2018 學語集 01 - 05

장서각위키
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Original Script

::: 學語集 :::

1. 天

天者蒼蒼在上輕淸而至高日月星辰繫焉
  • C 者: that which / one who...
  • 在 N: be in/on/at N
  • C1 而 C2: C1 and/or C2
  • 至 A: extremely A, the most A
  • V 焉: V there/in it/to it

2. 地

地者在下而博厚山川萬物皆載焉

3. 日

日者太陽之精朝出于扶桑暮入于若木冬則短夏則長
  • N1 之 N2: N2 of N1 (N1’s N2)
  • V 于 N: V in/on/at/to/by N (*于 is also written 於)
  • S1 則 S2: (if/when) S1 then S2

4. 月

月者太陰之精遇夜而明望前漸圓望後漸缺
  • N 前 / 後: before/after N

5. 星辰

星辰者萬物之精上爲星辰晝隱夜現
  • 為 N: become N (or, be N)


Translation

Sentence 1 : (Write your name)


  • Discussion Questions:

Sentence 2 : (Francisca)


That which is called the earth lies below and is broad and thick. Mountains and rivers, and the myriad things are all carried in it.

  • Discussion Questions:

+I don't want to render the second half of the sentence into passive form, and wonder if it could be something like "Mountains and rivers, and the myriad things all fill it up." "To fill up" is one of the meanings of 載, but the problem is how to represent the 焉
(YO) How about "ride on it" or "sit on it"?

Sentence 3 : (Kyrie)


That which we call the sun is the essence of the greatest yang. [1] In the morning it departs from the fúsāng tree [2] and in the evening it enters the ruomu tree. [3] If it is winter then it is short, but if it is summer then it is long.

  • Discussion Questions:

+ Should yang be described or is it considered 'common knowledge'?
(YO) I'd say yes.

+Why is there more descriptive information available about the fúsāng tree than about the ruomu tree?
(JG) I checked Baidu, and it seems you are right - 4 times as many results, just to look at the basics, and a more detailed entry in 百度百科! I guess the reasons might be what we discussed in class.

Sentence 4 : (Okyang Chae-Duporge)

That which is called the moon is the essence of the supreme 'yin', becoming bright when it encounters the night. It gradually becomes round before the fifteenth day of the month, progressively waning after the half of the month.


  • Discussion Questions:

+ I would like to put Yin in italic, but I couldn't make it.
(YO) Type two single quotation marks (') before and after it.

Sentence 5 : (Julian Butterfield)

Those which are stars are the essence of the myriad things: ascending, they become stars. The day conceals them, the night reveals them.

  • Discussion Questions:

+ In English translation, is it more appropriate to take 星辰者 and 萬物之精 or 萬物之精 and 上爲星辰 as the more closely related pair or clauses? (I.e. do we prefer "Those which are stars are the essences of the myriad things: they ascend to become stars" or "Regarding those which are stars—the essences of the myriad things ascend to become stars"?)
(YO) I think the latter simply because 星辰者 makes the topic of the entire line.

+ Does the essential relationship of the myriad things to the stars here suggest horoscopy, or a belief in astrological determination?[4]
-Interesting. I haven't thought about it but it makes sense, remembering the scene from the Romance of the Three Kingdoms where Zhuge Liang 諸葛亮 knew one of the royal house members had died by looking at the falling of a specific star.

Notes

  1. As in yin and yang.
  2. [1], The fúsāng tree is a mythical mulberry tree in the east from which the sun was said to rise. Welch, Patricia Bjaaland. Chinese Art: A Guide to Motifs and Visual Imagery. New York, NY: Tuttle Publishing, 2008, p.609.
  3. [2], The ruomu tree is a mythical tree in the west where the sun sets. Fritzinger, Jerald. Pre-Columbian Trans-Oceanic Contact. S.l.: LULU COM, 2016, p.86.
  4. For more on horoscopy in (much earlier) premodern East Asia, see Kotyk, Jeffrey. Buddhist Astrology and Astral Magic in the Tang Dynasty. Diss. Universiteit Leiden, 2017. https://openaccess.leidenuniv.nl/handle/1887/54858