2018 學語集 11 - 15

장서각위키
이동: 둘러보기, 검색

Original Script

::: 學語集 :::

11. 雷

陰陽相搏而成雷聲動以爲天皇之威
  • 相 V: V each other
  • 以為 N/C: regard as N / think that C

12. 霜

秋冬之間天氣上昇地氣下降霜乃降肅殺萬物使草木黃落.
  • N1 N2 之間: between N1 and N2
  • 乃 C: so/then/namely C
  • 使 N V: make N V

13. 春

春之爲時也日暖風和草木化生百花爭發農夫耕田
  • N 之 VP: for N to VP > the way that N VP

14. 夏

夏之爲時也日永風薰草木長茂農人耘秄
  • N 也: pause marker

15. 秋

夏盡秋來凉風至霜露降草木黃落百穀用成農人收穫
  • NN (Noun Compound)
  • VV (Verb Compound)


Translation

Sentence 11 : (Julian Butterfield)


Yin and yang grapple and result in a thunderous sound; people take its movements to be the Heavenly Sovereign's majesty.[1]

  • Discussion Questions:

+ Is it typical for Chinese authors to describe thunder (and especially its sound) in terms of movement (動)? Does this word have a more appropriate English gloss in this context (one that might work more elegantly with 威, for example)?
(YO) Perhaps we should parse it before 聲? We did talk about this and were reminded that thunder is only the noise, for which we parsed after 聲 (to make it "thunderous sound"). But the ancients did not necessarily know about it. If we parse the sentence before 聲, it would read "when the sound moves..."
(YO) I also think that it would be nice to have the actual quote in your note.

Sentence 12: (Julian Butterfield)


Between autumn and winter, the qi of heaven rises up while the earth's qi draws downward: frost then drops desolation upon the myriad things, causing vegetation to wither and droop.

  • Discussion Questions:

+ Does 秋冬之間 indicate the time between the seasons, or the space of the two seasons as a whole?
(Petra) I would say that it is the time of transition between the two seasons.
(YO) Literally it can be both, but I think it is the former in this case. Frost is frequent in late fall and early winter.


  1. What are some possible disadvantages of not translating qi/ki? Is there a preferable English option?

Sentence 13 : (Kathy Lin)


Spring

The season of spring: the days are warm and the winds mild. The grasses and trees are changed into life. A hundred flowers vie, blooming. A farmer plows the field.

  • Discussion Questions:

+ There being no singular or plural differentiation in hanmun makes a difference in the effect of the last line with 农夫. I chose to zoom in close on one farmer in the singular versus generic farmers in the plural - inspiration in part from William Carlos Williams - but this would be been left ambiguous in the Chinese - perhaps fruitfully, or perhaps fuzzily, without a deliberate microcosmic look on the level of the person singular. What would you have chosen here / why?
(YO) I like the singular-farmer scene. It conveys the serene abruptness, toil of a farmer who starts another year's work. Then again, plural farmers would make the lively spring scene, all things and lives coming alive.

Sentence 14 : (Kathy Lin)


Summer

The season of summer: long days, a fragrant breeze. The grasses and trees grow out in profusion. The farmer weeds and tills.

  • Discussion Questions:

+ A variation of the question posted above in Hagojip 13, regarding farmer in the singular vs. plural. In the singular in English, we further have the choice of *a* farmer vs. *the* farmer. Again the English language offers possibilities for precision here not possible in the native Chinese and hence, opportunities (a choice in fact must be made) for creation. What would you choose/why? (Noting that if we had more context or story, that would possibly decide the matter for us)
(YO) A novel point that we run into often. What do think the effect caused by *the* farmer instead of *a* farmer?
(JG) In these sentences, I would always opt for the plural because of the cultural and social milieu of the original text - when I read I always imagine the collective or even the class of such people (farmers) whose task is to do such and such in a specific season.

Sentence 15 : (Althea Volpe)


When summer ends and the autumn comes the cool wind arrives and frost and dew come down. Plants and trees turn yellow and fall off and all the crops are about to be harvest by farmers.

  • Discussion Questions:

(YO) Active/passive issue again. 百穀用成農人收穫: “All the crops have just become complete/ripe; farmers harvest them" or "All the crops have just become complete/ripe, and are harvested by farmers"?


  1. This probably refers to the first of the "Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors" (三皇五帝) laid out in the Shi ji 史記 and Yiwen leiju 藝文類聚.