Draft Korean Empire

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Title Korean Empire (1897-1910)
Author Lyndsey Twining
Actor King Gojong, Heungseon Daewongun, Queen Min, Christian missionaries
Place Gyeongbokgung Palace, Russian Legation, Deoksugung Palace
Event Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876, Donghak Peasant Rebellion, Gabo Reforms, Treaty of Shimonoseki, Sino-Japanese War, Gwangmu Reforms, Japan-Korea Treaty of 1905, National Debt Repayment Movement, Hague Peace Conference, Annexation Treaty of 1910
Concept Donghak, Independence Club, Cheondoyo, Opening of the Ports, Western Education, Joseon, Qing China, Japan
Object Independence Gate



1차 원고

The Korean Empire was proclaimed in October 1897 by King Gojong, upgrading the Joseon Dynasty from a kingdom to empire. The Empire lasted until 1910, when it was forcibly and illegally annexed by Japan.

Leading up to the declaration of the Empire, Joseon experienced a series of internal and external influences affecting society and politics. In 1863, when King Cheoljong died with no heirs, the young son of a distant descendant of a previous king was selected to be the next king. This boy was King Gojong. Too young to rule, his father, Heungseon Daewongun, took charge of the country until 1873. Policies were initiated by the Daewongun which angered various sectors of society, including the increase of taxes for the rebuilding of palace buildings and the suppression of private Confucian academies. He was also extremely isolationist. However, through the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876, Joseon was forced by Japan through gunboat diplomacy to open its ports. Beginning in 1894, followers of the Donghak (“Eastern Learning”) movement and peasants aggravated by corrupt laws initiated the Donghak Peasant Rebellion, a series of uprisings throughout the country. These in turn led to the Gabo Reforms, plans set to address the concerns of the peasants and modernize Korea. In 1895, as a result of the Treaty of Shimonoseki made in the aftermath of the Sino-Japanese War, Joseon officially become independent of China, to which Joseon had been a tribute state since its foundation. Some saw this as a new freedom for Joseon, and erected the Independence Gate where a tributary gate had once stood. However, it only allowed for further meddling by Japan. In 1895, the Japanese assassinated Queen Min (known posthumously as Empress Myeongseong) in Gyeongbokgung Palace, following which King Gojong and Heungseon Daewongun sought refuge in the nearby Russian Legation for a year until 1897. During this time, a group called the Independence Club was formed, which advocated strengthened Korean independence and encouraged various reforms and public discussion. In 1897, King Gojong relocated to Deoksugung Palace and declared the Korean Empire.

Following the declaration of the Korean Empire, a series of reforms called the Gwangmu Reforms were put in place to Westernize Korea, including the abolishment of social status rankings, adoption of Western uniform, and development of modern infrastructure and education. During this time, schools and hospitals established by Christian missionaries also flourished. However, in 1905, Imperial Japan forced Korea to become its protectorate via an illegal treaty. Japanese troops surrounded the palace, and when King Gojong refused to sign the treaty, Japan instead accepted the signatures of Korean cabinet members at threat of death. This treaty stripped Korea of its sovereignty and gave control of Korea's ports to Japan. Gojong sent appeals to various international heads of state and sent emissaries to Hague Peace Conference in 1907, but these appeals were ignored largely due to the fact that international powers had already agreed to support Japan’s annexation of Korea. In 1907, Gojong was replaced by his son, Sunjong, who was considered a puppet emperor. In 1910, Korea was fully annexed to Japan in another illegal treaty, which Sunjong refused to sign. It was instead signed by the pro-Japanese prime minister. This event marked the end of a 608-year dynasty and the beginning of 35 years of colonial rule.

검토 의견

  1. “이전 왕의 먼 후손의 어린 아들이 승계자로 선택되었다. 그 소년이 바로 고종이었다. ” → “이전 왕의 먼 친척 소년이 승계자로 선택되었다.”
  2. “대원군은 과감하게 정치를 개혁하고 쇄국정치를 시행하였으나, 궁궐의 중건을 위한 증세나 사설 서원 철폐와 같은 대원군이 주도한(삭제) 정책은 사회 각계의 분노를 불러일으켰다.”
  3. “또한 그는 철저한 쇄국주의자였다. 그러나 1876년의 한일조약을 체결하며 조선은 항구를 개방하라는 일본의 포함 외교에 굴복할 수밖에 없었다.” → “그는 10년 후 왕비 일파와의 권력 투쟁에서 실패하여 실각하고, 새 정부는 1876년의 일본의 강요로 한일조약을 체결하며 조선은 항구를 개방하고, 사양 여러 나라에고 문호를 개방하였다.”
  4. “그 여파로 갑오개혁, 즉 ” → “ 그 여파로 청나라 군대와 일본 군대가 조선에 들어와 전쟁을 벌이게 되었고(청일전쟁), 일본의 간섭에 의한 갑오개혁이 시행되어”
  5. “민비를 시해하기에” → “명성왕후를 시해하기에”
  6. “고종과 흥선대원군은 근처의 러시아 공사관으로 피신하여” → “고종은 근처의 러시아 공사관으로 피신하여” * 대원군 삭제.
  7. “서양식 개혁이 시행되었다.” → “근대적 개혁이 시행되었다.”
  8. “1907년에 고종의 양위를 받고 아들 고종이 꼭두각시 황제의 자리에 올랐다.” → “1907년에 고종의 아들 순종이 양위를 받고 꼭두각시 황제의 자리에 올랐다.”

수정 원고

The Korean Empire was proclaimed in October 1897 by King Gojong, upgrading the Joseon Dynasty from a kingdom to empire. The Empire lasted until 1910, when it was forcibly and illegally annexed by Japan.

Leading up to the declaration of the Empire, Joseon experienced a series of internal and external influences affecting society and politics. In 1863, when King Cheoljong died with no heirs, a young, distant descendant was selected to be the next king. This boy was King Gojong. Too young to rule, his father, Heungseon Daewongun, took charge of the country until 1873. Policies were initiated by the Daewongun which angered various sectors of society, including the increase of taxes for the rebuilding of palace buildings and the suppression of private Confucian academies. A decade later he failed in a fight for power with the faction of Gojong's wife, Queen Min, and was forced out of politics. The new government submitted to the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876, when Joseon was forced by Japan through gunboat diplomacy to open its ports, and the door to Western culture was opened. Beginning in 1894, followers of the Donghak (“Eastern Learning”) movement and peasants aggravated by corrupt laws initiated the Donghak Peasant Rebellion, a series of uprisings throughout the country. This internal conflict was used as justification for Qing China and Japan to send troops to the Korean peninsula to wage the Sino-Japanese War. Through Japan's subsequent interference, plans to address the concerns of the peasants and modernize Korea called the Gabo Reforms were implemented. In 1895, as a result of the Treaty of Shimonoseki made in the aftermath of the Sino-Japanese War, Joseon officially become independent of China, to which Joseon had been a tribute state since its foundation. Some saw this as a new freedom for Joseon, and erected the Independence Gate where a tributary gate had once stood. However, it only allowed for further meddling by Japan. In 1895, the Japanese assassinated Queen Min (known posthumously as Empress Myeongseong) in Gyeongbokgung Palace, following which King Gojong sought refuge in the nearby Russian Legation for a year until 1897. During this time, a group called the Independence Club was formed, which advocated strengthened Korean independence and encouraged various reforms and public discussion. In 1897, King Gojong relocated to Deoksugung Palace and declared the Korean Empire.

Following the declaration of the Korean Empire, a series of reforms called the Gwangmu Reforms were put in place to modernize Korea, including the abolishment of social status rankings, adoption of Western uniform, and development of modern infrastructure and education. During this time, schools and hospitals established by Christian missionaries also flourished. However, in 1905, Imperial Japan forced Korea to become its protectorate via an illegal treaty. Japanese troops surrounded the palace, and when King Gojong refused to sign the treaty, Japan instead accepted the signatures of Korean cabinet members at threat of death. This treaty stripped Korea of its sovereignty and gave control of Korea's ports to Japan. Gojong sent appeals to various international heads of state and sent emissaries to Hague Peace Conference in 1907, but these appeals were ignored largely due to the fact that international powers had already agreed to support Japan’s annexation of Korea. In 1907, Gojong was replaced by his son, Sunjong, who was considered a puppet emperor. In 1910, Korea was fully annexed to Japan in another illegal treaty, which Sunjong refused to sign. It was instead signed by the pro-Japanese prime minister. This event marked the end of a 608-year dynasty and the beginning of 35 years of colonial rule.

Glossary


Media

Further Reading

Editor's Worksheet

Issues to Resolve

  • The dates of Gojong's ascension to the throne - 음력은 1963, 양력은 1964? Which to use?

Media Content to Produce

  • Ganghwa
  • Gyeongbokgung Palace, Deoksugung Palace, Russian Legation
  • Donghak Peasant Rebellion

Examples

References