Difference between revisions of "(Translation) 李濟開國功臣敎書"

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==='''Student 10 : (Ji-Hyun)'''===
 
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His Majesty said, "Since antiquity, changing the [Heavenly] Mandate by the one who would be the king has just been the response from Heaven and conformity from people.
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In any era, there should be a great man to be born occasionally, and for him the supporters/assistants, just as the works of Kings Tang and Wu from above and Yi Yin and Lu Shang's support from below, In restoring the order of Heaven and Earth
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*Discussion Questions:
 
*Discussion Questions:
 
  
 
==='''Student 11 : (Write your name)'''===
 
==='''Student 11 : (Write your name)'''===

Revision as of 13:25, 3 July 2018


Introduction

1392年(太祖 1) 10月에 朝鮮을 開國하는데 功勳을 세운 李濟를 開國功臣 1等으로 錄勳하면서 發給한 功臣敎書이다. 開國功臣은 高麗 末期에 太祖 李成桂를 도와 朝鮮을 開國하는데 功을 세운 臣下에게 내린 功臣號이다. 1388年(禑王, 1365-1389)에 威化島 回軍을 通해 政權을 掌握한 李成桂는 1392年 7月에 朝鮮을 開國하고 卽位하였다. 李成桂는 1392年 8月 2日 功臣都監을 設置하였으며, 이후 功臣都監에서 朝鮮 開國에 功을 세운 臣下를 開國功臣으로 錄勳하였다. 그러나 朝鮮 初期에 政治的인 狀況으로 因하여 一部 開國功臣은 削勳되거나 復勳되었고, 最終的으로 <<國朝功臣錄>>에 39人이 수록되었다.

<<國朝功臣錄>>에 收錄된 開國功臣은 1等 功臣에 益安大君 芳毅·裵克廉·趙浚 等 15人이고, 2等 功臣에 尹虎·李敏道·趙英珪 等 9人이며, 3等 功臣에 安景恭·金稇·柳爰廷 等 11人이었다. 이 가운데 이제 開國功臣敎書가 唯一하게 現傳하고 있다. 이제 開國功臣敎書는 高麗國王之印이 安寶되어 있다. 高麗國王之印은 1370年(恭愍王 19) 5月에 高麗가 明(1368-1644)으로부터 받은 寶印으로 󰡔高麗史󰡕의 記錄에 따르면 材質은 金이고, 形態는 龜紐이며, 크기는 方 3寸이었다.

實際로 이제 開國功臣敎書에 安寶된 高麗國王之印의 크기는 9.2×9.2㎝인 것을 확인할 수 있다. 李濟(?~1398)는 高麗 末·朝鮮 初의 文臣으로 本貫은 星州이다. 曾祖는 李兆年이고, 父親은 李仁立이며, 婦人은 李成桂의 셋째 딸 慶順公主이다. 李成桂를 도와 朝鮮을 開國하는데 공을 세워 開國功臣 1等에 錄勳되었다. 1392年 8月에 興安君에 封해졌고, 義興親軍衛節制使에 任命되었으며, 1393年(太祖 2) 10月에 右軍節制使에 任命되었다. 1398年(太祖 7) 第1次 王子의 亂 때에 죽임을 당했다. 이후 世宗 年間에 伸冤되었으며, 太祖의 廟庭에 配享되었다. 諡號는 景武이다.

Original Script

Classical Chinese English

(01) 敎

(02)    純忠佐命開國功臣·興安君·兼義興

(03)    親軍衛節制使·知〔書〕筵事 李濟

(04) 王若曰: 自古王者之革命, 應乎天順乎

(05) 人而已. 時必有偉人間生, 爲之輔翼. 如

(06) 湯武作於上, 伊呂應於下. 整頓乾坤, 扶

(07) 翊日月. 其〔英〕風茂烈, 輝〔暎千古〕. 〔有不〕可

(08) 掩者矣. 卿稟性淑均, 秉心謹恪. 寡欲以

(09) 養其心, 持正以守〔其節〕. 〔幼佩〕義方〔之訓〕,

(10) 長無紈綺之習. 〔慶鍾〕積善之餘, 家傳〔萬〕

(11) 石之美. 妻之以女〔而〕琴瑟和, 孝於其親

(12) 而宗族順. 春秋尙富, 而有老成之德. 爵

(13) 位雖高, 而存謙恪之心. 凜凜風采, 可〔以〕

(14) 破奸雄之膽. 堂堂議論, 可以扶社稷之

(15) 計. 忠義之氣, 與秋色爭高. 眞可〔謂命世〕

(16) 而生, 伊呂之亞流也. 王氏之末, 天厭其

(17) 德. 勦節其命, 僞辛竊位. 十有六年, 予及

(18) 二三大臣. 尙求其裔, 俾主其祀. 以聽〔於〕

(19) 天, 而天不悔過. 以暴於民, 而民不歸心.

(20) 衆叛親離, 宗祀以〔墜〕. 天命歸於有德, 人

(21) 心懷于有仁. 卿以至誠之知, 察天人之

(22) 幾. 與門下左侍中裵克廉, 門下右侍中

(23) 趙浚等大臣, 首倡大義, 〔決疑於危〕貳之

(24) 間. 定策於幾微之際, 赤心〔推戴〕, 化家爲

(25) 國. 輔潛德而發幽光, 杖景運而創大業.

(26) 卽祚之初, 市不易肆. 談笑之間, 措國泰

(27) 山. 其功莫盛, 人無間言. 〔可謂鼎彛〕不泯,

(28) 帶礪難忘. 是以加爵命之〔數〕, 而不滿於

(29) 心. 下獎諭之綸, 而未足〔於〕懷. 乃命有司,

(30) 籍人口以爲厮養, 錫土田以爲世祿, 繪

(31) 形像於丹靑, 視功載於奕葉. 封卿之母,

(32) 爲惠寧翁主. 命卿之婦, 爲慶〔順宮〕主. 爵

(33) 贈三世, 宥及子孫. 今遣金帶壹腰, 段子

(34) 貳匹, 絹子柒匹, 至〔可領〕也. 於戱! 乾稱父

(35) 坤稱母, 侯王豈有種而生. 風從虎雲從

(36) 龍, 臣子必同聲而應. 益篤君親之念, 毋

(37) 輕甥舅之恩. 故玆敎〔示〕, 〔想〕宜〔知悉〕.

(38) 〔洪武〕貳拾伍年〔拾月〕 日.

(translation)


Discussion Questions


Further Readings


References


Translation

(sample) : Jaeyoon Song


  • Discussion Questions:


Student 1 : (Ze, Xiaoyi)


  • Translations:

王若曰: 自古王者之革命, 應乎天順乎人而已. 時必有偉人間生, 爲之輔翼. 如湯武作於上, 伊呂應於下. 整頓乾坤, 扶翊日月. 其〔英〕風茂烈, 輝〔暎千古〕. 〔有不〕可掩者矣. The King says, since ancient times, a person would rule as sovereign renews the mandate by following the signs of heaven and hearts of people. When a great people coming to be, it would provide aids to him. It is like the Tang and Wu acted from the above, and Yi and Lü (footnotes) responded from the bottom. (The person) would reorganize the world and assist the sun and moon. The person’s heroic influence was fervent, radiating perpetually. Nothing can conceal the great person's great abilities.

  • Discussion Questions:

Student 2 : (Write your name)


  • Discussion Questions:


Student 3 : (Write your name)


Royal Instruction

To Lee Je, Meritorious Minister of Chwungcwamyeng • Lord Hungan concurrent Military Commissioner of Uyhung Royal Garrison • Administrator of Classics Colloquium:

His Majesty spoke: since ancient times, people who (is going to) rule the world renew the heavenly mandate did nothing but act in accordance with the heaven and in response to people.

  • Discussion Questions:

Student 4 : Martin


  • Translation:

敎 Royal Instruction, 純忠佐命開國功臣·興安君·兼義興親軍衛節制使·知〔書〕筵事 李濟 To Yi Je (Yi Che), meritorious minister of the state founding and coronation, Lord of Heungan (Hŭngan) and concurrently Deputy commander of the Imperial Guard in Uiheung (Ŭihŭng) and responsible in the matter of explaining the classics. 王若曰: 自古王者之革命, 應乎天順乎人而已. The king thus said: From old, rulers were deprived of their mandates; this was according to the will of heaven and the people nothing more. 時必有偉人間生, 爲之輔翼. 如湯武作於上, 伊呂應於下. At these times great people come forward among the people and are assisted in this, like when Tang#1 and Wu#2 took action from above, then Yi#3 and Lü#4 responded below. 整頓乾坤, 扶翊日月. Restoring order between heaven and earth, assisting sun and moon. 其〔英〕風茂烈, 輝〔暎千古〕,〔有不〕可掩者矣. Their heroic conduct and great acts, shine brightly in history and cannot be obscured.

1#: Tang 湯 the first ruler of the Shang dynasty overthrew Jie 桀 of the Xia

2#: Wu 武 first ruler of the Zhou dynasty overthrew Zhou 紂 of the Shang

3#: Yi Yin 伊尹 was a minister of Tang 湯, who helped in the overthrow of the Xia dynasty

4#: Lü Shang 呂尚 stands for Jiang Ziya 姜子牙, who helped Wen and Wu to overthrow the Shang dynasty

  • Discussion Questions:

Student 5 : (Inho Choi)


  • Translation

Instruction for Ije, The Faithful Left Honor, State Founding Meritorious Minister, Prince Heungan(Hŭngan), Uiheung(Ŭihŭng) Royal Guard Commander and Record Keeper and Colloquium Official(?). From the ancient times, the renewal of the mandate by the he who would rule simply responds to the heaven and follows people. There comes a time when a great person is born among lives, and for him the aides (appears). When Tang and Wu initiates from above, Yi and Lu responded from below. (They) restored order in Heaven and Earth and supported the sun and the moon. Their beautiful names(1) and great achievement(2) brightens the eternal history and cannot be hidden.


(1) 文選.孔稚珪.北山移文:「張英風於海甸,馳妙譽於浙右。」http://www.zdic.net/c/1/73/116533.htm (2) 《金史·乐志下》:“懿德茂烈,金书发扬” https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E8%8C%82%E7%83%88/2404245?fr=aladdin


  • Discussion Questions:

Student 6 :


  • Translations:


  • Discussion Questions:

Student 7 : (King Kwong Wong)


  • Translations:

Royal Instruction to:

The meritorious subject of utmost loyalty in aiding the founding of the state, Yi Che [RR: Yi Je], the Lord of 興安, concurrently the 節制使 of 義興親軍衛, and the Administrator of 書筵.

The king says, "Since antiquity, the dynastic changes of those who rule were only the result of answering the Heaven and following the people. There must come a time when an extraordinary man comes into being among people, and [people who] aid him, just like Tang and Wu rose from atop and Yi and Lü answered from below, restoring the order in Heaven and Earth, assisting the moon and sun. Their heroic spirits are loftily noble that shine upon the ages, and could not be covered.


  • Discussion Questions:

Student 8 : Younès M'Ghari


  • Translations:


Instructions:

To Yi Jie¤, Meritorious Minister who helped at founding the State



The King said: From antiquity, those who were ruling were only responding to the Mandate of the Heaven, to the people. At times a great person would necessarily be born, people would support him, like Tang and Wu¤ taking actions from above and Yi and Lü¤ responding from below, restore order in Heaven and Earth¤, aiding the Sun and the Moon. This heroic character would be splendid and intense, shining through a thousand antiquities ¤. It would be impossible to hide him.


Tang (湯; r. 1675-1646 BCE; the first king of the Shang dynasty who overthrew Jie (桀; r. 1728-1675 BCE) of the Xia dynasty) and Wu (武; r. 1046–1043 BC; the first king of the Zhou dynasty considered one of the great heroes of China)

(乾坤; pinyin: gankun; )

千古 (through the ages, for all time)


  • Discussion Questions:

Student 9 : (Mengheng Lee)

  • translation:

Ije

As the king said: from the ancient time, the dynastic transition launched by the men who would rule as sovereign simply follow the sign of heaven and the heart of people. At that time, it should be great persons who emerge among people, aiding in the transition, such as Tang_of_Shang's rising above and Jiang Ziya

  • Discussion Questions:

Student 10 : (Ji-Hyun)


His Majesty said, "Since antiquity, changing the [Heavenly] Mandate by the one who would be the king has just been the response from Heaven and conformity from people. In any era, there should be a great man to be born occasionally, and for him the supporters/assistants, just as the works of Kings Tang and Wu from above and Yi Yin and Lu Shang's support from below, In restoring the order of Heaven and Earth


  • Discussion Questions:

Student 11 : (Write your name)


  • Discussion Questions:


Student 12 : (Sanghoon Na)


Royal Instruction to Yi Je, Merit Subject of Founding the Dynasty with Pure Loyalty and Assisting Mandate, Prince of Heung'an, Concurrently .....Royal Lecturer.

The king spoke to this effect:

From the ancient times, those who renewed the mandate as king only responded to heaven and followed people's [will].

There must be a time a great man among people and for him [people] are supportive just like when Tang and Wu emerged from above and Yi Yin and Lu Xing responded from below.

[This King] kept the heaven and earth in order and supported the sun and the moon.

His glorious influence is extremely powerful and His brillance illuminates from age to age, which cannot be hidden [from the view].






  • Discussion Questions:

Student 13 : (Write your name)


  • Discussion Questions:


Student 14 : (Write your name)


  • Discussion Questions: