Draft Joseon

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Title Joseon (1392-1897)
Author Lyndsey Twining
Actor Yi Seonggye, King Sejong, Yi Sun-sin, King Gojong, Queen Min
Place Hanyang (present-day Seoul, South Korea)
Event Imjin War, Manchu Invasions, Donghak Peasant Movement, Assassination of Queen Min
Record Hunminjeongeum,
Concept Neo-Confucianism, yangban, nobi, civil service exam, Donghak, Pansori, Goryeo, Ming China, Japan, Manchu, Qing China, Korean Empire



1차 원고

The Joseon Dynasty was founded in 1392 and lasted for five centuries. Its founder, Yi Seong-gye, later known as King Taejo, was a successful military commander of Goryeo who overtook and renamed the dynasty, which had fallen into decline due to invasions and questions of legitimacy. As king, he moved the capital to Hanyang, a part of present-day Seoul, building a city wall and multiple palaces. Joseon’s fourth king, Sejong, patronized innovations in the areas of science, music, and literacy, most famously ordering the creation of a phonetic alphabet for the Korean language which facilitated the promulgation of Confucian doctrines and practical knowledge to commoners. In the late 15th and mid-16th centuries, Joseon underwent multiple literati purges and factionalism. In 1592, and again in 1597, Joseon was invaded by Japan in what is referred to as the Imjin War. It was during this invasion that Admiral Yi Sun-sin “led a series of brilliant naval maneuvers against the Japanese, deploying turtle ships, which are believed to be the world's first ironclad battleships.” The invasion was ultimately unsuccessful, with the Japanese finally retreating in 1598, however extensive destruction and theft of important documents, artwork, and architecture, as well as loss of life and starvation, was damaging to the country. In the following century, in 1627 and 1637, Joseon was also invaded by the Manchus.

"In the latter half of the Joseon era, government administration and the upper classes came to be marked by recurring factionalism. To rectify the undesirable political situation, King Yeongjo (r. 1724-1776) eventually adopted a policy of impartiality. He was thus able to strengthen the royal authority and achieve political stability. King Jeongjo (r. 1776-1800) maintained the policy of impartiality and set up a royal library (Gyujanggak) to preserve royal documents and records. He also initiated other political and cultural reforms. This period witnessed the blossoming of Silhak. A number of outstanding scholars wrote progressive works recommending agricultural and industrial reforms, but few of their ideas were adopted by the government.”

In the late 19th century, isolationist Joseon experienced international pressures from the West and Japan to open its ports, with Japan forcing an unfair treaty in 1876. In the 1890s, Joseon experienced internal conflict, such as the Donghak Peasant Movement (1894), while also experiencing further pressure from Japan, culminating in Japan’s assassination of Queen Min. It was amidst this strife that King Gojong sought to strengthen the dynasty by renaming it into the Korean Empire in 1897, but its forced annexation in 1910 by the Japanese brought the dynasty to an end.

Joseon was founded on Neo-Confucian principles, and the practice of Buddhism, along with shamanism, was officially discouraged, although still widely practiced. The central government consisted of the state counsel, six ministries, royal secretariat, and three censorates. One had to pass the civil service exam to be qualified to work in the government. Korean society was highly stratified, with the royal family, the aristocratic yangban class, the jungin middle class, the commoner sangin class, and the cheonmin and slave classes. There was some room for social mobility, especially though the civil service exam which was open to all men, though economic barriers made this difficult. There was a clear division of the sexes which was magnified the higher up on the social ladder one went. Women were restricted to the household realm with the exception of court ladies or female entertainers. Inheritance was based on male primogeniture. Both the aristocracy and commoners enjoyed music and dance, though the styles differed greatly, with aristocratic music being refined, slow, and often based on lyrical poetry, and folk music, such as farming music, pansori, and mask dances, being rough, lively, and often satirical. Painting and pottery also flourished.

Joseon had a tributary relationship with Ming China and Qing China.

검토 의견

  1. “500년 동안 지속되었다.” → “517년/약 500년 동안 지속되었다.”
  2. “오늘날 서울의 일부인 한양” → “오늘날 서울의 중심인 한양”
  3. “궁궐을 지었다.” → “궁궐과 관청을 지었다.”
  4. “과학, 음악, 교양 교육 등 각 분야에서” → “법제, 세법, 과학, 음악, 교육, 농업 등 각 분야에서”
  5. “표음 문자를 창제하도록 명한 데 있다” → “표음 문자 한글(Korean Alphabet system)을 스스로 창제한 데 있다"
  6. "다시 조선은 일본의 침략을 받았다" → "두 차례에 걸쳐 조선은 일본의 침략을 받았다"
  7. “다음 세기에 들어 1627년과 1637년에 다시 조선은 만주족의 침략을 받게 된다. ” → “1627년과 1637년에 다시 조선은 만주족이 세운 청나라의 침략을 받게 된다. 강화 협상의 결과 조선은 명나라와 단교하고, 청나라와 새롭게 사대관계(종속적인 외교관계)를 맺게 되었다”
  8. “규장각을 설치하여 왕실 문헌과 기록과 보존하도록 하였다” →→ “규장각을 설치하여 왕실 문헌을 보존하고 정치 문화적 개혁을 선도하게 하였다”
  9. “그는 다른 정치적 문화적 개혁도 시행하였다” → “그는 사회적 개혁을 시행하고 서울의 남쪽에 수원성을 신축하여 수도를 옮길 준비를 하였으나 갑작스런 죽음으로 이루지 못했다.”
  10. “실학이란 꽃이 활짝 피었다.” → “실학이란 새로운 경향의 실용적이고 민족주의적인 학문 경향이 성행하였다.”
  11. “민비 시해 사건” → “명성왕후 시해 사건”
    1. 작가 맨트 - 그 당시에 왕후가 아니었기 때문에 이것이 틀린다.
  12. “대한제국으로 개칭함으로써” → “대한제국으로 개칭하고, 개혁정치를 시행함으로써”
  13. “정부에서 일하려면 과거 시험에 합격해야 하였다.” → “정부에서 중요 직책을 맡고 고관으로 승진하려면 과거 시험에 합격해야 하였다.”
  14. “신분이 높을수록 남녀 성별에 따른 구분을 확연하게 두었다.” → “남녀의 성별에 따른 차별이 심하여 여성은 정치, 경제, 교육, 문화 활동에 참여하지 못했다.”
    1. 박가 멘트 - 여성들이 문화활동을 대부분 못 했지만 아예 참여하지 못한 것이 아니고 대왕대비는 정치적 영향이 큰 경우도 있었다.
  15. “상속은 장자 상속제에 따랐다.” → “상속은 장자 상속을 원칙으로 하여 신분과 제사권 등을 세습하였지만, 재산의 상속은 자녀들 자매 간에 공평하게 하였다.
  16. “조선은 명나라 및 청나라와 조공 관계에 있었다.” → “조선은 명나라 및 청나라와 동아시아의 전통적인 조공-책봉 관계를 맺고 우호적인 외교 관계를 유지하면서 장기간에 걸쳐 중국과 평화를 유지할 수 있었다. 일본이나 유구, 여진 등과는 교린 정책으로 평화를 도모하였다.”

수정 원고

The Joseon Dynasty was founded in 1392 and lasted for over five centuries. Its founder, Yi Seong-gye, later known as King Taejo, was a successful military commander of Goryeo who overtook and renamed the dynasty, which had fallen into decline due to invasions and questions of legitimacy. As king, he moved the capital to Hanyang, the center of present-day Seoul, building a city wall, multiple palaces, and government offices. Joseon’s fourth king, Sejong, patronized innovations in the areas of law, taxes, science, music, education, and agriculture, most famously ordering the creation of a phonetic alphabet for the Korean language which facilitated the promulgation of Confucian doctrines and practical knowledge to commoners. In the late 15th and mid-16th centuries, Joseon underwent multiple literati purges and factionalism. In 1592, and again in 1597, Joseon was invaded by Japan in what is referred to as the Imjin War. It was during this invasion that Admiral Yi Sun-sin “led a series of brilliant naval maneuvers against the Japanese, deploying turtle ships, which are believed to be the world's first ironclad battleships.” The invasion was ultimately unsuccessful, with the Japanese finally retreating in 1598, however extensive destruction and theft of important documents, artwork, and architecture, as well as loss of life and starvation, was damaging to the country. In the following century, in 1627 and 1637, Joseon was also invaded by the Manchu Qing dynasty.

"In the latter half of the Joseon era, government administration and the upper classes came to be marked by recurring factionalism. To rectify the undesirable political situation, King Yeongjo (r. 1724-1776) eventually adopted a policy of impartiality. He was thus able to strengthen the royal authority and achieve political stability. King Jeongjo (r. 1776-1800) maintained the policy of impartiality and set up a royal library (Gyujanggak) to preserve royal documents and pursue political and cultural reforms. This period witnessed the blossoming of Silhak, a new trend of practical and ethnic-oriented academic study. A number of outstanding scholars wrote progressive works recommending agricultural and industrial reforms, but few of their ideas were adopted by the government.”

In the late 19th century, isolationist Joseon experienced international pressures from the West and Japan to open its ports, with Japan forcing an unfair treaty in 1876. In the 1890s, Joseon experienced internal conflict, such as the Donghak Peasant Movement (1894), while also experiencing further pressure from Japan, culminating in Japan’s assassination of Queen Min. It was amidst this strife that King Gojong sought to strengthen the dynasty by renaming it into the Korean Empire in 1897 and initiating reforms, but its forced annexation in 1910 by the Japanese brought the dynasty to an end.

Joseon was founded on Neo-Confucian principles, and the practice of Buddhism, along with shamanism, was officially discouraged, although still widely practiced. The central government consisted of the state counsel, six ministries, royal secretariat, and three censorates. One had to pass the civil service exam to be qualified to hold important government positions and be promoted. Korean society was highly stratified, with the royal family, the aristocratic yangban class, the jungin middle class, the commoner sangin class, and the cheonmin and slave classes. There was some room for social mobility, especially though the civil service exam which was open to all men, though economic barriers made this difficult. There was a clear division of the sexes which was magnified the higher up on the social ladder one went. Women were restricted to the household realm with the exception of court ladies or female entertainers. Inheritance was based on male primogeniture and . Both the aristocracy and commoners enjoyed music and dance, though the styles differed greatly, with aristocratic music being refined, slow, and often based on lyrical poetry, and folk music, such as farming music, pansori, and mask dances, being rough, lively, and often satirical. Painting and pottery also flourished.

Glossary

  • People
    • Yi Seonggye (founder of Joseon)
    • King Sejong (fourth king of Joseon, known for his remarkable advancements in science, music, and the creation of the Korean alphabet, hangeul)
    • Yi Sun-sin (famous admiral who defended Korea in the Imjin War)
    • King Gojong (the king who changed Joseon into the Korean Empire)
  • Places
    • Hanyang (capital of Joseon; present-day Seoul, South Korea)
  • Concepts
    • Neo-Confucianism (the official state belief system)
    • Buddhism (unofficial, but widely practiced religion)
    • shamanism (unofficial, but widely practiced religion)
    • yangban (the literati class)
    • nobi (the slave/serf class)
    • Donghak (a native religion that emerged in the 19th century as a response to the influx of Western thought)
  • Objects
    • Hunminjeongeum (the declaration of the Korean alphabet, hangeul)
    • Pansori (an epic folk song that became popular at the end of the dynasty)
  • Related States
    • Goryeo (precursor state)
    • Ming China (was a vassal of Ming China)
    • Japan (invaded Korea, annexed Korea in 1910 ending the Joseon dynasty)
    • Manchu (invaded Korea twice in the 17th century)
    • Qing China (was a vassal of Qing China)
    • The Korean Empire (Joseon was turned into an empire at the end of the dynasty)

Further Reading

TBD

Editor's Worksheet

Issues to Resolve

  • What kinds of historical events from Imjin War to Gojong should be discussed?
  • Is the detail of Joseon society appropriate?
  • What kinds of cultural heritages to talk about?

Media Content to Produce

  • Territory
  • Yi Sun-sin Battle
  • Imjin War
  • Manchu Invasions
  • Donghak Peasant Movement
  • Hanyang

Examples

  • Center for International Affairs, Korea in the World, Academy of Korean Studies, 2015, p.10.

The Joseon Dynasty came to power in 1392 and ruled the peninsula for more than 500 years. The dynasty was based on the principles of Confucianism. It was during this period that the Korean alphabet, Hangeul, was invented.

  • Korean Culture and Information Service, Facts about Korea, Korean Culture and Information Service, 2009, p.29.

In 1392, General Yi Seong-gye established a new dynasty called Joseon. The early rulers of Joseon, in order to counter the dominant Buddhist influence during the Goryeo period, supported Confucianism as the guiding philosophy of the kingdom.

The Joseon rulers governed the dynasty with a well-balanced political system. A civil service examination system was the main channel for recruiting government officials. The examinations served as the backbone for social mobility and intellectual activity during the period. The Confucian-oriented society, however, highly valued academic learning while disdaining commerce and manufacturing.

During the reign of King Sejong the Great (1418-1450), Joseon's fourth monarch, Korea enjoyed an unprecedented flowering of culture and art. Under King Sejong's guidance, scholars at the royal academy created the Korean alphabet Hangeul. It was then called Hunminjeongeum, or "proper phonetic system to educate the people."

King Sejong's interest in astronomical science was comprehensive. Sundials, water clocks, celestial globes and astronomical maps were produced at his request.

As part of efforts to establish the ruling structure of Joseon, King Sejo (r. 1455-1468) put in place a legal system, and initiated the compilation of the Gyeongguk daejeon (National Code). The ruling structure of the Joseon Dynasty was officially established with the subsequent completion of the Gyeongguk daejeon during the reign of King Seongjong (r. 1469-1494).

In 1592, Japan invaded the peninsula to pave the way for its incursion into China. At sea, Admiral Yi Sun-sin (1545-1598), one of the most respected figures in Korean history, led a series of brilliant naval maneuvers against the Japanese, deploying the geobukseon (turtle ships), which are believed to be the world's first ironclad battleships.

From the early 17th century, a movement advocating Silhak, practical learning, gained considerable momentum among liberal-minded scholar-officials as a means of building a modern nation. They strongly recommended agricultural and industrial improvements along with sweeping reforms in land distribution. the conservative government aristocrats, however, were not ready to accommodate such drastic change.

In the latter half of the Joseon era, government administration and the upper classes came to be marked by recurring factionalism. To rectify the undesirable political situation, King Yeongjo (r. 1724-1776) eventually adopted a policy of impartiality. He was thus able to strengthen the royal authority and achieve political stability.

King Jeongjo (r. 1776-1800) maintained the policy of impartiality and set up a royal library (Gyujanggak) to preserve royal documents and records. He also initiated other political and cultural reforms, This period witnessed the blossoming of Silhak. A number of outstanding scholars wrote progressive works recommending agricultural and industrial reforms, but few of their ideas were adopted by the government.

참고 자료

References