Draft Baekje

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Title Baekje (18 BCE - 660 CE)
Author Lyndsey Twining
Actor King Onjo
Place Hangang River basin
Concept Buddhism, Mahan Confederacy, Three Kingdoms (Goguryeo, Silla), Gaya, Yamato Japan, Tang China
Object UNESCO Baekje Historic Areas, Tomb of King Muryeong, Mongchontoseong Earthen Fortress, Pungnaptoseong Earthen Fortress



1차 원고

Baekje was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea (along with Goguryeo and Silla). It was founded in 18 BCE by King Onjo in the present-day Seoul area in what was the Mahan Confederacy. Until the 4th century, Baekje slowly gained territory around the Hangang River basin, in present-day Seoul, Incheon and Gyeonggi-do Province. Then, by the late 4th century, it had consolidated the city-states in the Mahan Confederacy, covering the entirety of the southwest half of the peninsula - even extending nearly to present-day Pyeongyang at its height in 375. In 475, Baekje lost the area around the Hangang River basin to Goguryeo. During the 6th and 7th centuries, it lost and gained territory in conflict with Silla. In 660, Baekje became a protectorate of Tang China through a Silla-Tang alliance. The defeated Baekje territory was fully taken over by Silla in 672.

Baekje is known to have been a strong maritime kingdom and engaged in extensive exchange with Yamato Japan, bringing to it knowledge of the Chinese writing system, Buddhism (Baekje’s official religion), and various technologies. Today, Baekje relics can be seen across the Seoul, Gyeonggi-do, Chungcheongnam-do, and Jeollabuk-do areas, including the UNESCO Baekje Historic Areas which include various royal tombs, fortresses, and Buddhist temples. Baekje’s most iconic cultural heritages include the Gilt-bronze Incense Burner of Baekje[1], Crowns of Baekje[2] and various gold earrings and other accessories found at the tomb of King Muryeong[3]. Baekje earthen fortresses such as Mongchontoseong and Pungnaptoseong, can also be found in Seoul.

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Baekje was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea (along with Goguryeo and Silla). It was founded in 18 BCE by King Onjo in the present-day Seoul area in what was the Mahan Confederacy. Until the 4th century, Baekje slowly gained territory around the Hangang River basin, in present-day Seoul, Incheon and Gyeonggi-do Province. Then, by the late 4th century, it had consolidated the city-states in the Mahan Confederacy, covering the entirety of the southwest half of the peninsula - even extending nearly to present-day Pyeongyang at its height in 375. In 475, Baekje lost the area around the Hangang River basin to Goguryeo. During the 6th and 7th centuries, it lost and gained territory in conflict with Silla. In 660, Baekje became a protectorate of Tang China through a Silla-Tang alliance. The defeated Baekje territory was fully taken over by Silla in 672.

Baekje is known to have been a strong maritime kingdom and engaged in extensive exchange with Yamato Japan, bringing to it knowledge of the Chinese writing system, Buddhism (Baekje’s official religion), and various technologies. Today, Baekje relics can be seen across the Seoul, Gyeonggi-do, Chungcheongnam-do, and Jeollabuk-do areas, including the UNESCO Baekje Historic Areas which include various royal tombs, fortresses, and Buddhist temples. Baekje’s most iconic cultural heritages include the Gilt-bronze Incense Burner of Baekje[4], Crowns of Baekje[5] and various gold earrings and other accessories found at the tomb of King Muryeong[6]. Baekje earthen fortresses such as Mongchontoseong and Pungnaptoseong, can also be found in Seoul.

Glossary

  • Concepts
  • Events

Further Reading

TBD

Editor's Worksheet

Issues to Resolve

Media to be Produced

  • territorial changes
  • relations with Yamato Japan and China
  • location of heritage sites
  • Maps of Baekje over Time
    • 1st, 3rd, 4th, 6th, 7th Centuries
    • Baekje (Video on YouTube by The Dragon Historian)

Resources

Korean Culture and Information Service, Facts about Korea, Korean Culture and Information Service, 2009, p.27.

Baekje (18 B.C.-A.D. 660), which grew out of a town-state located south of the Hangang River in the vicinity of present-day Seoul, was another confederated kingdom similar to Goguryeo. During the reign of King Geunchogo (r. 346-375), Baekje developed into a centralized state.

References

  1. National Treasure No. 287
  2. National Treasures No. 154, 155, 295
  3. National Treasures No. 156-165
  4. National Treasure No. 287
  5. National Treasures No. 154, 155, 295
  6. National Treasures No. 156-165