2018 學語集 21 - 25

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Original Script

::: 學語集 :::

21. 兄弟

長曰兄季曰弟比之木則同根也比之雁則同行也兄弟之情友愛而
  • 比 N: compare, liken N
  • 曰 N: be said to be/called N
  • C 而已: It is just that C (sentential particle)

22. 君臣

君臣之間以義合者也君視臣如手足臣視君如元首爲臣之道忠良而已
  • 視 N1 如 N2: see N1 as N2
  • VP 之道: the way to VP

23. 師

敎我者爲師非師無以學問是故古之學者尊師君父
  • 非 N: be not N / if it weren’t for N
  • 無以 V: cannot/be no way to V
  • V 如 N: V like N

24. 文學

人而不學不知道理無異禽獸故聖人乃制文學以敎人使知三綱五倫孝悌禮義廉恥之道
  • 異(乎)N: be different from N
  • 使 (N) V: have/let N V

25. 讀書

讀書之時一其心志勿思雜慮敬對方冊日夜勤讀眼慣口熟自可渙然也
  • 勿 V: do not V
  • 可 V: can / be allowed to V
  • 自 V: V by/in/of oneself       cf) 自 N: from N


Translation

Sentence 21 : (Julian Butterfield)


The senior is called older brother, the junior is called younger brother. Likened to trees, they share the same root; likened to geese, they go in line with each other. The affection between older and younger is fraternal and loving, just so.

  • Discussion Questions:
  1. Does my translation of 長曰兄季曰弟 work around the repetition of English words sufficiently? I was trying to avoid reusing "older" and "younger" here.

(JG) I think it works quite well!

  1. Have I expanded 行 too much in translation?

(Fran) I think I would prefer something more terse like "Likened to geese, they are aligned" in order to match the brevity of the line "Likened to trees, they share the same root."

Sentence 22 : (Julian Butterfield)


The space between ruler and subject is that which is closed with righteousness. The ruler sees subjects as hands and feet, subjects see the ruler as the head. The way of serving as subject is loyalty and goodness, just so.

  • Discussion Questions:
  1. Is the image of the state as a single human body typical in Confucian texts?

Kathy's comment: the image of space closing doesn't quite seem to capture a sense of "fitting." What about something like "The relation between ruler and subject is fitting because of righteousness"?

Sentence 23 : Kathy Lin


The teacher

The one who teaches me is my teacher. Without a teacher, there is no way to attain learning. For this reason, the scholars of old all venerated teachers like they did rulers and fathers

  • Discussion Questions:

(Fran): So it's interesting you decided not to go with the "If not for X" pattern in translating 非師. It makes me wonder how much difference there is between saying, "Without a teacher" versus "If it weren't for a teacher". I like the brevity of the former.

(NKL) Me too! Perhaps some contexts will call for the longer pattern but "without" seems to go fine here

Sentence 24: Kathy Lin


Learnedness

People who are not learned do not know the ways and patterns of things, and are not far from the birds and the beasts. For this reason the sages formulated systems of learning by which to teach people, to educate them on the three relations and five principles, and to instruct them on the ways of filiality and fraternity, propriety and righteousness, and on a sense of honor and shame.

Footnote 1: The three relations are relations between ruler and subject, father and son, and husband and wife. The five virtues are benevolence, righteousness, propriety, wisdom, and fidelity. Reference Hanyu Daci Dian

  • Discussion Questions:

+What was the way to insert footnotes again? </ref> something...?

(Petra) you can use 1 (or use any other number in between) right next to the word and then write it down again like this1. (have to look in the editing page)

1 footnotes

(NKL) thanks Petra!

Sentence 25 : (Ewa)


Reading books

While reading books, unify your mind and will, do not ponder on miscellaneous concerns, treat square volumes with respect, read diligently day and night until your eyes get used to it and the mouth develops a taste for it, and clarity appears by itself.

  • Discussion Questions: