2019 啓蒙篇 41 - 43

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Original Script

41.
父慈而子孝하며

兄愛而弟敬하며

夫和而妻順하며

事君忠하고 而接人恭하며

與朋友信하고 而撫宗族厚면

可謂成德君子也라.


父慈而子孝兄愛而弟敬夫和而妻順事君忠而接人恭與朋友信而撫宗族厚可謂成德君子也


42.

凡人稟性이 初無不善이니

愛親敬兄하며 忠君弟長之道는 皆已具於吾心之中이니

固不可求之於外面하니 而惟在我力行而不已也라.
  • 已: already (adv.) > to cease (verb)
  • 在我: to be in/with me (up to me)


凡人稟性初無不善愛親敬兄忠君弟長之道皆已具於吾心之中固不可求之於外面 而惟在我力行而不已也


43.

人非學問이면 固難知其何者가 爲孝며 何者가 爲忠이며

何者가 爲弟며 何者가 爲信故로

必須讀書窮理하여 求觀於古人하며

體驗於吾心하여 得其一善하여 勉行之면

則孝弟忠信之節이 自無不合於天叙之則矣라.
  • 何: what/how/where
  • 難 V: be difficult to V
  • 自: in/by oneself
  • -矣: have pp. (sentential particle indicating change of state)


人非學問 固難知其何者爲孝何者爲忠何者爲弟何者爲信故必須讀書窮理求觀於古人體驗於吾心得其一善勉行之則孝弟忠信之節 自無不合於天叙之則矣
 


Translation

Sentence 41 : Stella


父慈而子孝하며
[If] the father is kind and the son is filial,

兄愛而弟敬하며
The older brother is loving and the younger brother is reverent,

夫和而妻順하며
The husband is calming and the wife is tame,

事君忠하고 而接人恭하며
One is loyal in serving the ruler and respectful in dealing with people,

與朋友信하고 而撫宗族厚면
One is trustworthy in being with friends and generous in soothing kinship clan members,

可謂成德君子也라.
He can be referred to as a man of complete virtue.


  • Discussion Questions:

(YO) Although 'calming' and 'tame' are the concepts I explained 和 and 順 in class, it might be taken a bit too stretching if we translate them like that. How about "The husband is kind and the wife, obedient (or acquiescent)"?

Sentence 42 : Stella


凡人稟性이 初無不善이니
Generally speaking, the bestowed nature of people is originally without evil.

愛親敬兄하며 忠君弟長之道는 皆已具於吾心之中이니
The way of loving one's parents, revering one's older brothers, being loyal to one's ruler, and respecting one's elders is all already equipped within one's mind-heart.

固不可求之於外面하니 而惟在我力行而不已也라.
Indeed, one cannot seek this way in the external realm, but rather it is up to oneself to practice [the seeking of the way] with vigor and do so without end.


  • Discussion Questions:

(Stella) I have translated the first-person pronouns 吾 and 我 as 'one' and 'oneself' to retain the imperative sense of the passage (~하라)
(YO) Good thinking. Linguistically speaking, 吾 and 我 seemed to have been differentiated grammatically, 吾 as possessive or as a subject (hence before a noun or a verb) but rarely as an object, and 我 as a possessive or as an object (hence before a noun or after a verb) but less commonly as a subject. Pulleyblank has once said that 我 is more emphatic and contrastive than 吾, and compared it to the disjunctive form moi in French versus me or je. This distinction became less clear later but it does seem that both 吾 and 我 were used in one sentence when there is a need to distinguish them somehow--something similar to what you have noticed in this case.

Sentence 43 : Ethan


人非學問이면 固難知其何者가 爲孝며 何者가 爲忠이며 何者가 爲弟며 何者가 爲信

If a person is not learned, indeed it is difficult for them to understand what it is to be: filial, loyal, brotherly, and trustworthy.[1]

故로 必須讀書窮理하여 求觀於古人하며

Therefore, it is necessary to read books and exhaustively deliberate over principle, to seek observation through the people of antiquity,

體驗於吾心하여 得其一善하여 勉行之면

and to verify manifestations [of principles/learning?] in one's mind; then having obtained the goodness of humans, if one diligently puts it into practice,

則孝弟忠信之節이 自無不合於天叙之則矣라.

then no longer will [any of the integrity/actions of] filial piety, loyalty, brotherliness, and trustworthiness be incongruous with the rules revealed by the heavens alone.

  • Discussion Questions:
  • A translation of this passage by Richard Rutt from 1960 reads: "If a man does not study to learn, it is difficult for him to understand what are filial piety, loyalty, respect, and good faith. Therefore it is necessary to read books and probe reasons, to seek enlightenment from the men of [page 87] old, to make the body act according to the heart, and having obtained this one good thing to strive to live by it, that is to say; filial and brotherly piety, and good faith—which naturally accord with Heavenly order." See: Richard Rutt, "The Chinese Learning and Pleasures of a Country Scholar," Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society, Korea Branch (Seoul: Korea Branch, Royal Asiatic Society, 1969): p. 86-7.