2018 童蒙先習 14 - 17

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Original Script

::: 童蒙先習 :::
14. 須是夫敬其身하여 以帥其婦하고 婦敬其身하여 以承其夫하여 內外和順이라야 父母其安樂之矣시리라
- 모름지기 남편은 자기 몸을 삼가서 아내를 잘 거느리고, 아내는 자기 몸을 공경하여 남편을 잘 받들어서 내외가 화순해야 부모님께서 편안하고 즐거워하실 것이다.
15. 昔者에 郤缺이 耨어늘 其妻饁之하되 敬하여 相待如賓하니 夫婦之道가 當如是也니라 子思曰 君子之道 造端乎夫婦라하시니라
- 옛적에 郤缺이 밭에서 김을 매고 있을 때, 그 아내가 새참을 내왔는데 서로 공경하여 상대하기를 마치 손님 모시듯 하였으니, 부부간의 도리는 마땅히 이와 같아야 한다. 子思께서 말씀하시기를 “군자의 도리는 부부 사이에서 비롯된다.”고 하셨다.


::長幼有序::

16. 長幼는 天倫之序라 兄之所以爲兄과 弟之所以爲弟 長幼之道 所自出也라 蓋宗族鄕黨에 皆有長幼하니 不可紊也라
- 어른과 아이는 하늘이 차례지어 준 관계이다. 형이 형 노릇하고 아우가 아우 노릇하는 것이 어른과 어린이의 도리가 비롯된 유래이다. 종족과 향당에는 모두 어른과 아이가 있으니, 이를 문란시켜서는 안 된다.
17. 徐行後長者를 謂之弟요 疾行先長者를 謂之不弟니 是故로 年長以倍則父事之하고 十年以長則兄事之하고 五年以長則肩隨之니 長慈幼하며 幼敬長 然後에야 無侮少陵長之弊하여 而人道正矣리라
- 천천히 걸어서 어른보다 뒤에 쳐져 가는 것을 공손한 태도라고 이르고, 빨리 걸어서 어른보다 앞서 걸어 가는 것을 공손하지 못한 태도라고 일컫는다. 그러므로 나이가 갑절 많으면 어버이 섬기는 도리로 섬기고, 나이가 열 살이 많으면 형을 섬기는 도리로 섬기고, 나이가 다섯 살이 많으면 어깨폭 만큼 뒤쳐져 따라가니, 어른은 어린 사람을 사랑하며 어린 사람은 어른을 공경한 뒤에야 젊은이를 업신여기거나 어른을 능멸하는 폐단이 없어져서 사람의 도리가 바로 설 것이다.


Translation

Passage 14 : Petra Sváková


須是夫敬其身하여 以帥其婦하고 婦敬其身하여 以承其夫하여 內外和順이라야 父母其安樂之矣시리라

It has to be that the husband respects himself and leads his wife, the wife respects herself and serves her husband, [if they] inside and outside follow harmoniously [each other, then their] parents would feel peaceful and enjoy that.

  • Discussion Questions:

+ (YO) Let me just remind you that 以 as in "夫敬其身 以帥其婦" indicates "...with which he leads his wife".

Passage 15 : (Julian Butterfield)


In the past, while Xi Que was weeding, his wife brought food to him. Offering respect and treating each other as guests: the way of husband and wife should be like this. Zi Si says: the man of virtue's way makes its beginning with husband and wife.

  • Discussion Questions:
  1. 端 in 造端 has the possible meanings of either a beginning or an end (in the specific sense of an extremity). Is a successful marriage so stably figured in Confucian literature as the basis of a 君子's approach to the world, or is it ever discussed as an ultimate achievement (or is there some degree of fluidity in the native reading of this phrase)?
  2. Could someone clarify for me the grammatical effect of adding 하여 after 敬? Thanks!

+ (YO) 承 in "承其夫" is carrying/holding (Mathew's dictionary gives "receive, inherit"; Lin Yutang dictionary, "receive from above" or "continue") rather than serving (LYT has "serve" but in somewhat specific compounds).
+ How about "comfortable" for 安?

Passage 16 : (Kathy Lin)


Elder and younger is the order of the heavens. An older brother’s way of being an older brother, a younger brother’s way of being a younger brother is that from which the way of being older and younger comes. So within the clan and in the community, everyone is both an elder and a younger. This must not be confused.

  • Discussion Questions:

+(YO) 以 as in "以帥其婦" and "以承其夫" indicates the second actions (leading the wife and upholding the husband) are to be done by first fulfilling "respecting him/herself" 敬其身 as necessary condition (i.e., the sense of "by doing so").

Passage 17: Jelena Gledić)


Those who walk slowly and follow the elder are called polite [like a younger brother]. Those who walk quickly and pass the elder are called impolite [unlike a younger brother]. For this reason, those who are twice your age you should treat as your father, those who are ten years older you should treat as your older brother, [and] those who are five years older you should follow by a the width of a shoulder. The elder is [to be] kind to the younger, the younger is [to] respect the elder. Then and only then there will be no wrongdoing of oppressing the young or insulting the old, and the way will thus be right.

  • Discussion Questions:

+ For 肩隨, I found the following (likely much later) reference: 感時留別從兄徐王延年從弟延陵詩:「小子謝麟閣,雁行忝肩隨。」 (唐, 李白) Would this maybe make "follow closely" a better translation?
(YO) I think 'follow right behind the shoulder' to indicate the literal sense.
(JG) Okay, thank you.