十六町爲一里。It is said that one ri is equal to ten ri in our state.
- Discussion Questions:
Student 3 : Hu Jing
The emperor of Japan started from the generation of King Ping of Zhou. They have continually inherited the throne within the same family so far. The emperor does not intervene in political affairs but merely enjoys riches and honor. The king who administers state affairs is called Kanpaku (關白), by which he shows reverence for the emperor. How could it be seen the same custom left by the Zhou dynasty? What people say "idling around" is exact the emperor of Japan. Someone says the surname of the emperor of Japan is Ji, (implying that) they are the descendants of Taibo1 and Zhongyong2 of Wu3. Someone says their family name is Wang, which is doubtful.
Traveling from Busan to the capital of Japan approximately crosses 4,000 li by sea. Departing from the capital, traveling northeast to Suruga(駿河) Prefecture, and going 1,000 again, there is a mountain called Fuji(富士). The mountain is 400 odd li tall, standing erect from a big lake. From half height above, ice and snow cap the high and steep peaks, which does not melt even in midsummer. It could even be seen within a range of 1,000 li. The place east to the mountain is called Mishima (三島). There is a steep mountain named Hakone(箱根) to the northeast of Mishima, where there is a huge lake. It is said that exotic flowers and rare herbs thickly grow along the lake bank. In my opinion, Fuji originated from the Chinese pronunciation, meaning the mountain of Athanasia. Is it the reason that there widely grows medicine of immortality? In accordance with Song Jinglian's poem5, "In Sanshu(三州), snow in June falls like white feathers; the intertwined roots push the ground down". Sanshu is a place name of dwardfish Japan.
In the Book of the Later Han, it is said that Xu Fu put out to sea and arrived Yi(夷) Prefecture and Tan (澶) Prefecture (夷澶洲). The two places refer to the overseas prefecture of Yi and Tan (夷亶之州) according to Han Yu's writing. Thinking of the pronunciations of Yi and Tan (夷亶), there are two prefectures called Kii(紀伊) and Dan (淡) in Nankaidō, Japan. Dan (淡) and Tan (澶) are phonetically similar, I doubt they actually refer to Yi Prefecture and Tan Prefecture. In accordance with Kang Hang's 6 travelogue, Japanese people regard Mount Atsuta(熱田山) in Ise(伊勢), Mount Kumano(熊野山) in Kii, and Mount Fuji in Suruga as the three divine mountains. Moreover, Xu Fu became a deity after his death and there built a temple of Xu Fu in Suruga. The guardian of the Mount Kumano is Xu Fu. Mount Atago(愛宕山) is guarded by the God of Ilna (日羅)[Nichra]. As to the so-called Ilna, I was wondering if it refers to yeongo(迎烏) mentioned in Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms, who was also called Seo (細烏) 4. Jo Wanbyeok said he saw Xu Fu's temple in Kyoto. It is said that Xu Fu was (still) enshrined by his descendants.
The (majority) of the land of Japan is warm and there is no snow (in winter). However, Hokurikudō (北陸道) is so cold that the snow will accumulate to a couple of zhang every winter. Moreover, the islands of Japan are all small rocks covered by thin soil. Therefore, the Japanese measure the fertileness or barrenness of land according to its thickness and thinness. Should the land layer is as thin as 1 cheok, no grains could grow. If the land layer is as thick as 7 cheok to 1 chang, then it will be the most fertile land. Jeju in our state is similar. There is no land which layer exceeds 3 cheok. Therefore, every time suffering from drought, people from the land will sell grains to Jeju people in order to aid their life. As to burial, it is said that half of the coffine will expose.
1 泰伯 was the eldest son of King Tai of Zhou and the legendary founder of the State of Wu. His ancestral name was Ji.
2 仲雍 was the second ruler of the ancient Chinese State of Wu according to traditional Chinese history.
3 Wu was one of the states during the Western Zhou Dynasty and the Spring and Autumn period. It was also known as Gouwu (勾吳) or Gongwu (工吳).
4 연오(延烏)와 세오(細烏)가 일본으로 건너가게 되자 일월이 빛을 잃었는데, 세오의 비단으로 제사를 지내자 다시 빛을 회복하게 되었다는 설화. 본래 『수이전(殊異傳)』에 전하던 것인데, 고려 때 『삼국유사』에 채록되었다.
5 Song JInglian(宋景濂, 1310–1381), whose name is Lian(濂), was a literary and political adviser to the Ming dynasty founder, and one of the principal figures in the Mongol Yuan Dynasty Jinhua school of Neo-Confucianism.
6 It refers to Kang Hang's 『적중견문록(賊中見聞錄)』.
- Discussion Questions:
Student 4 : Martin
The various generals [daimyo?] of Japan, all have domains providing food. Like Togukawa Ieyasu’s area, which has 2,5 million seok. Mori Terumoto has 1,5 million seok. Of the rest, the bigger ones have 450,000 seok and the smaller ones have 100,000 seok, but all cannot be counted in detail. A thousand seok of their food can support 50 soldiers, 10,000 seok can support five hundred soldiers. How many standing soldiers exist can be seen from the number of grain and so the wealth and power of the countries can be conceived.
- Discussion Questions: