2018 學語集 26 - 30

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Original Script

::: 學語集 :::

26. 衣食

人情終歲不制則寒一日不再食則飢故聖人乃制衣食以厚生民
  • 終 N: exhaust N

27. 士

士之爲業讀書修身整其衣冠謹其言行凡爲仕進者自士而始
  • 其: 3rd-person pronoun (it/he/she/they, nominative or possessive), “the”
  • 凡 C: in general, it is the case that C
  • 為 N 者: one who is N       cf) 為 V 者: one who V

28. 孝弟

孝悌之道根於天性不孝不悌近於禽獸也事親以誠事長以敬是爲孝悌也
  • V 於 N: V in/on/to N
  • A 於 N: A than N
  • 是 N 也: this is N         cf) 是 為 N 也: (now) this is N

29. 四方

天地之間有四方前爲南後爲北左爲東右爲西
  • Direction words: 東西南北 and 前後左右

30. 草

雜生山野爲地之毛春夏生長秋冬則黃枯
 


Translation

Sentence 26 : (Ewa )


Clothes and food

For the condition of humans, if they fail to procure clothes by the end of the year, they will freeze; if they fail to eat twice a day, they will starve. For this reason, the sages procure clothes and food to secure people's livelihood.

  • Discussion Questions:

+ I am not sure about "procure" for 制 ('to cut out/ make clothes'). 終歲 is 'to last a year,' so perhaps "all year round"?
(JG) I translated 制 just as "make", because they did have to make them. As for 終歲, I would say "all year round" is a good solution.

Sentence 27 : (Ewa )


Scholar

To become a professional scholar, one needs to read books and cultivate oneself, straighten one's clothes and hat, be careful with one's words and behaviour. All those who advance to higher office, begin by being a scholar.

  • Discussion Questions:

+ Just "scholar" rather than "professional scholar"?
(JG) I would say just scholar.

Sentence 28 : (Althea Volpe)


28. Filiality and fraternity: The way of filiality and fraternity originates from the Heavenly nature. The one who [doesn't follow] filiality and fraternity is close to birds and beasts. To serve your parents with sincerity and to serve the elders with respect, this is filiality and fraternity.

  • Discussion Questions:

+ I am not sure about "originate" for 根於. It is more likely 'to be rooted in'.
(JG) I like rooted in. +(Kyrie) I do not think that "doesn't follow" needs to be in brackets because the text says "不孝不悌."
(JG) Yes, I agree, maybe brackets would be more appropriate for "the one who", because there is no subject, while the predicate is there.

Sentence 29 : (Althea Volpe)


29. Four Directions: Between heaven and earth there are four directions. The front is the south. The back is the north. Left is east. Right is west.

  • Discussion Questions:

Sentence 30 : (Althea Volpe)


30. Grass: Grass randomly grows on mountains and fields and it becomes the hair of the ground. During spring and summer it grows. In autumn and winter it becomes yellow and withers.


  • Discussion Questions: