(Translation) 朴趾源 擬請疏通疏

장서각위키
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Introduction

   

Original Script

Image Text Translation
연암집권3의청소통소1

1. 云云天之降才。非爾殊也。故顚蘖騈枝。均霑雨露。朽株糞土。蒸出菌芝。聖人致治。士無貴賤。詩云文王壽考。遐不作人。是以王國克寧。駿聲不已。嗚呼。 國朝廢錮庶孽三百餘年矣。爲大敝政無過於此。稽之往古而無其法。攷諸禮律而無所據。則此不過 國初宵小之臣。乘機售憾。遽成大防。而後來當途之人。託論名高。襲謬成俗。年代浸遠。因循不革矣。由是而公朝專尙門閥。缺 遺才之歎。私家 缺 嚴 缺。爲斁倫之端。以之立後於支族。則率犯欺君之科。歸重於外黨。則反輕宗本之義。噫嘻等威 缺 殊。而無益於 國軆。區限太刻。而少恩於家庭。夫自家之庶孽。則誠足卑矣。非可絀於擧世一門之名分。則固當嚴矣。非可論於

(translation)

연암집권3의청소통소2

通朝耳。然而膠守名分之論。則枳塞轉深。諉以 祖宗之制。則更張猝難。玩愒至今。因循而不革者何也。於古則無稽。於禮則無攷。而爲有國大痼深弊。則先正名臣深識治道者。莫不以此爲先恢張公理。必欲疏通。 筵陳箚論。前後相望。 列聖建中, 治軆蕩蕩, 設官須賢, 分職惟能, 一軆均[視]。豈復差[別]於[母族之貴賤]哉。故未甞不 臨朝博詢。䀌然矜惜。思所以通變疏滌之道。只緣士族權重。議論在下。淸途華貫。固所已有。則猶恐歧路多旁。權衡有分。同是世胄。2. 銖秤縷度。一經政注。羞怒橫集。彈軋蜂起。况乃庶孽名膠跡泥。久屈於世。不肯等列。固其勢也。雖然。此實專門濟私之 缺。大非有國共公之通道也。臣請極言其失也。夫庶孽之與正嫡。誠有差等。而顧其家世。亦一士族。固何負於 國家。而禁錮之廢絶之 缺。不得齒衿紳之列哉。孟子曰。無君子莫治野人。無野人莫養君子。夫君子野人。以位言也。缺 而明明揚側陋。帝堯之官人也。立賢無方。成湯之求治也。繇是觀之。三代之時。已有君子小人之別。而擧人之際。固無間乎貴賤。不問其彙類。而况 國朝所謂庶孽。世有簪纓。門閥燀赫。則寧可以母族之卑微。混蔑其本宗之華顯也哉。晉唐以來。漸尙閥閱。然而江左衣冠。不擯陶侃王謝。貴族亦齒周顗蘇𨘀。乃蘇瓌之 缺 產。而位至平章。李愬乃李晟之孽子。而官至太尉。韓琦范仲淹。爲宋賢相。胡寅陳瓘鄒浩。爲世名儒。當世不以庶孽錮禁者何也。誠以論人門閥者。只重其父世。不問其母族。其不重母族者何也。重本宗也。3. 夫然則母族雖顯。父世甚微。則其不可以華閥著稱。亦且明矣。勝國之時。鄭文培爲禮部尙書。李世璜爲閤門祇侯。權仲和以大司憲。亦入我 朝爲都評議使。若以我 朝之法律之。則陶周之賢。將不廁衣冠。蘇李之才。將不得將相。韓琦范仲淹胡寅陳鄒之徒。擧將抑塞禁廢。文而芸舘。蔭而典獄。位不離流品。祿不過升斗。而功業志節。將不得赫然當世。

(translation)

연암집권3의청소통소3

流光於百代耶。此臣所謂稽之往古而無其法者也。經曰。庶子不得爲長子三年。鄭玄註曰。庶子者。爲父後者之弟也。言庶者。遠別之也。夫庶子雖與 缺。而其截然別而遠之者。如此其嚴。至於妾子之賤。爲尤卑於庶子。而更無所區別於庶子何也。禮所以序也。故宗無二本。殺無再降也。記曰。父母有若庶子庶孫甚愛之。沒身敬之不衰。陳澔註曰。賤者之所生也。夫父母之所愛。雖妾之子猶尙引而重之。不敢疏略而外之者。亦所以重本而尊宗也。會典曰。凡襲職替職。無適子孫。則庶長子襲替。庶長子。妾子之謂也。夫禮所以別嫌疑也。故正名而定分。則雖同母之適弟。尙且別而遠之也。4. 夫禮所以厚也。故重其本支。則雖妾之賤子。尙且引而內之也。律之所以襲替父職。不以適庶爲拘者。良以此也。周官周公之定官制也。漢之百官表所以分庶品也。禁錮庶孽之文。不少槪見焉。此臣所謂攷諸禮律而無所據者也。臣甞聞之古傳。錮廢庶孽。葢亦有由 缺。相鄭道傳庶孽子也。右代言徐選爲道傳寵奴所辱。思所以報仇者。及道傳敗。選乃傅會名分之論。逞快一辱於旣死之後。非爲其言之必立。其法之必行也。方是時。道傳以罪新誅。所以其言易售而其法易成也。贊成姜希孟安瑋等。草創大典。文理未遑。庶孽停科錮仕之論。條列撰入。及戊午之禍。士流積怨於子光。無所發憤。禁錮庶孽之論。益嚴且深。其所洩怒。誠亦悲矣。雖然。自古亂賊。豈專出於子光者流哉。不幸一出於庶孽之中。而因一子光盡塞庶孽。則若不幸而接跡於士族。亦將何法而處之耶。嗚呼。儒宗文師。磊落相望。一轉而局於名分之論。再轉而屈於門地之尙。宋翼弼,李仲虎,金謹恭之道學。朴枝華,李大純,曺伸之行誼。魚無迹,魚叔權,楊士彥,李達,辛喜季,梁大樸,朴淲之文章。柳祖認,崔命龍,柳時蕃之才諝。6. 上可以黼黻大猷。下可以標準一世。而卒老死於蓬蓽之下。時有間沾微祿者。碌碌栖息於冗仕

(translation)

연암집권3의청소통소4

末品之中。雖其守分行素。佚厄而不愍。 聖王之所以設官分職待賢守能之意。果安在也。至若李山謙,洪季男奮義糾旅。摧破倭賊。權井吉沫血誓衆。入援南漢。其忠膽義肝。猶能自振於衆棄之中。如彼其卓卓也。然而時平世恬。則 朝廷之上。漠然相忘。曾不識其何狀。此古人所謂所用非所養也。臣甞慨然於此也。以近事觀之。洪霖一孱孽。白頭閫幕。凄凉口腹之計。而猝然殉難。凜然有烈士之風。 朝廷不惜褒贈之典。雖加以非常之職。與其生爲百夫之長。屹然臨城。則其固圉捍患。豈特幕府之一死也哉。噫。禁錮之不足而棄絶之。使其固有之倫常。不得自列於平人。則恩莫重於父子。而不敢稱父。義莫大於君臣。而不得近君。老者坐末。而庠塾無長幼之序。耻與爲類。而鄕黨無朋友之道。孔子曰。必也正名乎。子而父。父父而子子。兄兄而弟弟。此所以正其名也。故人倫之尊稱。莫加於父兄。而今之庶孽則不然。子弟之於父兄。猶不敢斥然正而呼之。自同奴僕之於其主。所謂名分者。適庶之謂也。豈爲其稱謂之間。不得曰父曰兄。下同於奴僕之賤。然後迺謂之嚴名分而別適庶也哉。7. 今之庶孽。郞署猶不得爲。侍從安敢望乎。雖有願忠之心。補袞非職。雖抱經綸之才。展布無地。引儀臚傳。暫序 朝班。而卒同輿儓。該署輪對。或襯 耿光。而不免疎逖。進不敢爲大夫之事。退不忍爲齊民之業。所謂國之孤臣。家之孽子。疹疾而心危者也。禮曰。入學以齒。以齒者。尙年也。傳曰。燕毛。所以序齒也。毛者。髮之黑白也。今之庶孽入太學。則不得序齒。黃髮鮐背者居下。勝冠者反坐上座。夫太學所以明人倫也。故自天子之元子衆子。以至諸侯之世子。尙得齒學。所以示悌於天下也。天子視學於辟雍。有乞言饗食之禮。所以廣孝於天下也。由是觀之。庶孽之不得序齒於太學。非先王廣孝悌之道也。傳曰。以文會友。以友輔仁。孟子曰。友也者。友其德也。故不挾長。不挾貴。不挾兄弟而友。

(translation)

연암집권3의청소통소5

貴賤雖殊。有德則可師也。年齒不齊。輔仁則可友也。况乃庶孽。固皆士族之子弟耳。8. 其無才美賢能則已。若其諒直多聞。才德賢我。則顧安可以庶孽恥之哉。然而庶孽之於士族。相交而不得友。相親而不得齒。無忠告責善之道。絶琢磨切偲之義。言辭之間。禮數太苛。揖讓之際。謗讟橫生。由是論之。倫常之中。不絶而僅存者。惟夫婦一事耳。嗚乎。才賢遺而莫之恤。倫常斁而莫之救。曰庶孽無才賢。亦曰如此而後名分正。是豈理也哉。夫無子而立後者。所以繼祖而傳重也。昔石駘仲無適子有庶子六人。卜所以爲後者。祁子兆是擇賢也。唐律諸立嫡違法者。徒一年。議者曰。適妻之長子爲適子。婦人年五十以上。不復乳育。則許立庶子爲適。不立長者律亦如之。是防亂本也。 大明律凡立適子違法者杖。適妻年五十以上無子者。得立庶長子。不立長者同罪。經國大典適妾俱無子。然後取同宗之支子而爲後。於是焉官斜私契。明證攷據。然後廼得告君。重造命也。世之士夫熟習見聞。率蹈謬規。正適無男。則雖多衆妾之子。反爲門戶之私計。割情忍愛。杜撰告君之文。取嗣支族。不擇遠近。噫。父傳子繼。血脉相承。祖祀孫將。氣類以感。今也徒拘適庶之分。或有遠取乎族。系旣踈之後。以奉其先靈。此正古人所謂所不知何人耳。9. 挾甒灌鬯。夫何怳惚之有乎。焄蒿凄愴。夫何精氣之交乎。詩云。明發不寐。有懷二人。二人者。父母之謂也。故曰。致愛則存。致愨則著。君子之祭也。然而舍其親而求諸踈。以祭其先人。夫何僾然著存之有乎。逆天理畔人情。以禮則遠祖。以法則罔君。臣甞痛恨於此也。夫名分之論勝。而習俗難變。門庭之內。區限之法。殆同外人。甚者至於父兄。而奴虜其子弟。宗族恥於爲類。或有黜於族派之譜者。或有別其排行之名者。此但歸重於外黨。而不知反輕乎本宗。則此於倫常。不其太刻而少恩乎。先正臣趙光祖建白于 朝曰。本朝人物。少於中國。而又有分別適

(translation)

연암집권3의청소통소6

庶之法。夫人臣願忠之心。豈有間於適庶。而用舍偏隘。臣竊痛惜。請於庶孽中擇才而用之。貴顯之後。或有亂分之罪。嚴立科律。及 宣廟時申濆等一千六百人。上章籲寃。 上下敎曰。葵藿向陽。不擇旁枝。人臣願忠。豈必正適。於是先正臣李珥首建通用之議。始得赴擧。先正臣成渾,先正臣趙憲。連上封事。各請其通融淸要。 10. 仁廟時故相臣崔鳴吉爲副提學。與舘僚沈之源,金南重,李省身應 旨聯章。請通用庶孽。其言甚切。故相臣張維亦上䟽啓論。 上下其議。於是故相臣金尙容爲吏曹判書回啓曰。天之生才。無間適庶。而禁錮之法。所未有於古今也。玉堂箚陳。可見公議。欲爲痛革宿弊。應 旨切言。請議大臣定奪。事下備局。故相臣李元翼,尹昉等議曰。卑薄庶孽。天下萬古所無之法。儒臣箚陳大有所見。故相臣吳允謙議曰。禁錮庶孽。古今天下所未有之法。朝廷用賢收才而已矣。貴顯之後。名分紊亂。則邦憲固嚴。非可慮也。戶曹判書沈悅,順興君金慶徵,工曹判書鄭岦,判决事沈諿,同知鄭斗源,護軍權帖立異。都承旨鄭蘊陳䟽立異。先正臣宋時烈甞擬䟽引鄭道傳。猶爲大提學。葢防限之法。出於中世。請一切䟽通。䟽未果上。而載尤菴集中。且先正臣朴世采啓曰。庶孽之中。雖有奇才異等。無以進用。請大加通變。願 上勿滯於流俗。勿拘於常規。自見必然之理。11. 斷而行之。故知事臣金壽弘䟽請通用。事竟不行。故判書臣李袤爲大司憲。上䟽通用庶孽。都承旨臣金徽郤之䟽未上。其後故相臣崔錫鼎爲吏曹判書上䟽。請通用庶孽。然議久不行者。何也。噫。專門濟私之計。深則膠守名分之論。通塞與奪之權。重則反諉 祖宗之法。忍情棄恩而蔑重本。舍親取䟽而故欺君。襲謬成俗。而不知斁倫。銖稱縷度而莫恤遺才。名分之說。臣已辨之悉矣。請於更張舊制之論。復得而極言之。夫法久則弊。事窮則通。故時當遵守而遵守者。廼繼述也。時當通變而通變者。亦

(translation)

연암집권3의청소통소7

繼述也。固執更張。惟其時宜。則其義一也。詩云。天生烝民。莫非爾極。書曰。惟精惟一。允執厥中。夫極者。理之盡也。中者。義之當也。洪範曰。無偏無陂。王道平平。此之謂也。况且禁錮之法。稽之往古而無其法。攷諸禮律而無所據。初出於一人之售憾。而本非開 國之定制。百年之後。 宣廟始許赴擧。及 仁祖。又許三曹。由是觀之。 列朝更張變通之 聖意。斷可知矣。嗟乎。生爲庶孽。爲世大僇。禁錮顯要。而踈逖於 朝廷。遷就名謂。而迫隘於家庭。長幼亂於庠塾。朋友絶於鄕黨。踪跡臲卼。身世踽凉。如負大何。則人賤之。窮無所歸。靡所措躬。或遯跡而自靖。離群而尙志。則謂之驕傲。或脅肩而取憐。屈膝而苟容。則謂之鄙佞。12. 噫。非天之降才爾殊也。此特培養殊方。趨向異路耳。孟子曰。苟得其養。無物不長。苟失其養。無物不消。特不培養而作成之庸。何責乎無人於其間哉。或承嫡傳而不刊庶名。雖遠年代而永爲賤屬。實同奴婢之律。支屬繁衍幾至半國。而旣無歸宿。又無恒產。黃馘枯項。苶然罷弊。貧窮到骨。莫能振刷。嗚呼。昔之伊尹一夫不得其所。若己推而納之溝中。今之庶孽失所顚連者。豈獨一夫而已哉。抑塞旣久。寃鬱彌亘。干和召沴。未必非此爲致之也。恭惟我 殿下軆天莅物。 聖功巍煥。率域含生。莫不得所。各得樂其生而安其業。振淹起廢。克恢蕩平之政。刮垢掩瑕。率囿陶匀之化。宿弊闕典。靡不釐擧。而獨於通融庶孽之法。未有著政。噫。今臣此言。非臣愚一人之私言。迺一國有識之公言。非一國今日之公言。迺列朝以來先正名臣之所眷眷者也。其立異者。臣旣歷數而陳之。葢其術識粗淺。規模隘塞。膠乎見聞。徒循流俗。其所執言者。不過嚴名分難更張而已。當今之世。主張偏私。好生厓異者。未必無此等。而皆引名臣鄭蘊之一䟽。以爲口實。夫蘊之精忠大節。可與日月爭光。則臣未敢知此䟽卽何所激。而葢其旨義。亦不過名分 國制兩事而已。噫。遐方之

(translation)

연암집권3의청소통소8

人不知來歷。而猶能文通兩司。武歷閫帥。不問其世閥。無所拘礙。而今此庶孽。近則迺祖迺父。俱是公卿大夫。遠則名儒賢輔。爲厥祖先。比諸遐方之人。來歷甚明。而禁廢之法。甚於釁累。等殺之分。嚴於僕隷。豈不寃哉。臣非以爲目今庶孽之中有某賢可用某材可拔。而但 朝廷一視之恩。與天同德。大造之化。與物無間。洗濯磨礪。復叙旣斁之倫彛。作成培養。復收久遺之才賢。使立後之法無違大典。宗本之義。悉返古禮。家庭之內。正父子之名。庠塾之間。叙長幼之齒。復得爲人於三百年積廢之後。則人人咸思自新。飭厲名行。願忠圖報。爭死 國家之不暇矣。今日王政之大者。無過於此 大聖人壽考作人之功云云。

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Translation

(sample) : Jaeyoon Song


  • Discussion Questions:


Student 1 : (Ren, Ruixin)


云云天之降才。非爾殊也。故顚蘖騈枝。均霑雨露。朽株糞土。蒸出菌芝。聖人致治。士無貴賤。 The heaven bestow talent on everything equally. As a result, the leaves on the top of the tree and paralleled branches get same amount of rain and dew, rotten trunk and dirt could be the breeding ground of glossy ganoderma. Sages keep the country politically stable, and there is neither lowliness nor nobleness between ministers.

詩云文王壽考。遐不作人。是以王國克寧。駿聲不已。 诗经 says: king文王 lived a long life, his appointments of the elite were quiet appropriate. Therefore, the kingdom was able to reach at a peaceful status. The good reputation of the king lasts for a long time.

嗚呼。國朝廢錮庶孽三百餘年矣。爲大敝政無過於此。稽之往古而無其法。攷諸禮律而無所據。則此不過國初宵小之臣。乘機售憾。遽成大防。而後來當途之人。託論名高。襲謬成俗。年代浸遠。因循不革矣。 Alas, our country has banned 庶孽 for over 300 years. No maladministration can be worse than this. If we look back to the ancient times, there are precedents of this action. If we check with the law and discipline rite, there aren't any bases of this action too. This is just some hypocrites乘機售憾 and finally became a major discrimination. After that, people who are in power託論名高,and this misconduct was inherited as a custom, never ever abolished. 由是而公朝專尙門閥。缺 遺才之歎。私家 缺 嚴 缺。爲斁倫之端。以之立後於支族。則率犯欺君之科。歸重於外黨。則反輕宗本之義。噫嘻等威 缺 殊。而無益於 國軆。區限太刻。而少恩於家庭。夫自家之庶孽。則誠足卑矣。非可絀於擧世一門之名分。則固當嚴矣。非可論於通朝耳。然而膠守名分之論。則枳塞轉深。諉以 祖宗之制。則更張猝難。玩愒至今。因循而不革者何也。於古則無稽。於禮則無攷。而爲有國大痼深弊。則先正名臣深識治道者。莫不以此爲先恢張公理。必欲疏通。 筵陳箚論。前後相望。 列聖建中治軆。蕩蕩設官。須賢分職。惟能一軆均 缺。豈復差於 缺 哉。故未甞不 臨朝博詢。䀌然矜惜。思所以通變疏滌之道。只緣士族權重。議論在下。淸途華貫。固所已有。則猶恐歧路多旁。權衡有分。同是世胄。


  • Discussion Questions:

Student 2 : Ze, Xiaoyi


同是世胄。銖秤縷度。一經政注。羞怒橫集。彈軋蜂起。况乃庶孽名膠跡泥。久屈於世。 不肯等列。固其勢也。雖然。此實專門濟私之。大非有國共公之通道也。 臣請極言其失也。Because of this, descendants from same clans were evaluated closely, once their political positions had been decided, there would be shames and anger arising (among them) due to the fact that illegitimate offsprings’(secondary sons') fame and achievements had been tarnished, leading to their omission from society. Even though this means of bestowing official titles particularly satisfies individual interests, it does not serve public interests. I appeal to present all its mistakes.

夫庶孽之與正嫡。誠有差等。而顧其家世。亦一士族。固何負於 國家。而禁錮之廢絶之 缺。不得齒衿紳之列哉。孟子曰。無君子莫治野人。無野人莫養君子。夫君子野人。以位言也。而明明揚側陋。帝堯之官人也。立賢無方。成湯之求治也。繇是觀之。三代之時。已有君子小人之別。而擧人之際。固無間乎貴賤。不問其彙類。Generally speaking, there indeed are differences between people who was born by a concubine and who was born by a legal wife. However, considering the fact that they belong to the same family, how can they disappoint their country, and thus be banned and abolished, not even ranked as a petty official. Mencius says, if there are no virtuous men, barbarians can not be controlled; if there are no barbarians, virtuous men can not be nurtured. Virtuous men and barbarians were usually distinguished by their ranks. It was the custom that officials of Emperor Yao followed to promote the poor, while spreading great virtues. There were no accurate/clear means to select officials based on Cheng Tang (King of Shang)’s ruling strategies. Since the Xia-Shang-Zhou period, there were distinctions between virtuous men and base people; however, there were no hierarchies among civil examination graduates. No one cared about individual’s affiliations.

而况國朝所謂庶孽。世有簪纓。門閥燀赫。則寧可以母族之卑微。混蔑其本宗之華顯也哉。晉唐以來。漸尙閥閱。然而江左衣冠。不擯陶侃王謝。貴族亦齒周顗蘇𨘀。乃蘇瓌之 缺 產。而位至平章。李愬乃李晟之孽子。而官至太尉。韓琦范仲淹。爲宋賢相。胡寅陳瓘鄒浩。爲世名儒。當世不以庶孽錮禁者何也。誠以論人門閥者。只重其父世。不問其母族。其不重母族者何也。重本宗也。Moreover, secondary sons of yangban in our state usually connected to next generations, (due to…) how can we merely define a person’s rank based on the inferiority of his mother’s family clan, and thus neglect the prosperousness of his original clan. Since the Jin and Tang dynasties, even though meritorious families gradually became more influential, the officials of 江左 did not oppose 陶侃, the noble clans of 王謝 regarded 周顗 as their colleagues. 蘇𨘀 was the secondary son of 蘇瓌, but he achieved the position of director (?). 李愬 was the illegitimate child of李晟, but he obtained the position of grand commandant. Both韓琦 and 范仲淹 were wise chief ministers of the Song dynasty, 胡寅, 陳瓘 and 鄒浩 were famous Confucian scholars. Why secondary sons were not abandoned during that time? In fact, when people talked about clans, they only emphasized (paid attention to) fathers’ clans and did not ask mothers’ clans. The reason they did not care much about mothers’ clans was that they emphasized their original clans.

  • Discussion Questions:

Student 3 : Hu Jing


夫然則母族雖顯。父世甚微。則其不可以華閥著稱。亦且明矣。勝國之時。鄭文培爲禮部尙書。李世璜爲閤門祇侯。權仲和以大司憲。亦入我朝爲都評議使。若以我朝之法律之。則陶周之賢。將不廁衣冠。蘇李之才。將不得將相。

Even though one's mother is from a prestige family, as his father has a very low status, we cannot say he is from a prominent clan. This is also crystal clear. In the previous dynasty (Goryeo), Jung Moonbae(鄭文培) was appointed the Minister of Rituals; Lee Sehwang(李世璜) 1took the position of audience usher; and Kwon Junghwa(權仲和)2 was designated as Great Keeper of the Fundamental Laws, who was appointed Executive Office of the Department of State Affairs after the transition to our dynasty. Should we follow the laws of the contemporary dynasty, sages like Tao Kan(陶侃)3 and Zhou Yi(周𫖮)4would not have been respected [placed] as the reputed. Talent people such as Su Wu(蘇武) 5and Li Ling(李陵) 6 would not have taken the positions in the bureaucratic system.

韓琦范仲淹胡寅陳鄒之徒。擧將抑塞禁廢。文而芸舘。蔭而典獄。位不離流品。祿不過升斗。而功業志節。將不得赫然當世。流光於百代耶。此臣所謂稽之往古而無其法者也。

People like Han Qi(韓琦)7, Fan Zhongyan(范仲淹)8, Hu Yin(胡寅)9 , Chen Guan(陈瓘)10 and Zou Hao(鄒浩)11 would have been eliminated with regard to recommending officials. (For example,) in terms of civil officials, they cannot surpass officials at the office of Editorial Review; as to the hereditary positions 12, they are only able to be a jailor. Their positions cannot get rid of lower ranks 13 and the salary is very slender. Their achievements, merits, ambition and moral principle would not neither impress the current generation nor be glorified by later generations. This is why I say there are no precedents if we trace back througout the ancient times.

經曰。庶子不得爲長子三年。鄭玄註曰。庶子者。爲父後者之弟也。言庶者。遠別之也。夫庶子雖與缺(?)。而其截然別而遠之者。如此其嚴。至於妾子之賤。爲尤卑於庶子。而更無所區別於庶子何也。禮所以序也。故宗無二本。殺無再降也。

In accordance with the classic (liji 禮記),it says that secondary sons are not allowed the three years’ mourning clothes for primary sons. Zheng Xuan(鄭玄)14 comments that the secondary sons are the brothers of those who are the legitimate successors of their father. Seo “庶” means distance. Even secondary sons are instinctively inferior, but the current discrimination and distance (from the primary sons) are too strict. As to the sons of concubines with lower status, their social status are even more secondary sons. However, why people do not discriminate them? It is because liji regulates the order. Therefore, the legitimate lineage cannot be divided into two branches, and there is no concession in terms of gradation.

記曰。父母有若庶子庶孫甚愛之。沒身敬之不衰。陳澔註曰。賤者之所生也。夫父母之所愛。雖妾之子猶尙引而重之。不敢疏略而外之者。亦所以重本而尊宗也。會典曰。凡襲職替職。無適子孫。則庶長子襲替。庶長子。妾子之謂也。夫禮所以別嫌疑也。故正名而定分。則雖同母之適弟。尙且別而遠之也。

In liji, it says that since secondary sons and secondary grandsons had been favored by their parents, they would not decrease any respect for their parents even after they passed away. Chen Hao(陳澔) comments that parents (always) favor those who were given birth by the lowborn. Although secondary sons were given birth by concubines, they are still well guided and valued (by the parents). That people do not dare to ignore and alienate them is because they appreciate their root and respect the ancestors. The Code of Great Ming Dynasty (大明會典) says that in terms of the hereditary institute, the eldest secondary son will inherit the position in case of the people do not have primary sons or grandsons. The eldest secondary son refers to the sons of concubines. Generally, the function rituals are to discriminate things clearly when there is confusion. That is why it regulates names and clarifies duties. Even though two peoples were given birth by the same mother, their status are differentiated.

1 Jung Moonbae(鄭文培) and Lee Sehwang(李世璜) were two prominent officials in Goryeo dynasty, whose biographies were recorded in 《규사》(葵史).

2 Kwon Junghwa(權仲和, 1322∼1408) was a civil official and medical doctor during the late Goryeo and the early Joseon period.

3Tao Kan (Chinese: 陶侃; pinyin: Táo Kǎn) (259–334), courtesy name Shixing (士行), formally Duke Huan of Changsha (長沙桓公), was a renowned Jin Dynasty (265-420) general and governor. He was the great-grandfather of the Jin Dynasty poet Tao Yuanming.

4周𫖮(269年-322年),字伯仁,汝南安城(今河南省汝南县东南)人,西晋安东将军周浚之子,西晋及东晋官员。

5Su Wu(蘇武) (140 BC - 60 BC) was a Chinese diplomat and statesman of the Han Dynasty. He is known in Chinese history for making the best of his mission into foreign territory.

6 Li Ling(李陵) (? ~ 74 BC), courtesy name Shaoqing (少卿), was a Han Dynasty general, who served under the reign of Emperor Wu (汉武帝) and later defected to the Xiongnu after being defeated in an expedition in 99 BC.

7韩琦(1008年-1075年),字稚圭,自号赣叟。相州安阳(今属河南)人,北宋大臣。南宋北伐统帅韩侂胄曾祖。北宋真宗大中祥符元年生,出身世宦之家,父韩国华累官至右谏议大夫。韩琦3岁父母去世,由诸兄扶养

8范仲淹(989年10月1日[1]-1052年6月19日),字希文,谥文正,好弹琴,尤其《履霜》一曲,人称范履霜。北宋政治家、文学家、军事家、教育家。隔年(990年)父亲武宁节度使范墉不幸逝世,母亲谢氏带着范仲淹将范墉灵柩安葬于苏州老家天平山范氏祖茔后,暂住附近的咒钵庵内,想守丧三年。但因苏州范氏家族不接纳范仲淹母子,弃之不管,孤儿寡母,贫而无依。家贫无奈之下,谢氏改嫁给了时任苏州推官的朱文翰。

9胡寅(1098年-1156年),字明仲,建宁崇安(今武夷山市)人。生于宋哲宗元符元年(1098年),因家中多子养不起被父母遗弃,祖母吴氏将他送给堂叔胡安国收养。

10陈瓘,字子玉,春秋时代齐国的大夫田乞的儿子,田恒的庶兄。

11邹浩(1060—1111),字志完,著《道乡集》四十卷,《四库总目》传于世。

12음서(蔭敍) 또는 음서제(蔭敍制)는 고려와 조선 시대에 중신 및 양반의 신분을 우대하여 친족 및 처족을 과거와 같은 선발 기준이 아닌 출신을 고려하여 관리로 사용하는 제도이다. 음보(蔭補), 문음(門蔭), 음사(蔭仕), 음직(蔭職)이라고도 표기하며, 음덕(蔭德)으로 표현하기도 한다.

13유품(流品), 고려·조선시대 정1품에서 종9품까지 18품계를 통틀어 이르던 말. 고려에서는 유품, 즉 품계로서 7품 이하를 참외관(參外官) 또는 참하관(參下官)이라 했고, 6품 이상을 참내관(參內官) 또는 참상관(參上官)·참관(參官)이라 하였는데, 예외로 5·6품인 참외관이 있었다.

14 Zheng Xuan (127–200), courtesy name Kangcheng (康成), was an influential Chinese commentator[1] and Confucian scholar near the end of the Han Dynasty.


  • Discussion Questions:

Student 4 : Martin


夫禮所以厚也。故重其本支。則雖妾之賤子。尙且引而內之也。律之所以襲替父職。不以適庶爲拘者。良以此也。周官周公之定官制也。漢之百官表所以分庶品也。禁錮庶孽之文。不少槪見焉。此臣所謂攷諸禮律而無所據者也。臣甞聞之古傳。錮廢庶孽。葢亦有由 缺。相鄭道傳庶孽子也。右代言徐選爲道傳寵奴所辱。思所以報仇者。及道傳敗。選乃傅會名分之論。逞快一辱於旣死之後。非爲其言之必立。其法之必行也。方是時。道傳以罪新誅。所以其言易售而其法易成也。贊成姜希孟安瑋等。草創大典。文理未遑。

Generally, rituals are used all-embracingly. That is why the branches of the family are important. Even though one is the son of a concubine, he still can lead and be included in them.

The laws for inheriting the father’s positions do not restrict main or secondary sons; this is because it is a good practice. The Offices of Zhou (周官, also known as the Rites of Zhou) details the system of officials established by the Duke of Zhou (周公, acted as regent during the Zhou dynasty and his generally viewed as meritious ruler). The Table of Occupants of High State Offices (百官公卿表, a table in the Book of Han showing the process of official appointment in the Han) in the Book of Han (漢書, the official history of the former Han dynasty by Ban Gu) distinguishes the different positions. Then within them, we should be able to find quite a lot texts that prohibit or obstruct secondary sons! According to my, your servant’s, examination of the various rites and laws, there is nothing to base this on.

Your servant has heard, that since old the obstruction and ignorance toward secondary sons has its origin in a [missing] [# some versions of the text identify the missing characters as: 國初罪, meaning misconduct from the beginning of the dynasty.] Chancellor Jeong Dojeon (鄭道傳, Chŏng Tojŏn, 1342-1398) was the descendant of a secondary son. Once Counselor Seo Seon (徐選, Sŏ Sŏn, 1367-1433) was humiliated by a slave Jeong favored, and thought how he could get revenge, and even of ways to topple Jeong. For this Seo used discussions of social status (名分) as a pretext and was only satisfied after Jeongs death.

If this story would not have happened, this law would have been executed anyway. But when it was promulgated, Jeong Dojeon was just executed for his crimes. Therefore this story easily spread and this law was easily put in effect and so it was endorsed by Gang Huimaeng (姜希孟, Kang Hŭimaeng, 1424-1483) and An Wi (安瑋, 1491-1563), who when they first drafted the Great Code of Administration (經國大典) took this provisions without deliberation.


  • Discussion Questions:

Student 5 : Inho Choi


4. 夫禮所以厚也。故重其本支。則雖妾之賤子。尙且引而內之也。律之所以襲替父職。不以適庶爲拘者。良以此也。周官周公之定官制也。漢之百官表所以分庶品也。禁錮庶孽之文。不少槪見焉。此臣所謂攷諸禮律而無所據者也。臣甞聞之古傳。錮廢庶孽。葢亦有由 缺。相鄭道傳庶孽子也。右代言徐選爲道傳寵奴所辱。思所以報仇者。及道傳敗。選乃傅會名分之論。逞快一辱於旣死之後。非爲其言之必立。其法之必行也。方是時。道傳以罪新誅。所以其言易售而其法易成也。贊成姜希孟安瑋等。草創大典。文理未遑。

5.(My own numbering..) 庶孽停科錮仕之論。條列撰入。及戊午之禍。士流積怨於子光。無所發憤。禁錮庶孽之論。益嚴且深。其所洩怒。誠亦悲矣。雖然。自古亂賊。豈專出於子光者流哉。不幸一出於庶孽之中。而因一子光盡塞庶孽。則若不幸而接跡於士族。亦將何法而處之耶。嗚呼。儒宗文師。磊落相望。一轉而局於名分之論。再轉而屈於門地之尙。宋翼弼,李仲虎,金謹恭之道學。朴枝華,李大純,曺伸之行誼。魚無迹,魚叔權,楊士彥,李達,辛喜季,梁大樸,朴淲之文章。柳祖認,崔命龍,柳時蕃之才諝。

As to depriving the bastards of the qualification for civil examination blocking their path to the employment, the list of clauses are inserted in the writing(what writing?). When it comes to the tragedy of the year of Muo, the literati(how do we translate 士?) accumulated resentment toward Ryu Jagwang and had no recourse for relieving its anger. It became more severe and deeper. that with which they relieved their anger was also truly sad(probably referring to the policy toward the bastards). However, how could the traitors only be from the likes of Ryu Jagwang since ancient times? Unfortunately, one such traitor appeared from those who are sons of concubines, and due to this one Jagwang, the path of the bastards are completely blocked. If the would be traitor unfortunately steps into the likes of the families of literati(Does 士族 implies kinship relations?), by what law in the future would one deal with this? Ah! the holder of Confucian heritage and the literary master succeed each other with abundance. Upon pivoting once, one bends on one's separate doctrine. Upon pivoting twice, one is carried away by that which one's pedigree lineage esteems. The Way Leaning of Songikpil(Songikp'il), Ijungho, and Gimgeungong(Kimgŭn'gong), Enacting Righteousness of Bak Jihwa(Pak Chihwa), I Daesun and JoSin(Cho Shin), the Letter of Eo Mujeok(Ŏ mujŏk), Eo Sukgwon(ŏ sukkwŏn), Yang Saeon(yang saŏn), I Dal, Sin Huigye(shin hŭigye), Yang Daebak, and Bakpyo(pak p'yo), and the Brilliance of Ryu join Choe Myeongnyong(ch'oe myŏngnyong), and Ryu Sibeon(ryu shibŏn). ....

  • Discussion Questions:

Student 6 : (Write your name)


  • Discussion Questions:


Student 7 : King Kwong Wong


  • Translations:

今之庶孽。郞署猶不得爲。侍從安敢望乎。雖有願忠之心。補袞非職。雖抱經綸之才。展布無地。引儀臚傳。暫序 朝班。而卒同輿儓。該署輪對。或襯 耿光。而不免疎逖。進不敢爲大夫之事。退不忍爲齊民之業。所謂國之孤臣。家之孽子。疹疾而心危者也。禮曰。入學以齒。以齒者。尙年也。傳曰。燕毛。所以序齒也。毛者。髮之黑白也。今之庶孽入太學。則不得序齒。黃髮鮐背者居下。勝冠者反坐上座。夫太學所以明人倫也。故自天子之元子衆子。以至諸侯之世子。尙得齒學。所以示悌於天下也。天子視學於辟雍。有乞言饗食之禮。所以廣孝於天下也。由是觀之。庶孽之不得序齒於太學。非先王廣孝悌之道也。傳曰。以文會友。以友輔仁。孟子曰。友也者。友其德也。故不挾長。不挾貴。不挾兄弟而友。貴賤雖殊。有德則可師也。年齒不齊。輔仁則可友也。况乃庶孽。固皆士族之子弟耳。
Nowadays secondary sons are not allowed to become even a 郞署 (official title?), how can they dare to expect becoming a 侍從 (official title)? Although they have a desire of being loyal, they do have the duty to admonish the ruler. Although they hold the talent of statesmanship, they have no grounds to exercise and display it. Leading the ceremony and transmitting the royal order, they rank temporarily in the official order and eventually become the same as lower ranking servants. Preparing the signature of documents and in turn asking the king about politics, sometimes serving as a foil, they are unavoidably estranged and become idle. On one hand, they dare not to handle the affairs of ministers; on the other, they cannot endure undertaking the professions of commoners. This is the so-called the solitary minister of a state and the secondary son of a family. who has diseases that endanger his heart. The Book of Rites says,"Entering the school according to their teeth." According to their teeth means according to their age. The Mean says, "At the concluding feast, places were given according to their hairs, by doing so one can put them into order according to their teeth." According to their hairs means according to the blackness and whiteness of their hairs. The current entrance requirement to the Grand Academy does not put applicants in the order of their teeth. Those who have yellow hairs and black spots on their back are ranked below; those who just received their cap, on the contrary, sit at the top. In principle, the Grand Academy is used to make clear of human relations. Therefore, from the firstborn and the other sons of the Son of Heaven to the firstborn of all feudal lords, all still have to enter school according to their teeth. By doing so it demonstrates the brotherly respect to all under Heaven. The Son of Heaven shows his knowledge at Piyong [the highest educational institution during the Zhou period], where he has the rite of requesting counsels and feast. By doing so he spreads filial piety to all under Heaven. From this it is observed that the fact that the secondary sons are not allowed to admit into the Grand Academy is not former kings' way of spreading filial piety and brotherly respect. The Analects says, "Using culture to meet friends, using friendship to supplement benevolence." Mencius says, "Friendship means befriending one's virtue." Therefore, "Do not befriend one base on seniority, social status, nor familial relationship." Although there is a difference between highborn and lowborn, if there is virtue then one can learn from each other. People's years and teeth are not the same, but supplementing benevolence one can befriend each other. Let alone secondary sons who are all originally sons of literati clans.

  • Discussion Questions:

Student 8 : Younès M'Ghari


  • Translations:

其無才美賢能則已。若其諒直多聞。才德賢我。則顧安可以庶孽恥之哉。然而庶孽之於士族。相交而不得友。相親而不得齒。無忠告責善之道。絶琢磨切偲之義。言辭之間。禮數太苛。揖讓之際。謗讟橫生。由是論之。倫常之中。不絶而僅存者。惟夫婦一事耳。嗚乎。才賢遺而莫之恤。倫常斁而莫之救。曰庶孽無才賢。亦曰如此而後名分正。是豈理也哉。

[If] they do not have either talent, grace, wisdom, capability, it is fine. [Yet] if they expect true and plurial knowledge, then they have to develop talent and virtue on their own. Therefore 틀:Couldn 틀:Gu'an be ashamed from being as a secondary son? That being the case, if secondary sons enter the literati class, they will exchange but do not gain friendship, they will be initimate but not gain 틀:Seniority. They do not have the way of heartfelt advices and mutual learning of the virtuous. They have no way out to the righteousness of polishing their style and get more talentuous. As for the moments of expressing [oneself], the different grades of courtesy are extremely severe. As for the circumstances of courteous behaving3, slanders happen unexpectedly. For this reason we discuss about it. In the proper relationships, what does not die and remains is only a one thing4 of the husband and the wife. Alas! The anxiety of having talent, wisdom and 틀:Transmitting5 but not being anyone, the deliverance of the proper relationship and the immoral. It is said that secondary sons do not have talent and wisdom. It is also said, that since they are so, their status is correct. How can this be logic?


夫無子而立後者。所以繼祖而傳重也。昔石駘仲無適子有庶子六人。卜所以爲後者。祁子兆是擇賢也。唐律諸立嫡違法者。徒一年。議者曰。適妻之長子爲適子。婦人年五十以上。不復乳育。則許立庶子爲適。不立長者律亦如之。是防亂本也。大明律凡立適子違法者杖。適妻年五十以上無子者。得立庶長子。不立長者同罪。經國大典適妾俱無子。然後取同宗之支子而爲後。 於是焉官斜私契。明證攷據。然後廼得告君。重造命也。世之士夫熟習見聞。率蹈謬規。正適無男。則雖多衆妾之子。反爲門戶之私計。割情忍愛。杜撰告君之文。取嗣支族。不擇遠近。噫。父傳子繼。血脉相承。祖祀孫將。氣類以感。今也徒拘適庶之分。或有遠取乎族。系旣踈之後。以奉其先靈。此正古人所謂所不知何人耳。

Those who do not have a son, adopt one; by this mean they have a succession and {{transmit [their legacy] to their grandson}}. In the past, Shi Daizhong6 did not have a proper son but did have six secondary sons. The one he chose that way as [his] descendant was the worthy Qi Zizhao7。Various persons designating [this as being] illlegal according to the Tang law came during one year. It was commented as: "The first son of the proper wife is a proper son. [But] if a married woman exceeds fifty years old, she will not give birth again. Thereby, transmitting [his heritage] to an adopted is proper [in this case]." 틀:The one that was not adopted as primary son followed the law. This way, it prevented the sources of trouble. The Great Ming Code8 required that all the adopted sons that were illegal be flogged. A proper wife exceeded fifty years old and did not have a son should adopt a primary son. If it was not an adopted primary son, it was the same crime. As for the Gyeongguk Daejeon9, if the proper wife has no son, then one should find an affiliated son from the same [proper] lineage and [make him] succeed [to the father]. Thereupon, this ___


1 庶孽: sons of concubines; they are considered illegitimate during the Yi dynasty.

2 顧安 틀:(pinyin: Gù'ān; 1289-1365): a famed Chinese painter of the Yuan Dynasty.

3 揖讓: when a host or a guest invites the other to enter or sit somewhere first.

4 一事: "the one thing" can be understood as "their progeniture".

5 遺: that is, having successors as a father.

6 石駘仲 (pinyin: Shí Dàizhòng): one of the kings of the Wei (卫, pinyin: Wèi) during China's Spring and Autumn Period (770-476/403 BCE).

7 祁子兆 (pinyin: Qí Zǐzhào).

8 大明律 (pinyin: Dà Míng Lǜ): the Great Ming Code was written between 1368 and 1584 and served as a reference book of law for ruling the empire.

9 經國大典 (MR: Kyôngguk Taejôn): a complete code of law promulgated in 1485 that includes every law, acts, customs, ordinances released since the late Goryeo Dynasty to the early Joseon Dynasty.


  • Discussion Questions:

Student 9 : (Mengheng)


  • translations:

9. 挾甒灌鬯。夫何怳惚之有乎。焄蒿凄愴。夫何精氣之交乎。 詩云。明發不寐。有懷二人。 二人者。父母之謂也。故曰。致愛則存。致愨則著。 君子之祭也。然而舍其親而求諸踈。以祭其先人。夫何僾然著存 之有乎。逆天理畔人情。以禮則遠祖。以法則罔君。臣甞痛恨於此也。夫名分之論勝。而習俗難變。門庭之內。區限之法。殆同外人。甚者至於父兄。而奴虜其子弟。宗族恥於爲類。或有黜於族派之譜者。或有別其排行之名者。此但歸重於外黨。而不知反輕乎本宗。則此於倫常。不其太刻而少恩乎。

When serving liquors to conduct a ritual of ancestor worship, how could they feel like communicating with ancestors? When conducting a ritual of ancestor worship that generates the smell of sacrifices, how they make the essence of the living interact with that of the dead? The Book of Songs said: “Before the day to do the worship, a man could not sleep because he thinks of the two.” The two refers to his parents. Therefore, people said: “If the man really loves his parents, he will treat them as they were alive; if the man sincerely treats his parents, he will treat them as they were quite noticeable.” This is the worship done by Junzi. However, instead of choosing the one who has close blood relation, people select the one who has the far blood relation to conduct the ancestor worship. How could they feel as if their ancestors were noticeably alive? This disobeys the rule set by the Heaven. Ritually, (if doing in this way) it alienates ancestors; legally, it deceives sovereigns. Your subject always strongly hates it. Generally, the discourse on the moral obligation is dominant, so the custom is hard to be changed. Within a family, this principle of dividing and limiting that applies to their members is generally similar to the one that applies to non-members. What’s more exaggerated is that, as to father and older brothers, they enslave and imprison their sons and younger brothers. As to the members of a clan, they are ashamed to be a group with those people. Some are erased from the genealogy of a branch of a clan; others are separately named among the generation. Those people (who like to do this) merely pay respect to the secondary line of the clan; rather, they ignore the primary line of the clan. If so, wouldn’t it be morally too harsh and less generous?

先正臣趙光祖建白于 朝曰。本朝人物。少於中國。而又有分別適庶之法。夫人臣願忠之心。豈有間於適庶。而用舍偏隘。臣竊痛惜。請於庶孽中擇才而用之。貴顯之後。或有亂分之罪。嚴立科律。及 宣廟時 申濆等一千六百人。上章籲寃。 上下敎曰。葵藿向陽。不擇旁枝。人臣願忠。豈必正適。於是先正臣李珥首建通用之議。始得赴擧。先正臣成渾,先正臣趙憲。連上封事。各請其通融淸要。


The former righteous minister Jo Gwangjo proposed in the court: “The notables in our court is not as many as that in the Chinese court. Also, there is a legal discrimination toward illegitimate sons. Generally, should there be the difference between legitimate and illegitimate sons in terms of people’s and ministers’ mind of demonstrating loyalty? Offering governmental positions based on bias is the thing I deeply feel sorry for. Please choose the merited ones among the illegitimate sons. Since some descendants of celebrities and nobles who may not comply with their obligations, it is necessary to legalize regulations on them.” When it came up to the period under King Seonjo’s reign, 1600 people, including Sin Bun, submitted memorials to the king to file an appeal for this discriminated system. The king then gave his royal instruction: “sunflowers and the flowers and leaves of winged beans tend to grow toward the direction where the sun is, and among them there is no differentiation between the main and secondary branches. If people and ministers want to express their loyalty to kings, how could there be a differentiation between legitimate and illegitimate son?” For this reason, the former righteous minister Yi I first suggested the proposal of offering governmental positions to both legitimate and illegitimate sons. Illegitimate sons then first time had the chance to take the civil service examination. The former righteous minister Sung Hoon and Jo Heon all submitted memorials to kings to ask for allowing illegitimate sons to be assigned to high positions in the government.

  • Footnotes:

《禮記正義》: 『「焄蒿淒愴,此百物之精也」者,焄,謂香臭也,言百物之氣,或香或臭。蒿,謂烝出貌,言此香臭烝而上,出其氣蒿然也。「淒愴」者,謂此等之氣,人聞之情有淒有愴。「百物之精也」者,人氣揚於上為昭明,百物之精氣為焄蒿淒愴,人與百物共同,但情識為多,故特謂之「神」。此經論人,亦因人神言百物也。「神之著也」者,人氣發揚於上為昭明,是人神之顯著。』、『「眾生必死,死必歸土,此之謂鬼。骨肉斃於下,陰為野土」』、 『正義曰:此一經明鬼神之事。「眾生必死」者,言物之眾賓而生必皆有死。「死必歸土」者,言萬物死者皆歸於土。此一經因而言物,實是本說人也。「此之謂鬼」者,鬼,歸也,此歸土之形,故謂之鬼也。「骨肉斃於下,陰為野土」者,此覆說歸土之義也。言死,骨肉斃敗於地下,依陰於地為野澤土壤。謂在田野,故稱為「野土」。俗本「陰」作「蔭」字也。』、『其氣發揚於上,為昭明,焄蒿淒愴,此百物之精也,神之著也。焄,謂香臭也。蒿,謂氣烝出貌也。上言眾生,此言百物,明其與人同也,不如人貴爾。』、『《詩》云:「明發不寐,有懷二人。」文王之《詩》也。祭之明日,明發不寐,饗而致之,又從而思之。祭之日,樂與哀半,饗之必樂,已至必哀。」明發不寐,謂夜至旦也。祭之明日,謂繹日也。言繹之夜不寐也,二人,謂父、母,容屍侑也。』、『「致愛則存」者,謂孝子致極愛親之心,則若親之存,以嗜欲不忘於親故也。「致愨則著」者,謂孝子致其端愨敬親之心,則若親之顯著,以色不忘於目、聲不忘於耳故也。「著、存不忘乎心」者,言如親之存在,恆想見之,不忘於心。既思念如此,何得不敬乎!』、『正義曰:此一經明祭之日孝子想念其親入室 僾然必有見乎其位者謂祭之 日朝初入廟室時也初入室陰厭時孝子當想象僾僾髣髣見也詩云愛而不見見如見親之在神位也故論語云祭如在』

  • Discussion Questions:

Student 10 : (Write your name)


  • Discussion Questions:


Student 11 : Lee Goeun


  • Translation:

斷而行之。故知事臣金壽弘䟽請通用。事竟不行。

"I beg you to make a decision." Kim Suhong金壽弘, the deceased Second Deputy Director of the Royal House Administration 知事 submitted a memorial to ask appointment of secondary sons, which never happened.

故判書臣李袤爲大司憲。上䟽通用庶孽。都承旨臣金徽郤之䟽未上。

Yi Mu李袤, the deceased 判書 [also] submitted a memorial asking for secondary sons' employment when he was Inspector-General大司憲. [Nonetheless,] Kim Hui, the First Royal Seceretary都承旨 declined this memorial not to be submitted.

其後故相臣崔錫鼎爲吏曹判書上䟽。請通用庶孽。然議久不行者。何也。

After then, Choe Seokjeong崔錫鼎, the deceased 相臣 submitted a memorial to employ secondary sons when he was in the post of Minister of Personnel 吏曹判書. Such discussions continued for a long time, but they were never carried out. How can this be so?

噫。專門濟私之計。深則膠守名分之論。通塞與奪之權。重則反諉祖宗之法。

Alas, [this is] all but schemes [of those who care] only for their family and private gains. The further these schemes develop, the more they become obsessed with social reputation and justification. As for the authority of those who can block or manipulate someone's employment, the heavier it becomes, the further they go against the founders' regulations.

忍情棄恩而蔑重本。舍親取䟽而故欺君。

This is to restrain human nature and to desert kindness; instead, the original heredity is being ignored. They deceive their king by abandoning direct lineage and adopting distant relatives.

襲謬成俗。而不知斁倫。銖稱縷度而莫恤遺才。

Their adherence to false customs has resulted in vulgarization; yet they do not realize that the order is being destroyed.


  • Discussion Questions:

Student 12 : Sanghoon Na


12

噫。非天之降才爾殊也。

Alas, It is not owing to any difference of their natural powers conferred by Heaven that they are thus different.1)

1) This is quoted from "Mencius." See Mencius 6A:7; Legge 1960, 2:404.


此特培養殊方。趨向異路耳。

This is only because of the different method of cultivating them and the different path that leads them.


孟子曰。苟得其養。無物不長。苟失其養。無物不消。

Mencius said, “If it receives its proper nourishment, there is nothing which will not grow. If it loses its proper nourishment, there is nothing which will not decay away.” 2)

2) See Mencius 6A:8; Legge 1960, 2:409.


特不培養而作成之庸。何責乎無人於其間哉。

Without the provision of proper nourishment and complete cultivation, how could we judge them and conclude that there is no good person among them?


或承嫡傳而不刊庶名。

Although a person succeeds to his father as a legitimate son, a stigma attached to his name as an illegitimate son is not removed.


雖遠年代而永爲賤屬。實同奴婢之律。

Even after many generations, he belongs to the lowly status forever. In fact, it is the same as the Slave Act.


  • Discussion Questions:

Student 13 : (Write your name)


  • Discussion Questions:


Student 14 : (Write your name)


  • Discussion Questions: