2019 啓蒙篇 23 - 26

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Original Script

23.
春生而秋死者는 草也요 秋則葉脫하고 而春復榮華者는 木也라.

其葉이 蒼翠요 其花가 五色이니 其根이 深者는 枝葉이 必茂하고

其有花者는 必有實이니라.
  • 必V: surely/certainly V


春生而秋死者草也秋則葉脫而春復榮華者木也其葉蒼翠其花五色其根深者枝葉必茂其有花者必有實


24.

虎豹犀象之屬은 在於山하고

牛馬鷄犬之物은 畜於家하니

牛以耕墾이요 馬以乘載요

犬以守夜요 鷄以司晨이요

犀取其角이요 象取其牙요

虎豹는 取其皮라.
  • N 以 VP: VP with (using) N
  • 在於N: to be in N


虎豹犀象之屬在於山牛馬鷄犬之物畜於家牛以耕墾馬以乘載犬以守夜鷄以司晨犀取其角象取其牙虎豹取其皮


25.

山林에 多不畜之禽獸하고 川澤에 多無益之蟲魚故로

人以力殺하고 人以智取하여

或用其毛羽骨角하고 或供於祭祀賓客飮食之間이라.
  • N as a place/time
  • N1 N2 之間: between N1 and N2

  N之間: during/among N


山林多不畜之禽獸川澤多無益之蟲魚故人以力殺人以智取或用其毛羽骨角或供於祭祀賓客飮食之間


26.

走獸之中에 有麒麟焉하고  飛禽之中에 有鳳凰焉하고

蟲魚之中에 有靈龜焉하고 有飛龍焉하니

此四物者는 乃物之靈異者也라.

故로 或出於聖王之世라.
  • 此 and 彼
  • 故: therefore, for that reason
  • 出於N: to come out from/into N


走獸之中有麒麟焉飛禽之中有鳳凰焉蟲魚之中有靈龜焉有飛龍焉此四物者乃物之靈異者也故或出於聖王之世


Translation

Sentence 23 : Hector Sanchez


As for what is born in the spring and dies in the fall, this is the grass. As for what (i.e, the things that) if it is fall, its leaves fall off and when it is spring, once again flourish grandly, these are the trees.

Their leaves are green and jade-colored. Their flowers are of five colors. As for [the things whose] roots are deep, their branches and leaves are necessarily splendid.

As for their having flowers, they necessarily have fruits.

  • Discussion Questions:

HS: What could be a good universal translation for 其有...者?
(YO) How about "those that which have..." or "those for which there is..."?

Sentence 24 : Olga



Tigers, leopards, rhinoceros [and] elephants - are a category [of animals] that dwell in the mountains;
Cows, horses, chickens [and] dogs - are things which are raised at home.
With cows - [we] plow and cultivate, with horses - [we] ride [on them] and load [them].
With dogs - [we] guard at night, with chickens - [we] manage the dawn.
[As for] rhinoceros, [we] take its horn; [as for] elephants, [we] take its tusks.
Tigers and leopards, [we] take their skins.


  • Discussion Questions:

(YO) Words like 'and' that we have to use as a convention to list more than two items can be added without [ ]. To a certain degree, so can 'we,' so long as it is not a special case.

Sentence 25 : Nadia Arzberger


In mountains [and] forests, there are not a lot of raised birds [and] beasts; In flowing and standing waters, there are many insects and fish without use, therefore people kill [them] with their strength, people collect [them] with their wit and use their fur, feathers, bones, [and] horns';and provide food and drink for sacrifice or guests.

  • Discussion Questions:

As discussed in class, should we translate the last couple of characters as "provide sacrifices to offer, provide for guests, and provide drink and food" or as above or is there another way?
(YO) Seeing it again, I think the way you translated is better than viewing the three all separately. Or, we may consider "provide for sacrifices or for food and drink to receive guests with"?

Sentence 26 : Nadia Arzberger


Among walking beasts, there is the Kirin (Ch: Qilin); among flying birds, there is the BongHwang (Ch: fenghuang) there; among insects and fish, there are the Spirit Tortoise (Ling Gui) and the Flying Dragon (Fei Long); These four things are the only ones that which have spirits and [are] extraordinary; Therefore, sometimes they come out during the time of the sage kings.

  • Discussion Questions:

So within walking beasts there is the kirin and in the birds there is the bonghwang, but within the fish and insects there are two. Would you argue that the spirit tortoise is more insect-like or fish-like? The same for the Flying Dragon?
(YO) Interesting question about categories. In many premodern Chinese encyclopedias, the categorization of dragon is not always stable. In the Shiwen leiju 事文類聚 dragon is under linchong 鱗蟲 'scaled critters', but in the Taiping yulan 太平御覽 it is under linjie 鱗介 'those with scales'. In some cases, it is under 'auspices'. But it seems dragon was viewed as connected with fish, as the story of Denglongmen 登龍門 (Kr. Tŭngyongmun)--fish competes to pass the gate to become dragons--has it.