(Translation) 1688年 金璠 分財記

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Introduction

This document is composed in 1688 by Kim Pŏn living in Puan for the occasion of writing inheritance distribution of land and slaves for his heirs, his adopted son Sujong and his biological sons Suchang and Suhyŏn. The title of this document is the Document of Chŏnhu Kuch’ŏ which means that he writes this will (Chŏnhu) to distribute his property to his heirs while he is still alive (Kuch’ŏ). In other words, this will was written after he had already distributed the property to his sons.

In the beginning half Kim Pŏn explains the reasons why he distributed the property to Sujong and Such’ang, the registered son of his deceased brother Mun. He also mentions that he will not follow the equal inheritance system commonly practiced at that time but follow the unequal distribution system of one-third ratio regarding the principle inheritance originated from his father Myŏng-yŏl. His statements also include that for performing ancestral rites the siblings should not take turns, and that the land and slaves awarded by his own merits will be distributed only to sons.

Not long after Sujong was adopted for the continuity of Puan Kim family lineage, Sujong’s adopted mother Madam Cho from Hanyang Cho family passed away. Kim Pŏn soon afterwards remarried Madam Yu from Muhwa Yu family, who incidentally gave birth to two sons, Such’ang and Suhyŏn. Oddly enough, Kim Pŏn had already adopted his brother's son, Sujong, and now had to be concerned about his brother’s lack of the lineage. Therefore he let one of his biological sons be adopted to his deceased brother’s family.

The latter part of the document contains the detail of property distributions. The eldest son Sujong received the portion of his original father Kim Mun’s land, 10 turakchi, and the portion for primogeniture to perform ancestral rites, 20 turakchi of rice paddies plus 78 turakchi of fields plus 34 servants, and as 반부조[1] 7 turakchi of rice paddies plus 2 pok 5 sok plus 34 turakchi of fields plus 13 servants. Sujong therefore received total 76 turakchi of rice paddies plus 2 pok 5 sok plus 122 turakchi of fields plus 47 servants. On the other hand, Such’ang and Suhyŏn brothers received 76 turakchi of rice paddies plus 283 turakchi of fields plus 2 kyŏl 47 pok 7 sok plus 45 servants. [2]

After all, the biological sons of Kim Pŏn, Such’ang and Suhyŏn brothers, received more inheritance than the first son Sujong. This indicates that Kim Pŏn clearly showed his favoritism toward his own sons over his direct lineal successor.

Through this case example, the complex nature of property distributions is seen due to the premature adoption of the lineage successor. The Chosŏn society began to put emphasis on the head family and primogeniture system, which became increasingly more influential coming closer toward the letter period of Chosŏn.

Original Script

Classical Chinese English

戊辰三月初七日傳後區處文書

右文爲余以累代奉祀之人年至四十不得生

子故不獲己亡弟獨子守宗呈禮曺以爲養

子傳宗定計之後不幸喪配再聚未久連得

生男事當傳宗於己子而守宗旣爲養子則

不可不以此爲長子是旀亡弟無他子女奉祭

無人情勢悶迫乙仍于以己子守昌旣爲其養

子以爲亡弟奉祀之地爲去乎以此擧行爲齊

田民段不必自爲區處是乎矣兒輩年弱兺

不喩余多疾病人事未定故畧干田民區別

後錄爲乎矣吾家異於他家出嫁女子則祭祀

勿爲輪行田民亦爲三分之一分給之意旣有

先代遺敎是去乎餘生存時如是區處則有

何執言相爭之端乎若有吾子女則見此文豈

不悽然而動念乎吾兄弟別得田民段勿爲分

給於女子爲遣男子兺代代傳給亦先人言

敎丁寧是乎等以旣己成文別給乙仍于更不擧論

爲旀守宗旣爲宗子則吾衿田民守宗事當次

知是旀守昌己爲亡弟養子則亡弟衿田民守昌亦

爲次知是乎矣吾自區處乙仍于承重田民兺

守宗處載錄爲遣其餘吾衿得別得田民則

盡給守昌兄弟爲去乎亡弟衿得別得田民

則守宗盡爲獨專次知爲乎矣亡弟祭位條

畓十餘斗落只奴婢數口乙出給宜當是齊

此區處事雖異於他人之家吾旣裁處以此

施行爲旀承重田民雖是零星此後更勿

加出爲遣班附田民幷以永傳宗家百代

勿遷事

長子守宗承 重田民奴婢秩田畓幷

婢桂春一生婢桂香同婢一生 二生

三生 四生 奴亂山四生奴亂山五所生

婢夫虛非同婢一所生奴六月金二生婢業德

三所生 四所生 奴望世一生奴望立婢許化

德一所生婢生德二所生奴同之金婢生德一所生

奴宮伊二所生奴山伊三所生奴生伊四所生奴太守

婢㖝介二所生婢春禮同婢一所生奴日伊二所生

婢日介三所生婢春班四所生婢率介五所生奴春

日婢者斤介三所生婢三月四所生奴士龍婢三

月一所生婢開天奴春男良産一所生婢乶音代

二所生奴二漢三所生婢順德婢順德一所生奴

加應置二所生婢丁化三所生丁上四所生永才甕井

家垈前後田及中甫畓九斗落只溝邊畓九斗

落只甕岩畓三十斗落只蠏山 墓下畓十五斗落

陳處幷板橋畓十五斗落

班附條

婢應生一所生婢士仁三所生婢漢介四所生奴亡終五

所生婢亡介同婢一生奴同立則放賣 裵石柱畓 十斗落只故奴良卜及大生皆是班附奴也

次子守昌兄弟衿

奴婢秩

婢春介三所生奴順斤買得奴千日同奴良妻一所生婢夾

伊三所生奴論先婢闌春四所生婢春玉奴禮男一生

婢禮介同婢一生 婢禮陽代一生婢禮業二生婢

秋陽代所山面保北五作造字念字六斗落只所畊耕

二十六卜六束庫果同面兄弟橋內各字畓十三斗落

保北六作非字寶字畓十三斗落

財主通德郞前叅奉父金〔着名〕

證同姓四寸弟金玒〔着名〕

證同姓四寸弟金璘〔着名〕

筆執同姓四寸弟金璔〔着名〕

First Part (by Masha and Jong Woo): In the year of Mujin (1688), beginning of the third month, seventh day. Document of inheriting transaction. This document as follows: I, as to person who gives sacrificial rites to generations of ancestors, in my forties, have not had born a son. Inevitably, I adopted Sujong, the only son of my deceased younger brother and submitted a document to the Ministry of Rites. After establishing the strategy of continuing the lineage, unfortunately, my wife passed away and I remarried. Soon after a son was born. I should transmit the lineage to my own son, however I have already adopted Sujong. This is inevitable that I take him as my first son. However, my deceased younger brother did not have other offsprings, so then nobody can offer sacrificial rites to him. Since the situation is awkward, I will make my own son Such’ang as his adopted son to offer sacrifices to my deceased younger brother and continue his lineage. Based on this I performed the rituals and put it in order. As to land and slaves I do not necessarily have to make a transaction myself. Adding to the fact that my children are young, I have also been sick a lot and human affairs are undetermined. Therefore, I will divide up a small amount[3] of land and slaves that I will specify in the appendix below. Our family is different from other families. The married off daughters will not practice sacrificial rites in rotation. Meaning that, as to the land and slaves, one third of the amount is allocated to the female members. These are the remaining instructions by the ancestors. In the remaining years of your lives abide to this transaction. How can you make my words as the cause of litigation with one another? If there were my sons and daughters and if they read it, how could they not be sorrowful? The land and slaves that our brothers have specially obtained [by our own merit] will not be distributed to the female members of the family and will only be inherited to the male members. Because the teachings of our ancestors are certainly true, abide to [what is written in] this document of inheritance and do not talk about it again. Because Sujong has already become my son, he will take possession of the lands and slaves of mine. Because Such’ang has already become an adopted son of my deceased brother, he will take possession of the lands and slaves of his. Following my decision, only the lands and slaves allotted to the lineage heir will be recorded as [an inheritance for] Sujong. All the remaining lands and slaves that I have specially obtained due to my merit will be given to Such’ang brothers. All the remaining lands and slaves that my deceased brother had specially obtained due to his merit will solely be the possession of Sujong. It is appropriate to give [Sujong] a dozen turak of wet rice field and several female and male slaves, which all belonged to my deceased brother. Although this transaction might be different from that of other families, because I have already made a decision, implement it. Although the lands and slaves allotted to the lineage heir might be sparse, do not discuss it again later. The lands and slaves allotted to family members who died without offsprings will be, all together, transmitted to the house of the lineage heir, forever without changing.

Middle Part (by Kim Young and King Kwong):

Special inheritance package of land and slaves for the duty of linear succession, given to the linear successor Sujong - land property included.
Female slave Gyechun's first-born female slave Gyehyang;
the same person [Gyehyang]'s first-born, second-born, third-born, and fourth-born;
male slave Nansan's fourth-born male slave Nansan and fifth-born female slave Buheobi;
the same person [Buhebi]'s first-born male slave Yuwolgeum, second-born female slave Eopdeok, third-born, fourth-born;
male slave Mangse’s first-born male slave Mangrip;
female slave Heohwadeok’s first-born female slave Saengdeok,
second-born male slave Dongjigeum;
female slave Saengdeok’s first-born male slave Gungi,
second-born male slave Sani,
third-born male slave Saengi,
fourth-born male slave Taesu;
female slave Kkeutgae;
the same person [Kkeutgae]’s first-born male slave Ili,
second-born female slave Ilgae,
third-born female slave Chunban,
fourth-born female slave Solgae,
fifth-born male slave Chunil;
female slave Geungae’s third-born female slave Samwol,
fourth-born male slave Saryong;
female slave Samwol’s first-born female slave Gaecheon;
with commoner wife, male slave Chunnam’s first-born female slave Poleumdae,
second-born male slave Ihan,
third-born female slave Sundeok;
female slave Sundeok’s first-born male slave Gaeungchi,
second-born female slave Jeonghwa,
third-born Jeongsang,
fourth-born Yeongjae.
Fields and wet rice-fields at the front and back of the house in Onjeong three durakji;
wet rice-fields on the side of the gutter nine durakji;
wet rice-fields in Ongam thirty durakji;
wet rice-fields underneath the gravesite in Haesan fifteen durakji;
wet rice-fields in Jincheo and Pangyo altogether fifteen durakji.

Special inheritance for sharing and attaching to the ancestral tablet those who died without children
Female slave Eungsaeng’s first-born female slave Sain,
third-born female slave Hangae,
fourth-born male slave Mangjong,
fifth-born female slave Manggae;
the same person [Manggae]’s first-born male slave Dongrip, are for sale.
Bae Seokju rents wet rice-fields ten durakji. Therefore, male slaves Ryangbok and Daesaeng [who work in the above field] are all special slaves for sharing and attaching to the ancestral tablet those who died without children.

Inheritance package of slaves [and land], given to second son Suchang and his brothers
Female slave Chungae’s third-born male slave Sungeun;
purchased male slave Cheonil;
with commoner wife, he same person [Cheonil]’s first-born female slave Hyeopi,
third-born male slave Noronseon;
female slave Ranchun’s fourth-born female slave Chunok;
male slave Yenam’s first-born female slave Yegae;
the same person [Yegae]’s first-born female slave Yeyangdae’s first-born female slave Ye’eop,
second-born female slave Chuyangdae.
At Sosan district, Bobuk five-yields wet rice-fields, named Jo-ja Nyeom-ja, 6 durakji; the fields can yield 26 loads of 6 bundles.
At the same district, inside the Bridge of Brothers, wet rice-fields, named gak-ja, 13 durakji;
Bobuk six-yields wet rice-fields, named Bi-ja Bo-ja, 13 durakji.

Ending Part, Martin:

Owner; Gentlemen of transmitting virtue; former tomb guardian, Father Kim [signature]

Witness, younger cousin of the same surname, Kim Kang [signature]

Witness, younger cousin of the same surname, Kim In [signature]

Scribe, younger cousin of the same surname, Kim Chŭng [signature]


Discussion Questions


Further Readings

  • 고문서를 통해서 본 우반동과 우반동 김씨의 역사 | 전경목 | 문예연구사 | 2001.02.25
  • 고문서를 통해서 본 우반동과 우반동 김씨의 역사2 | 전경목 | 글항아리 | 2009.01.19
  • 조선시대 재산상속문서 분재기 | 한국학중앙연구원 | 한국학중앙연구원출판부 | 2014.10.20

References

  1. Special inheritance for sharing and attaching to the ancestral tablet those who died without children
  2. Park nouk, Study on the Puan Kim's property state in 16th~18th century : focused on Puan Kim's Woo-Pan old documents, a master's thesis, Chungnam National University, 1987
  3. Kim Bon is being humble, his possessions are not small.

Translation

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