Draft Balhae

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Title Balhae (698 - 926 CE)
Author Lyndsey Twining
Actor Dae Jo-yeong (King Go)
Place Northern Korean peninsula, Manchuria, Tianmenling
Event Dae Jo-yeong's defeat of Tang China at Tianmenling
Concept Mohe, Malgal, North-South States period, Goguryeo, Silla, Tang China

Balhae was a state in the northern Korean peninsula and Manchuria, which existed concurrently with Silla kingdom to the south. This period is therefore referred to by historians as the North-South States period. Balhae was first established under the name Jin by Goguryeo general Dae Jo-yeong (King Go) after his defeat of Tang China at Tianmenling. It was renamed Balhae in 762. Its government was modeled after Tang China and its culture was rooted in Goguryeo.

There is controversy surrounding Balhae, namely about the ethnicity of its founder and the of the people that lived within its territories. It was considered a successor state to the Korean state of Goguryeo, however there were many Mohe and Malgal people living in the area as well. While Dae Jo-yeong was certainly a Goguryeo person, records do not state whether he was ethnically Korean or Mohe. However, "archaeological records suggest the culture was an amalgamation of Chinese, Korean, and indigenous cultures.”[1].

검토 의견

내용이 너무 소략하고, 그것도 대조영의 건국과 구성 민족에 관한 것 바Rdjp 없음. 전면 재 집필이 필요함.


  • Concepts
    • Mohe (ethnic group of Balhae)
    • Malgal (ethnic group of Balhae)
    • North-South States period (historical period of Korea with Balhae in the north and Silla in the south)
  • Related States
    • Goguryeo (precursor state)
    • Silla (existed concurrently to the south of Balhae)
    • Tang China (Balhae's founder defeated Tang China)

Further Reading


Editor's Worksheet

Issues to Resolve

  • Are there any heritages? Or specific cultural things?
  • Ethnic makeup of Balhae?
  • How to rephrase the quote I used

Media Content to be Produced

  • North-South States Period
  • Battles w/ Tang China


Korean Culture and Information Service, Facts about Korea, Korean Culture and Information Service, 2009, p.28.

In 698, refugees from Goguryeo established the Kingdom of Balhae in south-central Manchuria. This new entity known as Balhae included not only refugees from Goguryeo, but also a large Mohe population.

Balhae established a government system which was modeled after the Goguryeo Kingdom's own administrative structure. Moreover, its advanced culture was also rooted in that of Goguryeo.

Balhae prosperity reached its height in the first half of the ninth century with the occupation of a vast territory reaching to the Amur River in the north and Kaiyuan in south-central Manchuria to the west. It also established diplomatic ties with Turkey and Japan. Balhae existed until 926, when it was overthrown by the Khitan. Many of the Balhae nobility, who were mostly Goguryeo descendants, moved south and joined the newly founded Goryeo Dynasty.


  1. Encyclopaedia of Korea