(Translation) 彙纂麗史 凡例
|English||Explanatory Notes on the Style and Format of the Compiled Edition of Koryŏ History|
|Korean(RR)||목재가숙 휘찬려사(Hwichʻan yŏsa) 범례|
|Key Concepts||Historiography, Koryŏ History, International Relations, Sino-Korean Relations, Confucianism, Neo-Confucianism|
|Translator(s)||Participants of 2018 Summer Hanmun Workshop (Advanced Translation Group)|
|Editor(s)||King Kwong Wong|
Explanatory Notes on the Style and Format of the Compiled Edition of Koryŏ History
One. According to the historiographical principles of the Spring and Autumn [Annals], [the death of] the heavenly sovereign is written as “demised”, and the [death of] various state rulers is written as “deceased”. Whenever [the obituary] was received, then it is written; whenever it was not, then it is not written. During the Song from Taizu (r. 960-976) to Zhezong (r. 1085-1100), the obituary of the emperor all came from the government reports dispatched from Mizhou, now following the precedents of the classics I write them. After [the Song] crossed the river south, the obituary did not reach [the Eastern Country], therefore it is not written, or following the example of Mister Zuo, it is written. When [the Eastern Country] submitted and served [the Song], [the death of] the emperor is written as “the emperor demised.” When [the Eastern Country] served the Jin and Yuan, [the death of the Song emperor] is written as “the Song emperor demised.” This is the standard of historiographical principles.
One. As to the style and format of the History of Koryŏ, they follow [the standard of] the History of Yuan for the writing of various treatises. One by one each entry is listed and recorded, like government institutions and ritual protocols; this is not the standard of writing history. Now I imprudently follow the historiographical principles of previous dynasties, alter the composition of various treatises, synthesize the entries into proses. The evolution of the institutions of astronomy, geography, military affairs and punishments during the 500 years are all assembled into proses, so that their summary and entire discourse, as well as advantages and disadvantages, can be observed clear-sightedly. Therefore, the form of biographies and treatises should be established together with the that of chronicle; each makes use of the other. One should not emphasize one form at the expense of another.
One. As to the various prominent ministers, take those who had the same affairs or similar achievements, reputations, and backgrounds, put them as group according to their kind to write their biographies, and attach to them my commentaries. All follow the historiographical principles of [the Book of] Han, [the Book of] Jin, [the Book of] Tang, and [the History of] Song.
One. The gain and loss of borderland are important affairs that bind the whole state. For example, the return of P'oju (RR: Poju) now Ŭiju (RR: Uiju) to Koryŏ (RR: Goryeo) is recorded in the Mirror of the Song. Even the Comprehensive Mirror of the Eastern Country and the other books, all leave out and do not record it. In addition, cases, such as the two physicians travelled back and forth [between Koryŏ and Song] during the reign of Huizong (r. 1100-1126) are particularly illuminating that cannot be left out and not written. Now following the History of Song all are written.
One. As to the wars waged on the Eastern Country, all are verified with the historical records of the central court, tracing the roots of such calamity, and written.
One. As to Ch’ungsuk (RR: Chungsuk) and Ch’unghye (RR: Chunghye) proclaimed new reign after each other, the old format of the History of Koryŏ is particularly wrong. Now all are rectified.
One. As to the historians’ methods of writing of sentences, the usage of words has its own methods and precedents. People of the East do not know this, and their way of narration often uses unpolished expressions to complete the sentences. Now I imprudently revise and alter them, replacing them with other words. As for the cases that involved places of uncertainty, I dare not imprudently write down a single word to make up. Those of which I added in from other books, all are cited with their origins.
One. As to the histories of previous dynasties, all have appendix on foreign barbarians. Now I imprudently follow them and write Kitan, Japan and other biographies.
One. The compilations of histories of the central courts – the two Han, the Jin, the North and South dynasties, the Tang, and the Song, all regard highly on the annals and biographies [style]. For example, the Annotated Outline of the Comprehensive Mirror was not composed by court historians, but using the annals and biographies of previous histories as basis, the authors rewrite them for their own convenience, thus its prose is splendid and worth reading. Although the Eastern Country has its own biographies, its proses are vulgar and not elegant. The Comprehensive Mirror of the Eastern Country and other documents one after another follow them. Therefore, they do not reach the refinement of the histories from China. Here I take various biographies and slightly affix my deletion and embellishment: matters are added from the old by one tenth, and words are deleted from the former by six tenths, so as to wait for those who actually write histories to collect and compile it into a chronicle and tighten it up into a great classic of the Eastern Country.
- Discussion Questions:
- How does Hong Yŏha think about the style and format of the Koryŏsa? What are the reasons for him to justify such changes?
- How does this text reflect the worldview of Chosŏn intellectuals? Considering this text was written in the mid-17th century, how does this text reflect Chosŏn's geopolitical situation of that time?
- What kind of Confucian value is embodied in this text?
- How does this text tell about the author's perception of the Han and non-Han dynasties of China? Why does the author have such perception?
- nowadays in Shandong province, China
- This refers to Zuo Qiuming 左丘明 (556-451 BCE), the author of the Zuo Commentary 左傳.
- The Book of Han 漢書 was written by Ban Gu 班固 (32-92 CE) and completed by Ban Zhao 班昭 (45?-116? CE) during the Eastern Han period (25-220 CE). The Book of Jin 晉書 was compiled by Fang Xuanling 房玄齡 (579-648 CE) in 648. There are two books of Tang – the Old Book of Tang 舊唐書 and the New Book of Tang 新唐書. The Old Book of Tang was compiled by Liu Xu 劉昫 (888–947 CE) in 945 and the New Book of Tang was compiled by Ouyang Xiu 歐陽修 (1007-1072 CE) in 1060. The History of Song was compiled by Toqto'a 脫脫 (1314-1356 CE) in 1345.
- Its alternative title is 增修附註通鑑節要續編. It was compiled by Liu Shan 劉剡 and edited by Zhang Guangqi 張光啓 during Ming Xuanzong’s 宣宗 reign (1426-1435 CE).
- It was compiled by Sŏ Kŏchŏng 徐居正 (RR: Seo Geojeong, 1420-1492 CE) and completed in 1485.
- This refers to the fact that they consecutively succeeded each other, thus both had a second ascension after the other’s dethronement.
- It was compiled by Zhu Xi 朱熹 (1130-1200 CE) and is the first kangmok style history of its kind.