(Translation) 1792年 金憙訓諭敎書

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Introduction

This document is an instruction to appoint Kim Hŭi (RR. Kim Hee. 1729-1800 CE), Grand Minister of Assisting the Censorate, to undertake the duties of Surveillance Commissioner of Hamgyeong Province, in conjunction with conducting the duties of the Military Commissioner of the Land and Naval Forces, Supreme Mobile Inspector, Chief Border Inspector and Chief Magistrate of Hamhŭng. on July 3rd, 1792 (the 16th year of Jeongjo's reign).

Kim Hŭi is the son of Kim Sangkyŏng (RR. Kim Sanggyeong), whose hometown was Kwangsan. In the test of Augmented Liberal Arts of 1773, Kim Hee passed the imperial examination of Office of Scrutiny for War. In the year of 1777 (the 1st year of Jeongjo’s reign), he was selected as Censor of Scribing and Reporting. Later, he also undertook the duties of Assistant Official of Personnel Section, Subeditor, Grand Censor, Chancellor of the Directorate of Education, Surveillance Commissioner of Gangwon Province , Councilor of Personnel Section, Great Keeper of the Fundamental Laws, Vice-minister of Personnel, First Adviser in the Office of Special Advisers, Horse Pasturage Supervisor of Gwangju, Minister of Justice Section, Minister of Rites Section, Surveillance Commissioner of Gyeonggi Province , Commissioner of Seoheung County, Surveillance Commissioner of Hamgyeong Province, and Senior Deliberative Official successively.

In the conflict of the sip'a and pyokp'a, the recommending of officials [to be appointed to the office] became a contentious issue. Following this, after being the Supervisor of the Central Council,[1] Kim then became the Head of the Central Council. After visiting Qing China in 1795 and 1797 as Deputy Envoy of Appreciation,[2] he entered the Hall of Senior Officials.[3]

Original Script

Classical Chinese English

敎 資憲大夫, 行咸鏡道觀察使·兼兵馬水軍
 節度使·都巡察使·咸興府尹 金憙書,

Royal instruction to Kim Hŭi, Grand Master of Assisting the Censorate, to undertake the role of Surveillance Commissioner of Hamgyŏng Province, in conjunction with conducting the duties of the Military Commissioner of the Land and Naval Forces, Supreme Mobile Inspector, Chief Border Inspector and Chief Magistrate of Hamhŭng.

王若曰, 歷數海東八域, 雄藩最稱於邊防,
 專統關北一方, 諸閫咸聽其節制, 非重
 臣, 莫可使也, 當是時, 屬之誰乎, 惟卿名
 門肖孫, 華署學士, 經說雍容, 可聽淵源
 有來, 議論激昻, 自持酒酣以往, 金帶自
 致於八座, 苦蘖淸規, 玉節曾假於兩
 藩, 甘棠餘頌, 凡內外履歷之地, 而大小咸
 得其宜, 言念丙枕宵旰之憂, 尤重北藩懷
 撫之政, 龍興
 王迹, 至今説豐沛舊鄕, 鳥棧地形, 從古稱
 隴蜀故道, 士馬甲兵之精銳, 臺隍亭障
 之堅高, 軍容壯而國勢可尊, 朔氣豁而
 邊警宜熄, 然王化未遍於遐遠, 旣失撫
 御之方, 伊土俗半雜於華夷, 率多麤悍
 之習, 拘於簿書期會, 吏咸從而弄文法焉,
 仍之水旱㐫荒, 民奈何不窮且盜也, 山社
 之接濟無策, 政須實心之懷綏,

The King [thus] states: Throughout all ages, Haedong [Korea] with its eight provinces has been reckoned as a valiant vassal state, most eminently praised among the frontiers. If the Gwanbuk region [lit. north of the passes] is thoroughly governed, all the other regions would listen to [the governor’s] directions. Nobody else but an important minister could be appointed [for such a post]. At present, to whom should its governance belong? Only you, my minister, are a descendant of a prominent family and decent grandson. You are a learned literatus who has experienced many flourishing posts. When you lecture on the Classics, all can hear their origins come forth. Your discussion of affairs is fiercely passionate and uplifting. So much so that people voluntarily bring you wine. Your official career has alone reached eight different positions and you have struggled and maintained regulations pure. The defense of the country had once been lent to two northern provinces and their eulogy remains sweet. Everywhere you have worked, be the tasks big or small, you have accomplished them with appropriateness. I have pondered these words with great concern which did not let me sleep [言念丙枕宵旰之憂]. I consider the governance of cultivating peace in the Northern regions to be a matter of great importance. Until now, the royal traces of a dragon rising has said to be in the old village of Fengpei. [1] Since antiquity, the terrains of dangerously narrow paths has been called the ancient road between Long and Shu.[2] Our warriors, horses, armory, and weapons are an elite force. Our stations, moats, pavilions, and defenses are high and mighty[士馬甲兵之精銳, 臺隍亭障之堅高]. The army's appearance is strong and so the conditions of the state can be elevated. The air of the north is plentiful and so the signals on the frontiers can be extinguished. However, the transformation effected by the king has not yet reached all far-away regions. Already, we have lost control of the method of pacifying and managing [those people there]. The customs of those lands are half-mixed with the civilized and barbarians and they carry out many uncouth and hostile customs. Tied up with all the official records and ledgers, and reporting sessions, all the officers [there] simply proceed in accordance [with this] and tinkle with documents and laws. Then, when met with droughts and bad harvests, how could the common people not turn to privation and stealing? There is no way I can contribute to the aiding of these people [lit. 山社] and to the relief of these [ 政須實心之懷綏].

廟官之儀品載新, 尤見事面之重大, 非卿,
 莫可得人, 於斯, 玆授卿以咸鏡道觀察
 使·兼兵馬水軍節度使·都巡察使·咸興
 府尹, 卿其勉恢良圖, 思副寵命, 布敎條
 而振士習, 明紀律而詰戎機, 蔘貂之禁
 嚴, 遍察廉黷, 弓馬之俗難化, 并施恩威,
 至如禀處裁斷之規, 有掌故耳, 若夫弛
 張設施之道, 宜肩乃心, 於戲, 隻日花甎出,
 自三清卿月, 千里楡塞去, 作一路福星,
 故玆教示, 相宜知悉,
 乾隆五十七年七月初三日,
 
 (施命之寶 一三個)

There are frequent changes in the norms of the etiquette of officials at court. We can see that the situation is becoming increasingly more severe.

[However,] It is not true that there is no-one I can rely upon. Therefore, I bestow unto you, the seal of Surveillance Commissioner of Hamgyŏng Province n conjunction with conducting the duties of the Military Commissioner of the Land and Naval Forces, Supreme Mobile Inspector and Chief Border Inspector. I hope you can recover the ideal political blueprint, think about the royal appointment, declare the regulations and vibrate the moral, make the disciplines clear and investigate the military affairs [詰戎機 lit. opportunity for war].

As to the strict prohibition of smuggled commodities [lit. ginseng and fur], universally observe whether it is clean or dirty. As to the difficulty of edifying the customs of the military, extend in combination, grace and martial dignity. When it comes to the area of appointment regarding the regulation of judging, there are only old regulations. As to the ways of applying your own leadership, you ought to shoulder responsibility with all your heart. [宜肩乃心] Alas!

Only the sun emerges from the flower’s base From the Daoist trinity [三清] comes the moon Departing for the frontier 1000li away Forever will you be a shining star.

I hereby give you my instruction You ought to, my minister, consider all these things.

The 57th year of Qianlong's reign, 7th month, 3rd day

Discussion Questions

  1. What does the edict tell us about the working in the Northern region of Choson? What assumptions did the Choson court make regarding the Northern region of Choson? Do you think the Northern region occupied a special position in Choson's history? If so, a special position of what nature?
  2. How long would it take for Yôngjo (RR: Yeongjo) to write this royal instruction? Would he make one of his ministers read it before sending it?
  3. Was the nature of the language that he uses in this instruction different from the one in his other instructions to officials of the Noron faction?
  4. How does this royal instruction reveal the relationship between the king and his ministers? In addition, how does it reveal the importance of the frontier and the ancestral homeland of the Chosŏn (Joseon) kings?
  5. Why was it so important to Chŏngjo to create a respectful tone of voice and appease Kim regarding his appointment?
  6. What struggles did ministers face in Hamgyŏng Province? Where there similar posts or regions that were disliked by officials?
  7. What were the most coveted positions within the Chosŏn bureaucracy? Why?
  8. What is the history of Gwanbuk's status and role in the Joseon dynasty? Presumably, since this document is from 1792, establishing control over this region was an ongoing struggle throughout the course of the dynasty. Was this effort finally successful?
  9. Were the king's assessment of the province and advice more customarily requisite--thus perhaps more general and literary--parts of this kind of documents? Or could they actually be taken as the way to communicate the king's wishes to the appointee to be taken as specific instructions--which would be done over a phone call or in face-to-face meetings, was it now?

Further Readings


References

  1. Translation of title found in Oh, Young Kyun. 2013. Engraving Virtue: The Printing History of a Premodern Korean Moral Primer. Leiden and Boston: Brill, p. 200
  2. 謝恩使 translated as 'envoy of appreciation' in Oh, Young Kyun. 2013. Engraving Virtue: The Printing History of a Premodern Korean Moral Primer. Leiden and Boston: Brill, p. 72
  3. Cho, Sun-mie. 2010. Great Korean Portraits: Immortal Images of the Noble and the Brave. Translated by Lee Kyong-hee. Seoul: Dolbegae Publishers, p. 16

Translation

Instruction to Kim Hŭi, Grand Master of Aiding Statute (?), to undertake the role of Surveillance Commissioner of Hamgyŏng Province, in conjunction with conducting the duties of the Military Commissioner of the Land and Naval Forces, Supreme Mobile Inspector, Chief Border Inspector and Chief Magistrate of Hamhŭng.

The King [thus] states: Throughout all ages, Haedong [Korea] with its eight provinces has been reckoned as a valiant vassal state, most eminently praised among the frontiers. If the Gwanbuk region [lit. north of the passes] is thoroughly governed, all the other regions would listen to [the governor’s] directions. Nobody else but an an important minister could be appointed [for such a post]. At present , to whom should its governance belong? Only you, my minister, are a descendant of a prominent family and decent grandson. You are a learned literati who has experienced many flourishing posts. When you lecture on the Classics, all can hear its origins come forth. Your discussion of affairs is fiercely passionate and uplifting. So much so that people voluntarily bring wine to you. Your official career has alone reached eight different positions and you have struggled and maintained regulations pure. The defense of the country had once been lent to two northern province and their eulogy remains sweet. Everywhere you worked, be the tasks big or small, you accomplished with appropriateness. I have pondered these words with great concern which did not let me sleep (?). I consider the governance of cultivating peace in the Northern regions to be a matter of great importance. Until now, the royal traces of a dragon rising has said to be in the old village of Fengpei. [1] Since antiquity, the terrains of dangerously narrow paths has been called the ancient road between Long and Shu.[2] Our warriors, horses, armory and weapons are an elite force. Our stations, moats, pavilions and defenses are high and mighty[士馬甲兵之精銳, 臺隍亭障之堅高]. The army's appearance is strong and so the conditions of the state can be elevated. The air of the north is plentiful and so the signals on the frontiers can be extinguished. However, the transformation effected by the king has not yet reached all far-away regions. Already, we have lost control of the method of pacifying and managing [those people there]. The customs of those lands are half-mixed with the civilized and barbarians and they carry out many uncouth and hostile customs. Tied up with all the official records and ledgers, and reporting sessions, all the officers [there] simply proceed in accordance [with this] and tinkle with documents and laws. Then, when met with droughts and bad harvests, how could the common people not turn to privation and stealing? There is no way I can contribute to the aiding of these people [lit. 山社] and to the relief of these [ 政須實心之懷綏].

There are frequent changes in the norms of etiquette of officials at court. We can see that the situation is becoming increasingly more severe. [However,] It is not true that there is no-one I can rely upon. Therefore, I bestow unto you, the seal of Surveillance Commissioner of Hamgyŏng Province n conjunction with conducting the duties of the Military Commissioner of the Land and Naval Forces, Supreme Mobile Inspector and Chief Border Inspector. I hope you can recover the ideal political blueprint, think about the royal appointment, declare the regulations and vibrate the moral, make the disciplines clear and investigate the military affairs [詰戎機 lit. opportunity for war]. As to the strict prohibition of smuggled commodities [lit. ginseng and fur], universally observe whether it is clean or dirty. As to the difficulty of edifying the customs of the military, extend in combination, grace and martial dignity. When it comes to the area of appointment regarding the regulation of judging, there are only old regulations. As to the ways of applying your own leadership, you ought to shoulder responsibility with all your heart. [宜肩乃心] Alas!

Only the sun emerges from the flower’s base From the 三清 comes the moon Departing for the frontier 1000li away Forever will you be a shining star.

I hereby give you my instruction You ought to, my minister, consider all these things.

57th year of Qianlong, 7th month, 3rd day


(sample) : Jaeyoon Song


敎 資憲大夫, 行咸鏡道觀察使·兼兵馬水軍

(2)   節度使·都巡察使·咸興府尹 金憙書,


(3) 王若曰, 歷數海東八域, 雄藩最稱於邊防,

(4)   專統關北一方, 諸閫咸聽其節制, 非重

(5)   臣, 莫可使也,


The King [thus] speaks: Throughout all ages the East of the Ocean [Haedong, meaning Korea] with its eight provinces has been reckoned as the valiant vassal state, most eminently praised among the frontiers. If the Gwanbuk [lit.north of the passes ] region is thoroughly governed, all the other regions would listen to [the governor's] directions [節制]. Nobody else but an an important minister could be appointed [for such post]. At the present period, to whom should it belong? Only you, my minister, are a descendant of a prominent family and decent grandson.


當是時, 屬之誰乎, 惟卿名

(6)   門肖孫, 華署學士, 經說雍容, 可聽淵源

(7)   有來, 議論激昻, 自持酒酣以往, 金帶自

(8)   致於八座, 苦蘖淸規, 玉節曾假於兩

(9)   藩, 甘棠餘頌, 凡內外履歷之地, 而大小咸

(10)  得其宜, 言念丙枕宵旰之憂, 尤重北藩懷

(11)  撫之政, 龍興

(12) 王迹, 至今説豐沛舊鄕, 鳥棧地形, 從古稱

(13)  隴蜀故道, 士馬甲兵之精銳, 臺隍亭障

(14)  之堅高, 軍容壯而國勢可尊, 朔氣豁而

(15)  邊警宜熄, 然王化未遍於遐遠, 旣失撫

(16)  御之方, 伊土俗半雜於華夷, 率多麤悍

(17)  之習, 拘於簿書期會, 吏咸從而弄文法焉,

(18)  仍之水旱㐫荒, 民奈何不窮且盜也, 山社

(19)  之接濟無策, 政須實心之懷綏,

(20)  廟官之儀品載新, 尤見事面之重大, 非卿,

(21)  莫可得人, 於斯, 玆授卿以咸鏡道觀察

(22)  使·兼兵馬水軍節度使·都巡察使·咸興

(23)  府尹, 卿其勉恢良圖, 思副寵命, 布敎條

(24)  而振士習, 明紀律而詰戎機, 蔘貂之禁

(25)  嚴, 遍察廉黷, 弓馬之俗難化, 并施恩威,

(26)  至如禀處裁斷之規, 有掌故耳, 若夫弛

(27)  張設施之道, 宜肩乃心, 於戲, 隻日花甎出,

(28)  自三清卿月, 千里楡塞去, 作一路福星,

(29)  故玆教示, 相宜知悉,

(30)  乾隆五十七年七月初三日,

(施命之寶 一三個)



  • Discussion Questions:

Student 1 : Yishu Ma


  • Discussion Questions:


金帶自致於八座, 苦蘖淸規, 玉節曾假於兩藩, 甘棠餘頌。

Translation: The golden belt (granted by the emperor) has been sent to the eight high official positions. The strict regulations are like bitter tillers (of trees). The jade knot (used as a symbol of defending the country) has once been lent to two northern provinces. The eulogy remains is like sweet cherry-apple (flowers).

《周礼·地官·掌节》:“守邦国者用玉节,守都鄙者用角节。”

敎 資憲大夫, 行咸鏡道觀察使·兼兵馬水軍節度使·都巡察使·咸興府尹 金憙書,

Translation:

Instruction to Kim Hee, Grand Minister of Assisting the Censorate, to undertake the duties of Surveillance Commissioner of Hamgyeong Province and concurrent Commissioner of the army and navy, Touring Investigator of the capital, and Governor of Hamheung Prefecture.

Student 2 : Samuel Sai Hay Chan 陳世熙 진세희


凡內外履歷之地, 而大小咸得其宜,

Everywhere you worked, be the tasks big or small, you accomplished with appropriateness.


敎 資憲大夫, 行咸鏡道觀察使·兼兵馬水軍節度使·都巡察使·咸興府尹 金憙書

Instruction to Grand Master for Assisting the Censorate Kim Hŭi who is to take on the role of the Surveillance Commissioner, Military Commissioner of the Army, Cavalry and Navy , Envoy Commander-in-chief of Hamgyŏng Province and Prefect of Hamhŭng Prefecture.

  • Discussion Questions:

What does the edict tell us about the working in the Northern region of Choson? What assumptions did the Choson court make regarding the Northern region of Choson? Do you think the Northern region occupied a special position in Choson's history? If so, a special position of what nature?

Student 3 : Younès M'Ghari


敎 資憲大夫, 行咸鏡道觀察使·兼兵馬水軍節度使·都巡察使·咸興府尹 金憙書 

Instruction to the General Official of Aiding Statute, General Inspector of the Hamgyông (RR: Hamgyeong) province, currently Rear-Admiral Commander-in-chief, Envoy Commander-in-chief, Prefect of Hamhûng (RR: Hamheung), Kim Hui.


言念丙枕宵旰之憂, 尤重北藩懷撫之政, 

I thought [in words] of [this] worry which did not let me sleep at the byông time1.

I consider highly important the governance of cultivating peace in the Northern hedges.


1 丙枕 (Chinese: bing), the third time period of the night out of 5 in the Chinese traditional system, that is around midnight.

2 宵旰 (“from night to evening”) is an idiomatic expression (ex: 宵旰圖治, 宵旰憂勞, 宵旰所勞).


  • Discussion Questions:

How long would it take for Yôngjo (RR: Yeongjo) to write this royal instruction? Would he make one of his ministers read it before sending it?

Was the nature of the language that he uses in this instruction different from the one in his other instructions to officials of the Noron faction?

Student 4 : King Kwong Wong


敎 資憲大夫, 行咸鏡道觀察使·兼兵馬水軍節度使·都巡察使·咸興府尹 金憙書 Instruction to Kim Hŭi (Gim Hui), Grand Master of Aiding Statute, acting Surveillance Commissioner of Hamgyŏng (Hamgyeong) Province, concurrently Army and Navy Commander, Supreme Mobile Inspector, and Chief Magistrate of Hamhŭng (Hamheung).

龍興王迹, 至今説豐沛舊鄕, As to the royal traces of dragon rising, until now it is said to be the old village of Fengpei.[3]

鳥棧地形, 從古稱隴蜀故道 As to the terrains of dangerously narrow paths,[4] since antiquity it is called the ancient road between Long and Shu.[5]

  • Discussion Questions:

How does this royal instruction reveal the relationship between the king and his ministers? In addition, how does it reveal the importance of the frontier and the ancestral homeland of the Chosŏn (Joseon) kings?

Student 5 : (Write your name)


  • Discussion Questions:


Student 6 : Stacey Lui


  • Discussion Questions:

Why was it so important to Chŏngjo to create a respectful tone of voice and appease Kim regarding his appointment?


What struggles did ministers face in Hamgyŏng Province? Where there similar posts or regions that were disliked by officials?


What were the most coveted positions within the Chosŏn bureaucracy? Why?


敎 資憲大夫, 行咸鏡道觀察使·兼兵馬水軍節度·都巡察使·咸興府尹 金憙書

I write in order to instruct that Constitutional Asset Minister Kim Hui will undertake the duties of Surveillance Commissioner of Hamgyŏng Province, in conjunction with the roles of Military Commissioner of the Land and Navy Forces, Chief Border Inspector and Chief Magistrate of Hamhŭng.

軍容壯而國勢可尊, 朔氣豁而邊警宜熄

The army's appearance is strong and so the conditions of the state can be raised. The air of the north is plentiful and so the signals on the frontiers can be extinguished.

Student 7 : Russell Guilbault


資憲大夫, 行咸鏡道觀察使·兼兵馬水軍節度使·都巡察使·咸興府尹

Royal instruction: Minister of assistance in legislation, undertaking the duties of: Hamgyeong Province chief inspector, provincial governor of troops and water transport, chief of the capital inspection patrol, prefect of Hamheung. Appointee: Jinxi.


然王化未遍於遐遠, 旣失撫御之方, 
伊土俗半雜於華夷, 率多麤悍之習,

However, the transformation effected by the king has not yet reached all far-away areas; we have already lost our methods of controlling and soothing [those people]. The customs of that land are half-mixed with Hua and barbarians, and they carry out many uncouth and hostile customs.


  • Discussion Questions:
  1. What is the history of Gwanbuk's status and role in the Joseon dynasty? Presumably, since this document is from 1792, establishing control over this region was an ongoing struggle throughout the course of the dynasty. Was this effort finally successful?

Student 8 : Q


拘於簿書期會, 吏咸從而弄文法焉, 
仍之水旱㐫荒, 民奈何不窮且盜也

Tied up with all the official records and ledgers, and reporting sessions, all the officers simply oblige and fiddle with documents and laws.

Then, met with droughts and bad harvests, how can people avoid dire privation and not steal?

敎 資憲大夫, 行咸鏡道觀察使·兼兵馬水軍節度使·都巡察使·咸興府尹 金憙 書

Issuing order appointing Lord in Aid of Legal Order, Junior Second Grade, Lower Grade, to the position of

  • Discussion Questions:

Were the king's assessment of the province and advice more customarily requisite--thus perhaps more general and literary--parts of this kind of documents? Or could they actually be taken as the way to communicate the king's wishes to the appointee to be taken as specific instructions--which would be done over a phone call or in face-to-face meetings, were it now?

Student 9 : (Write your name)


  • Discussion Questions:


Student 10 : (Write your name)


敎 資憲大夫 行咸鏡道觀察使·兼兵馬水軍節度使·都巡察使·咸興府尹 金憙書

An instruction to Kim Hui, the grand master for assisting constitutions, assuming the duties of the commissioner of Hamgyong province, the military governor of navy and army, supreme mobile inspector, and the chief magistrate of Hamhung

Student 11 : (Write your name)


  • Discussion Questions:


Student 12 : (Write your name)


  • Discussion Questions:


Student 13 : (Write your name)


  • Discussion Questions:


Student 14 : (Write your name)


  • Discussion Questions:
  • This refers to the hometown of Gaozu, the founder of the Han dynasty.
  • Long refers to nowaday Gansu, while Shu refers to Sichuan.
  • This refers to the hometown of Gaozu, the founder of the Han dynasty.
  • 鳥棧 refers to 鳥道 and 棧道, two expressions of dangerous narrow roads.
  • Long refers to nowaday Gansu, while Shu refers to Sichuan.