Draft Silla

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Title Silla (57 BCE - 935 CE)
Author Lyndsey Twining
Actor Bak Hyeokgeose, Gyeongju Kim clan, Queen Seondeok
Place Gyeongju, Bulguksa Temple, Seokguram Grotto, Silla tombs
Concept bone-rank system, hwarang, Buddhism, Jinhan Confederacy, Baekje, Goguryeo, Gaya, Balhae, Goryeo, Tang China
Object Silla gold crowns



1차 원고

Silla was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, together with Baekje and Goguryeo. It began as a small city-state/chiefdom within the Jinhan Confederacy around what is present-day Gyeongju, in the southeast of the Korean peninsula. It was founded by Bak Hyeokgeose but was ruled by the Gyeongju Kim clan for most of its history. As the city-state consolidated regional power, it grew into a kingdom, overtaking the Jinhan Confederacy by the 4th century CE. It began as the smallest and last developed of the three kingdoms, however it gained power and eventually overtook the other kingdoms. In 532, Silla overtook the neighboring Gaya Confederacy, gaining territory. And through an alliance with Tang China, it overtook Baekje and Goguryeo in 660 and 668, respectively. Silla after this point is referred to as Unified Silla, having unified three-fourths of the Korean peninsula, with Balhae in the north. Amidst civil war in the early 10th century, Silla fragmented and was eventually succeeded by Goryeo.

Located furthest from China among the Three Kingdoms, Silla developed unique systems of governance. Among these is the bone-rank system, in which only certain individuals could hold positions of power based on heredity. In this system, matrilineal lines were also of importance, with royal women exerting great influence on state affairs. Silla even had three queens, one of whom, Queen Seondeok (? – 647), is well known for her strong leadership. Another unique feature of Silla aristocracy was the hwarang, a group of elite young men who were trained in martial arts, culture, and Buddhism. Although Buddhism was introduced to Silla later than the other Three Kingdoms, it quickly became the official religion and the basis of governance, leading to the prolific production of many Buddhist heritages, including Bulguksa Temple and Seokguram Grotto. Many Silla heritages around Silla’s capital, Gyeongju, have been registered as UNESCO World Heritages. In addition, many Silla royal tombs were well preserved, and heritages from these tombs including gold crowns have been excavated.

검토 의견 및 수정본

  1. “경주 주변에서” → “경주 일대에서” * 신라는 경주 주변 국가가 아니라 경주 일대에 있던 국가였음.
    1. 작가 의견 - 'around Gyeongju'는 '경주 일대'라는 뜻인데 원어민 아니라서 영문 뉴양스 오해한 것 같음. 그래도 다른 표현으로 수정하겠음.
  2. “통치는 대대로 주로 경주 김씨 일족에 의해 이루어졌다.” → “통치는 경주의 주도 세력이었던 김씨, 석씨, 박씨의 엽합으로 이루어지고, 그들 일족이 번갈아 가며 왕위에 올랐다.”
  3. “진한을 복속시켰다.” → “진한의 여러 소국들을 복속시켰다.” * 진한은 나라가 아니고 연맹 지역임.
  4. “660년과 668년에 각각 백제와 신라를 복속시킨다. → “660년과 668년에 각각 백제와 고구려를 멸망시키고 그 영토를 차지하였다.” * 백제와 고구려는 신라에 복속하지 않았음.
  5. “세습을 통해 권력 자리에 오를 수 있었다.” → “출생 신분에 따라 진출할 수 있는 관료의 등급을 제한해 두고 있었다.” * 골품제는 아버지의 관직을 그대로 세습하는 것이 아님.
  6. “왕실 여성은 국정에 큰 영향력을 행사” → “왕실 여성은 왕위계승과 정치에 큰 영향력을 행사” * 신라 왕실의 모계는 왕위계승에 중요한 요소였지만, 여왕 아닌 여성이 국정에 큰 영향을 끼친 경우는 많지 않음.
  7. “불교는 ..... 곧바로 국교로 공인되며” → “불교는 ..... 우여곡절 끝에 국교로 공인되며”

Silla was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, together with Baekje and Goguryeo. It began as a small city-state/chiefdom within the Jinhan Confederacy in the present-day Gyeongju area, in the southeast of the Korean peninsula. It was founded by Bak Hyeokgeose and was ruled by powerful local families, including the Kim, Seok, and Bak clans, who each had a turn at ruling as the Silla royal family. As the city-state consolidated regional power, it grew into a kingdom, overtaking statelets of the Jinhan Confederacy by the 4th century CE. It began as the smallest and last developed of the three kingdoms, however it gained power and eventually overtook the other kingdoms. In 532, Silla overtook the neighboring Gaya Confederacy, gaining territory. In an alliance with Tang China, it caused the downfall of Baekje and Goguryeo in 660 and 668, respectively, and took control of the defeated territories. Silla after this point is referred to as Unified Silla, having unified three-fourths of the Korean peninsula, with Balhae in the north. Amidst civil war in the early 10th century, Silla fragmented and was eventually succeeded by Goryeo.

Located furthest from China among the Three Kingdoms, Silla developed unique systems of governance. Among these is the bone-rank system, in which the class into which one was born came with limits as to what level of bureaucratic position one could hold. In this system, matrilineal lines were also of importance, and there are cases of royal women exerting great political influence. Silla even had three queens, one of whom, Queen Seondeok (? – 647), is well known for her strong leadership. Another unique feature of Silla aristocracy was the hwarang, a group of elite young men who were trained in martial arts, culture, and Buddhism. AlthoughBuddhism was introduced to Silla later than the other Three Kingdoms, it eventually became the official religion and the basis of governance after many twists and turns. This lead to the prolific production of many Buddhist heritages, including Bulguksa Temple and Seokguram Grotto. Many Silla heritages around Silla’s capital, Gyeongju, have been registered as UNESCO World Heritages. In addition, many Silla royal tombs were well preserved, and heritages from these tombs including gold crowns have been excavated.


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Worksheet

Korean Culture and Information Service, Facts about Korea, Korean Culture and Information Service, 2009, p.27-28.

Silla (57 B.C.-A.D. 935) was located in the southeast corner of the peninsula and was initially the weakest and most underdeveloped of the three kingdoms. However, because it was geographically removed from Chinese influence, it was more open to non-Chinese practices and ideas. Its society was built on an advanced Buddhist order that was markedly class-oriented, including a military that featured a unique corps of young aristocratic warriors called Hwarang.

By the mid-sixth century, the Silla Kingdom had brought under its control all of the neighboring town-states within the Gaya Confederation.

Having forged an alliance with the Tang Dynasty of China, Silla was able to subjugate Baekje in 660 and Goguryeo in 668. The unification of the Korean Peninsula was officially completed with Silla's defeat of the Tang Dynasty in 676.

Silla reached its zenith in terms of power and prosperity during the mid-eighth century. It attempted to establish an ideal Buddhist country. It was during the Unified Silla period that the magnificent Bulguksa Temple was constructed.

References