(Translation) 李睟光 外國1

장서각위키
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Introduction

Original Script

Image Text Translation
지봉유설권2외국1

1. 安南國在中國西南。距北京一萬三千里。秦爲象郡。漢置交趾郡。至五代末。黎桓始僭王號。皇明永樂時。平定其地。東西一千七百里。南北二千八百里。後復叛。嘉靖初。以莫登庸纂弑。不許封王。稱安南都統使。然猶自帝其國。按事文玉屑云交趾國一名安南。乃瓠犬之遺種。其性姦猾。剪髮跣足。窅目昂喙。極醜惡。廣人稱爲夷鬼貌類人者。乃馬援兵之遺種也。又老撾國在安南西南。古越裳之國。或曰卽哀牢國也。吾學編曰。其俗夷獠雜居。不知禮義。獷悍喜鬪。唯驩演人淳秀好學。其山川佛跡,句漏,富良江最爲大。有越王城,天使館,浪泊柱。産金,珠,諸,香,犀,象,兕,猩猩,狒狒,白雉,翡翠,波羅蜜,余赴京。再遇其國使臣。涅齒被髮。頗解文字。言語用合口聲。所謂窅目昂喙似矣。但皆被髮。與古剪髮異矣。

2. 琉球國在東南海中。自福建梅花所開洋。七日可至。"

(translation)

지봉유설권2외국2

王居朴素。無金碧之飾。賦法略如井田。王臣民各分土爲祿食。上下無征斂。用刑甚嚴。以螺殼炊爨。人皆驍健。不知醫藥而無疾病。兵甲堅利。射至二百步。好爭狼鬪。輒刃殺人。度不能脫。卽剖腹自斃。其山川有黿鼉嶼,彭胡島。國西古米山甚險。舟至輒敗。山無猛獸。以故多野馬。旁有毗舍那者。島中小夷。鳥語鬼形。殆非人類。按韓昌黎送鄭尚書序所謂流求是也。聞其國在我國濟州之南。晴日則自濟州依俙望見云。蓋海路不甚遠耳。

3. 三佛齊在東南海中。有地十五州。東距爪哇。西距滿剌加。土沃宜稼穡。人習水戰。服藥刀不能傷。遇敵敢死。隣國畏之。水多土少。將領得居陸。民率架筏。水中架梁柱。字用梵書。有火鷄大於鶴。毛如靑羊食炭。又祖法兒國在海中。産駞鷄長三四尺。行亦如之。按宛委餘編云西域大鳥曰駞。蓋此也。

4. 占城古林邑。本漢象林縣。馬援置銅柱之處。至漢末。區連殺縣令稱王。唐元和初。改號占城國。在大海南。南距眞臘。西距交趾。四時常熱如夏天。無霜雪。草木長靑。俗獷悍。果于戰鬪。貴女賤男。以黑色爲美。所居茅茨。不得踰三尺。出入乘馬象。有尸頭蠻"

(translation)

지봉유설권2외국3

者。婦人也。夜飛頭入人家。食小兒穢氣。頭返合體如故。失其體不得合卽死。犀大者八百斤。獨角在鼻端。長可尺五寸。馬小於驢。按唐太宗時。林邑獻五色鸚鵡。蓋其所産也。

5. 暹羅國方千餘里。在海中。群山峭拔環繞。地下濕。氣候嵐熱不齊。本暹與羅斛二國地。暹乃赤眉遺種。元至正間。始合爲一國。尚釋敎。婦人多智。夫聽於妻。喪禮。貴者灌水銀葬。民間鳥葬。習水戰喜寇掠。産寶石,奇香,獅,白象,白鼠,六足龜。蘇木賤如薪色絶勝。余甞赴京。見其國地圖。有龍牙山橫截海中。中闢爲門。形勢甚異。其人剪髮。面多漆黑。左衽跣足。飮食以手。不識天朝文字。蓋非冠帶之國也。

(translation)

Discussion Questions


Further Readings


References


Translation

(sample) : Jaeyoon Song


  • Discussion Questions:


Student 1 : Ren, Ruixin


1.安南國在中國西南。距北京一萬三千里。秦爲象郡。漢置交趾郡。至五代末。黎桓始僭王號。皇明永樂時。平定其地。東西一千七百里。南北二千八百里。後復叛。嘉靖初。以莫登庸纂弑。不許封王。稱安南都統使。然猶自帝其國。按事文玉屑云交趾國一名安南。乃瓠犬之遺種。其性姦猾。剪髮跣足。窅目昂喙。極醜惡。廣人稱爲夷鬼貌類人者。乃馬援兵之遺種也。

Annam is on the southwest of China, 13,000 Li away from Beijing. It was a county named 象郡 in Qin dynasty. In Han dynasty, it was a county called 交趾郡. At the end of the time of five dynasties, 黎桓 firstly ascended the throne and ruled like a king. In Ming dynasty at the reign of Yongle, the rebellion was suppressed. The land of the area was 1,700 li from the east to the west and 2,800 li from the north to the south. It betrayed again later. At the beginning of the reign of Jiajing, 莫登庸 killed the king and usurped the throne. He was not allowed to be the king but called 安南都統使 instead. But he still made himself the king of the country. A book named 事文玉屑 said:交趾国,also named Annam, is the descendant of 瓠犬,the character of its people are cunning. They cut up their hair and walk on bare feet, they have deep eyes and bold mouth, the look of them is extremely ugly and evil. People who were called foreign devils with human looks by people in Guangdong and Guangxi provinces were descendants of the troops of Ma Yuan.

又老撾國在安南西南。古越裳之國。或曰卽哀牢國也。吾學編曰。其俗夷獠雜居。不知禮義。獷悍喜鬪。唯驩演人淳秀好學。其山川佛跡,句漏,富良江最爲大。有越王城,天使館,浪泊柱。産金,珠,諸,香,犀,象,兕,猩猩,狒狒,白雉,翡翠,波羅蜜,余赴京。再遇其國使臣。涅齒被髮。頗解文字。言語用合口聲。所謂窅目昂喙似矣。但皆被髮。與古剪髮異矣。 Laos lies on the southwest of Annam, it was called 越裳國 in ancient times, some also said it was 哀牢國. A book named 吾學編 recorded that different nations live together in this country. They do not behave according to rite and morality, they tend to be violent and aggressive. Only 驩演 people are unsophisticated and eager to learn more. The most impressive landscape is 句漏 and 富良江river. It has 越王城,天使館,浪泊柱. It produces gold, pearls, 诸, spicery,rhinoceros,elephants,兕,orangutans,baboon,silver pheasant,emerald,jackfruit. I went to the capital, met with their envoy again, he has black teeth and with disheveled hair, knows a lot about scripts and writing, speaking with joint tone. It is similar to deep eyes and bold mouth, but they all have disheveled hair, this is different from cutting hair in ancient times.


2. 琉球國在東南海中。自福建梅花所開洋。七日可至。王居朴素。無金碧之飾。賦法略如井田。王臣民各分土爲祿食。上下無征斂。用刑甚嚴。以螺殼炊爨。人皆驍健。不知醫藥而無疾病。兵甲堅利。射至二百步。好爭狼鬪。輒刃殺人。度不能脫。卽剖腹自斃。其山川有黿鼉嶼,彭胡島。國西古米山甚險。舟至輒敗。山無猛獸。以故多野馬。旁有毗舍那者。島中小夷。鳥語鬼形。殆非人類。按韓昌黎送鄭尚書序所謂流求是也。聞其國在我國濟州之南。晴日則自濟州依俙望見云。蓋海路不甚遠耳。 Ryukyu is in the southeast sea. Starting from 梅花所 in Fujian, it would take 7 days to get there. The king usually lives a simple life, decorate his place of living without gold and other decoration. Taxes and laws are similar to 井田法. King’s ministers receive lands as salary. There is no taxation from above, punishments to illegal acts are extremely rigorous. They use trumpet shell as cooking vessel. People here are strong and active, rarely use medicine and seldom get ill. Weapons and arms are solid and firm with a range of fire up to 200 bu. Violent and aggressive, kill people within seconds. If they think it's impossible to get out of trouble, they commit a suicide immediately. As to its landscape, there are 黿鼉 island, 彭胡島 island. 古米mountain in the west of the country is extremely abrupt, boats that reached near it always failed. It has no wild beast, so there live a large number of wild horses. 毗舍那 nearby is a small tribe one the island, they speak the language of birds and have an appearance like ghost, it seems they are not human. In 韓昌黎送鄭尚書序, it said that he had heard that Ryukyu is to the south of 济州. It can be seen sometimes when the weather is good. Generally, it should not be very far in the sea.

3. 三佛齊在東南海中。有地十五州。東距爪哇。西距滿剌加。土沃宜稼穡。人習水戰。服藥刀不能傷。遇敵敢死。隣國畏之。水多土少。將領得居陸。民率架筏。水中架梁柱。字用梵書。有火鷄大於鶴。毛如靑羊食炭。又祖法兒國在海中。産駞鷄長三四尺。行亦如之。按宛委餘編云西域大鳥曰駞。蓋此也。

三佛齊 is in the southeast sea, it has 15 districts. Java is on the east and Malacca is on the west. It has fertile lands that are suitable to farming. People in this country are quiet good at sea battle. They take a certain medicine so that sword can’t hurt them. They are dare to fight to death when come across enemy. Neighboring countries are frightened of them. Lands are limited, high-ranking generals can live on the dry land, ordinary people all live on raft, the set up pillars in the water. The characters they use are Sanskrit. There is turkey that bigger than crane. Their feathers similar with 青羊,feeding on coals. Besides, 法兒國 lies in the sea, 駞鷄 is a special animal in this country. The length of its body is up to 3 or 4 chi. 行亦如之. The book 宛委餘編 recorded that birds from western regions are called 駞, maybe this is what it has recorded.


4. 占城古林邑。本漢象林縣。馬援置銅柱之處。至漢末。區連殺縣令稱王。唐元和初。改號占城國。在大海南。南距眞臘。西距交趾。四時常熱如夏天。無霜雪。草木長靑。俗獷悍。果于戰鬪。貴女賤男。以黑色爲美。所居茅茨。不得踰三尺。出入乘馬象。有尸頭蠻"者。婦人也。夜飛頭入人家。食小兒穢氣。頭返合體如故。失其體不得合卽死。犀大者八百斤。獨角在鼻端。長可尺五寸。馬小於驢。按唐太宗時。林邑獻五色鸚鵡。蓋其所産也。

Champa was called Campa in ancient times, originally it was 象林县county in Han dynasty, where 马援 set up the copper pillar. Towards the end of Han dynasty, 區連 killed the magistrate and ruled as a king. At the beginning of the 元和reign in Tang dynasty, it changed it name to Champa. It lies in the south of the sea, Chenla is to the south of it. 交趾 is to the west of it. The four seasons in this country are hot like summer, no frost and snow here. Grass and trees are always green. People here are strong and aggressive, good at fighting and battles. Women are at a higher rank than men, regard black as the feature of beauty, the hutches they live in can not have a length longer than 3 chi. Every time they go out or come back, they ride horses or elephants. There are some people called 尸頭蠻, they are women. At night, they fly their head into people’s house, absorbing the 秽气 of the child. After that the head fly back to its body and fits the body like before. If the head lost its body and can not fit back to the body, it will immediately die. Big rhinoceros can weigh up to 800 jin. They have horns on the tips of its nose, with a length up to 1 chi 5 cun. Horses are smaller than donkeys. In the reign of emperor Tang Taizong, Campa presented parrots with five colors, that maybe the special production of the country.


  • Discussion Questions:

Student 2 : Ze, Xiaoyi


5. 暹羅國方千餘里。在海中。群山峭拔環繞。地下濕。氣候嵐熱不齊。本暹與羅斛二國地。暹乃赤眉遺種。元至正間。始合爲一國。尚釋敎。婦人多智。夫聽於妻。喪禮。貴者灌水銀葬。民間鳥葬。習水戰喜寇掠。産寶石,奇香,獅,白象,白鼠,六足龜。蘇木賤如薪色絶勝。余甞赴京。見其國地圖。有龍牙山橫截海中。中闢爲門。形勢甚異。其人剪髮。面多漆黑。左衽跣足。飮食以手。不識天朝文字。蓋非冠帶之國也。

The state of Siam is located thousands of li away, in the ocean, surrounded by mountains. It is humid on the ground, and the wind and heat is irregular. Originally, Sha and Mu were two separated lands; Sha people were the decedents of the Red Eyebrows army from China. During the Zhizheng period of Yuan, Sha and Mu merged into one state. They respect religions, and females are wise and their husbands usually follow their decisions. As for their funerals, wealthy people use mercury burials, and ordinary people use bird burials. They are good at water battles and like invading and stealing. They have rich resources of crystals, spices, lions, elephants, white rats and six-leg turtle. 蘇木賤如薪色絶勝。When I go to the capital and see its map; there are Longya Mountains crossing the ocean. The entrance is in the middle, and the shapes are quite different. Its people have short hairs, black faces, wearing barbarians’ clothes, with bare feet. They use hands to eat and donot know Chinese characters, so it is not a state with rituals and manners. (civilized states?)

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