(Translation) 李睟光 外國1
|Translator(s)||Participants of 2018 Summer Hanmun Workshop (Advanced Translation Group)|
(sample) : Jaeyoon Song
- Discussion Questions:
Student 1 : Ren, Ruixin
Annam is on the southwest of China, 13,000 Li away from Beijing. It was a county named 象郡 in Qin dynasty. In Han dynasty, it was a county called 交趾郡. At the end of the time of five dynasties, 黎桓 firstly ascended the throne and ruled like a king. In Ming dynasty at the reign of Yongle, the rebellion was suppressed. The land of the area was 1,700 li from the east to the west and 2,800 li from the north to the south. It betrayed again later. At the beginning of the reign of Jiajing, 莫登庸 killed the king and usurped the throne. He was not allowed to be the king but called 安南都統使 instead. But he still made himself the king of the country. A book named 事文玉屑 said：交趾国，also named Annam, is the descendant of 瓠犬，the character of its people are cunning. They cut up their hair and walk on bare feet, they have deep eyes and bold mouth, the look of them is extremely ugly and evil. People who were called foreign devils with human looks by people in Guangdong and Guangxi provinces were descendants of the troops of Ma Yuan.
又老撾國在安南西南。古越裳之國。或曰卽哀牢國也。吾學編曰。其俗夷獠雜居。不知禮義。獷悍喜鬪。唯驩演人淳秀好學。其山川佛跡，句漏，富良江最爲大。有越王城，天使館，浪泊柱。産金，珠，諸，香，犀，象，兕，猩猩，狒狒，白雉，翡翠，波羅蜜，余赴京。再遇其國使臣。涅齒被髮。頗解文字。言語用合口聲。所謂窅目昂喙似矣。但皆被髮。與古剪髮異矣。 Laos lies on the southwest of Annam, it was called 越裳國 in ancient times, some also said it was 哀牢國. A book named 吾學編 recorded that different nations live together in this country. They do not behave according to rite and morality, they tend to be violent and aggressive. Only 驩演 people are unsophisticated and eager to learn more. The most impressive landscape is 句漏 and 富良江river. It has 越王城,天使館,浪泊柱. It produces gold, pearls, 诸, spicery，rhinoceros，elephants，兕，orangutans，baboon，silver pheasant，emerald，jackfruit. I went to the capital, met with their envoy again, he has black teeth and with disheveled hair, knows a lot about scripts and writing, speaking with joint tone. It is similar to deep eyes and bold mouth, but they all have disheveled hair, this is different from cutting hair in ancient times.
2. 琉球國在東南海中。自福建梅花所開洋。七日可至。王居朴素。無金碧之飾。賦法略如井田。王臣民各分土爲祿食。上下無征斂。用刑甚嚴。以螺殼炊爨。人皆驍健。不知醫藥而無疾病。兵甲堅利。射至二百步。好爭狼鬪。輒刃殺人。度不能脫。卽剖腹自斃。其山川有黿鼉嶼，彭胡島。國西古米山甚險。舟至輒敗。山無猛獸。以故多野馬。旁有毗舍那者。島中小夷。鳥語鬼形。殆非人類。按韓昌黎送鄭尚書序所謂流求是也。聞其國在我國濟州之南。晴日則自濟州依俙望見云。蓋海路不甚遠耳。 Ryukyu is in the southeast sea. Starting from 梅花所 in Fujian, it would take 7 days to get there. The king usually lives a simple life, decorate his place of living without gold and other decoration. Taxes and laws are similar to 井田法. King’s ministers receive lands as salary. There is no taxation from above, punishments to illegal acts are extremely rigorous. They use trumpet shell as cooking vessel. People here are strong and active, rarely use medicine and seldom get ill. Weapons and arms are solid and firm with a range of fire up to 200 bu. Violent and aggressive, kill people within seconds. If they think it's impossible to get out of trouble, they commit a suicide immediately. As to its landscape, there are 黿鼉 island, 彭胡島 island. 古米mountain in the west of the country is extremely abrupt, boats that reached near it always failed. It has no wild beast, so there live a large number of wild horses. 毗舍那 nearby is a small tribe one the island, they speak the language of birds and have an appearance like ghost, it seems they are not human. In 韓昌黎送鄭尚書序, it said that he had heard that Ryukyu is to the south of 济州. It can be seen sometimes when the weather is good. Generally, it should not be very far in the sea.
三佛齊 is in the southeast sea, it has 15 districts. Java is on the east and Malacca is on the west. It has fertile lands that are suitable to farming. People in this country are quiet good at sea battle. They take a certain medicine so that sword can’t hurt them. They are dare to fight to death when come across enemy. Neighboring countries are frightened of them. Lands are limited, high-ranking generals can live on the dry land, ordinary people all live on raft, the set up pillars in the water. The characters they use are Sanskrit. There is turkey that bigger than crane. Their feathers similar with 青羊，feeding on coals. Besides, 法兒國 lies in the sea, 駞鷄 is a special animal in this country. The length of its body is up to 3 or 4 chi. 行亦如之. The book 宛委餘編 recorded that birds from western regions are called 駞, maybe this is what it has recorded.
Champa was called Campa in ancient times, originally it was 象林县county in Han dynasty, where 马援 set up the copper pillar. Towards the end of Han dynasty, 區連 killed the magistrate and ruled as a king. At the beginning of the 元和reign in Tang dynasty, it changed it name to Champa. It lies in the south of the sea, Chenla is to the south of it. 交趾 is to the west of it. The four seasons in this country are hot like summer, no frost and snow here. Grass and trees are always green. People here are strong and aggressive, good at fighting and battles. Women are at a higher rank than men, regard black as the feature of beauty, the hutches they live in can not have a length longer than 3 chi. Every time they go out or come back, they ride horses or elephants. There are some people called 尸頭蠻, they are women. At night, they fly their head into people’s house, absorbing the 秽气 of the child. After that the head fly back to its body and fits the body like before. If the head lost its body and can not fit back to the body, it will immediately die. Big rhinoceros can weigh up to 800 jin. They have horns on the tips of its nose, with a length up to 1 chi 5 cun. Horses are smaller than donkeys. In the reign of emperor Tang Taizong, Campa presented parrots with five colors, that maybe the special production of the country.
- Discussion Questions:
Student 2 : Ze, Xiaoyi
The state of Siam is located thousands of li away, in the ocean, surrounded by mountains. It is humid on the ground, and the wind and heat is irregular. Originally, Sha and Mu were two separated lands; Sha people were the decedents of the Red Eyebrows army from China. During the Zhizheng period of Yuan, Sha and Mu merged into one state. They respect religions, and females are wise and their husbands usually follow their decisions. As for their funerals, wealthy people use mercury burials, and ordinary people use bird burials. They are good at water battles and like invading and stealing. They have rich resources of crystals, spices, lions, elephants, white rats and six-leg turtle. 蘇木賤如薪色絶勝。When I go to the capital and see its map; there are Longya Mountains crossing the ocean. The entrance is in the middle, and the shapes are quite different. Its people have short hairs, black faces, wearing barbarians’ clothes, with bare feet. They use hands to eat and donot know Chinese characters, so it is not a state with rituals and manners. (civilized states?)
- both Japanese and [Korean] pronunciations