Draft Three Kingdoms Period

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Title Three Kingdoms Period (1C BCE - 7C CE)
Author Lyndsey Twining
Record History of the Three Kingdoms, Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms
Concept Samhan Confederacy (Mahan, Jinhan, Byeonhan), Buyeo, Okjeo, Dongye, Tang China, Buddhism,



1차 원고

The Three Kingdom’s period refers to the time between the 1st century BCE until the 7th Century CE on the Korean peninsula and extending into Manchuria (in present-day China and Russia). At the beginning of this period, the southern part of the peninsula was occupied by tens of local city-states organized into three confederacies: Mahan (southwest), Jinhan (southeast), and Byeonhan (mid-south), collectively referred to as the Samhan (lit. “three han”). Meanwhile, in the northern part of the peninsula and extending into Manchuria were various kingdoms, including Buyeo (far north), Okjeo (far northeast), Dongye (mid-east), and Goguryeo (north). By the 4th century CE, as local city-states consolidated power in each region, Mahan, Jinhan, and Byeonhan would develop into the kingdoms of Baekje, Silla and Gaya, respectively, while northern kingdoms were consolidated by Goguryeo. It was around this time that Buddhism was introduced to the peninsula, becoming the official religion of the kingdoms. By the end of the 5th century, Goguryeo extended far into Manchuria and left only the southern-most regions of the peninsula to Baekje, Gaya, and Silla. In the mid-6th century, Silla fully conquered Gaya and made territorial gains at the expense of Goguryeo. After further territorial struggles between Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla (the three kingdoms from which the period gets its name) from the late 6th until the mid-7th century, Silla was able to weaken Baekje and Goguryeo through an alliance with Tang China and consolidated the southern two-thirds of the peninsula into what is known as Unified Silla in 676. Information on these periods can be found in the History of the Three Kingdoms[1] and Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms[2], from the 12th and 13th centuries, respectively. The origins of modern cultural differences between the southwest and southeast regions of the peninsula date back to this period.

검토 의견 및 수정본

  1. “6세기 중엽에 신라는 가야를 정복하고, 고구려가 차지하고 있던 영토를 획득하였다.”→ “고구려가 차지하고 있던 한강 유역의 영토를”
  2. “오늘날 한반도 남서부와 남동부 지역의 문화적 차이는 이 시대에 기원을 두고 있다.”근거가 없음. 한반도 남서부와 남동부 지역의 문화는 근본적으로 다르지 않다. 또 그것을 삼국시대까지 소급하는 것은 바른 인식이 아니다. 두 지역의 차이는 방언 정도의 차이가 있을 뿐, 삼국시대까지 거슬러 올릴 일이 아니다.

The Three Kingdom’s period refers to the time between the 1st century BCE until the 7th Century CE on the Korean peninsula and extending into Manchuria (in present-day China and Russia). At the beginning of this period, the southern part of the peninsula was occupied by tens of local city-states organized into three confederacies: Mahan (southwest), Jinhan (southeast), and Byeonhan (mid-south), collectively referred to as the Samhan (lit. “three han”). Meanwhile, in the northern part of the peninsula and extending into Manchuria were various kingdoms, including Buyeo (far north), Okjeo (far northeast), Dongye (mid-east), and Goguryeo (north). By the 4th century CE, as local city-states consolidated power in each region, Mahan, Jinhan, and Byeonhan would develop into the kingdoms of Baekje, Silla and Gaya, respectively, while northern kingdoms were consolidated by Goguryeo. It was around this time that Buddhism was introduced to the peninsula, becoming the official religion of the kingdoms. By the end of the 5th century, Goguryeo extended far into Manchuria and left only the southern-most regions of the peninsula to Baekje, Gaya, and Silla. In the mid-6th century, Silla fully conquered Gaya and made territorial gains in the Hangang River basin at the expense of Goguryeo. After further territorial struggles between Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla (the three kingdoms from which the period gets its name) from the late 6th until the mid-7th century, Silla was able to weaken Baekje and Goguryeo through an alliance with Tang China and consolidated the southern two-thirds of the peninsula into what is known as Unified Silla in 676. Information on these periods can be found in the History of the Three Kingdoms[3] and Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms[4], from the 12th and 13th centuries, respectively.


Related Topics

Worksheet

Maps of the Three Kingdom's Period

Cultural Heritages from the Three Kingdom's Period

UNESCO Baekje Historical Areas National Treasure Pensive Bodhisattva from 6th-7th Century Silla UNESCO Gyeongju Historic Areas UNESCO Complex of Koguryo Tombs (in North Korea)

Resources

  • Center for International Affairs, Korea in the World, Academy of Korean Studies, 2015, p.7.

Three separate kingdoms fought for supremacy on the peninsula from the 1st century BC until the 7th century AD. Goguryeo in the north, Baekje in the southwest, and Silla in 676 AD. A long period of peace followed under Silla until the early 10th century when it became weak and was forced to submit to the new Kingdom of Goryeo in 935 AD. Remarkable developments took place in the arts and sciences during the unified Silla period, especially in the areas of Buddhism, architecture, astronomy, agriculture and literature.


References

  1. Samguk sagi
  2. Samguk yusa
  3. Samguk sagi
  4. Samguk yusa