(2017Translation) 率居

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Original Script

率居, 新羅人, 所出微, 故不記其族系, 生而善畫, 嘗於皇龍寺壁畫老松, 體幹鱗皴, 枝葉盤屈, 烏鳶燕雀, 往往望之飛入, 及到, 蹭蹬而落, 歲久色暗, 寺僧以丹靑補之, 烏雀不復至, 又慶州芬皇寺觀音菩薩晉州斷俗寺維麾像, 皆其筆蹟, 世傳爲神畫. 《三國史記.卷48》


Translation

Student 1 : Sanghoon Na


Solgŏ was a man of Silla kingdom. His family background was so insignificant that there was no record of his genealogy. From his birth he was good at drawing. Once on the wall of Hwangryong Temple(lit. Yellow Dragon Temple) he drew an old pine tree. Tree trunks had scaly, wrinkled barks and branches and leaves were crooked and twisted. Crows, hawks, swallows, and sparrows occasionally observed {%%saw%%} it and flew into [it]. [But when] lighting on {%%they reached there%%}, they slipped and fell [to the ground]. As the many years passed by, the color faded to dark gray. A monk at the temple painted it over with red and blue pigments. But the crows and sparrows never came back. And the Avalokiteśvara of Punhwang Temple in Kyŏngju and the Vimalakirti Image of Tansok Temple in Chinju are all traces of his brushes, which have been transmitted for generations as legendary paintings.

Student 2 : Younès M'Ghari


Solgô was someone from {%%from%%} Silla. He was coming from a humble background, therefore no one had recorded his family lineage. He was born good at drawing. He had drawn old pine trees on the walls of the Hwangryong temple1; the trunks had scaly dabbings, the branches and leaves were twisted. Crows, hawks, swallows and sparrows would frequently see them and fly in, but when reaching them they would slip and fall. As years passed, the colors became dark. The monks of the temple fix it up with new colors; the crows and sparrows never came again. The Bodhisattva Guanyin3 of the Punhwang Temple2 in Kyôngju and the picture of the Vimalakirti3 of the Tansok Templ4e in Chinju, all of these were also traces of his drawing and the generations transmitted that they were sacred paintings.


1: 皇龍寺 ('Temple of the Yellow Dragon'), ancient buddhist temple built during the 6th century in the Silla capital Kyôngju. It was destroyed in 1238 during the Mongol invasions

2: 芬皇寺 ('Temple of the Fragrant Yellow')

3: Buddhist entities

4: 斷俗寺 ('Temple of the Absolute Common')

Student 3 : Petra Sváková


Solgŏ [was a] man of Shilla. He was of humble background, thus there is no record of his family line. From his birth, he was good [by nature] at drawing. Once he drew an old pine tree on the wall of Hwangnyong Temple1 - trunk [had] scales and wrinkles [on it], and branches and leaves were curved and twisted. Crows, hawks, swallows and sparrows often times saw it from apart {%%afar%%} and [wanted {%%tried%%}to] fly into [it]. [However] when they reached [it], they slipped and fell down. As time passed, the colours had darkened. A monk of the temple repaired it with colours of tanch'ŏng2 [but] the crows and the sparrows would not come again. Also, portraits of Bodhisattva Kwan'ŭm3 at Punhwang Temple4 in Kyŏngju and Yuma5 at Tansok Temple6 in Chinju all have traces of his brush. For generations, these are known as divine pictures.

Corrected text:

Solgŏ [was a] man of Shilla. He was of humble background, thus there is no record of his family line. From his birth, he was good [by nature] at drawing. Once he drew an old pine tree on the wall of Hwangnyong Temple1 - trunk [had] scales and wrinkles [on it], and branches and leaves were curved and twisted. Crows, hawks, swallows and sparrows often times saw it from afar and [tried to] fly into [it]. [However] when they reached [it], they slipped and fell down. As time passed, the colours had darkened. A monk of the temple repaired it with colours of tanch'ŏng2 [but] the crows and the sparrows would not come again. Also, portraits of Bodhisattva Kwan'ŭm3 at Punhwang Temple4 in Kyŏngju and Yuma5 at Tansok Temple6 in Chinju all have traces of his brush. For generations, these are known as divine pictures.


1 Hwangnyon Temple (or Hwangnyongsa; Temple of the Royal Dragon) was a Buddhist temple built in Shilla's capital Kyŏngju between years 553 - 569 AD. It is known for its nine-story pagoda and it is also linked with the legend of Ichadon [1][2].

2 Tanch'ŏng is a term for Korean traditional painting. It is based on five basic colours - blue, white, red, black and yellow[3].

3 Avalokiteśvara

4 Punhwang Temple (or Punhwangsa; Temple of Famous Emperor) was built 634 and it has the oldest datable pagoda from the Shilla period[4][5].

5 Vimalakīrti

6 Tansok Temple (or Tansoksa) was built in South Kyŏngsang province in Chiri mountains. It is not sure when it was established, there are two dates of 748 or 763.

Student 4 : (Write your name)


Solgŏ [was a] a man of Silla. The place he was from was obscure {%%He was from a humble background%%}, [and] for this reason [people] did not record his clan or genealogy.

[From] birth [it] pleased [him] to draw {%%he was good at drawing%%}. Once [he] drew an old pine tree on the wall of Hwanglong Temple.

Its body and branches were dabbed with scales and wrinkles, its branches and leaves were coiled and crooked. Crows and kites {%%hawks%%}, swallows and sparrows often saw [it from afar] and flew in, [and] suddenly arriving, scraped and smacked [against the wall and] fell.

Years passed [and the tree's] color dimmed, [so] a temple monk used pigments1 to patch it, and birds did not again reach [it]

The Boddhisatva Kwannŭm2 [painting] in Punhwang Temple in Gyŏngju and the Vimalakirti3 painting in Dansok Temple in Chinchu {%%Chinju%%}all also [bore] the mark of his brush, [and] the scholars of his generation took these to be legendary paintings.

1 The colors that make up the traditional colors collectively termed tanch'ŏng (丹靑).

2 A Buddhist deity (C: Guanyin; J: Kannon).

3 A Buddhist layman who is the main figure in the Vimalakirti Sutra, composed in the second century CE.


Edited:

Solgŏ [was a] a man of Silla. [He was] of a humble background, [and] for this reason [people] did not record his clan or genealogy.

[From] birth he drew well. Once [he] drew an old pine tree on the wall of Hwanglong Temple.

Its body and branches were dabbed with scales and wrinkles, its branches and leaves were coiled and crooked. Crows and hawks, swallows and sparrows often saw [it from afar] and flew in, [and] suddenly arriving, scraped and smacked [against the wall and] fell.

Years passed [and the tree's] color dimmed, [so] a temple monk used pigments1 to patch it, and birds did not again reach [it].

The Boddhisatva Kwannŭm [painting] in Punhwang Temple in Gyŏngju and the Vimalakirti3 painting in Dansok Temple in Chinju all also [bore] the mark of his brush, [and] the scholars of his generation took these to be legendary paintings.

Student 5 : (Jae Yong Chang)


Solgŏ. He was Silla’s man and from a humble house. Therefore, there was no record of his family lineage. He was good at painting from his birth. Once he had drawn an old pine tree on the wall of Hwangnyŏng temple. [Its] tree trunks had scales and wrinkles, branches and leaves were twisted and bent. Crows, hawks, swallows, and sparrows sometimes saw it from a distance and flew to it. [When they] reached it, they ran into {%%slipped%%}and fell down. As years passed, the color became faint. A monk at the temple painted it with red and blue colors. [But] the crows and sparrows never came back again. Both the images of Bodhisattva of Punhwang Temple in Kyŏngju and of Yuma of Tansŏk Temple in Chinju were painted by him. They became legendary paintings from generation to generation.

Student 6 : (Goeun Lee)

率居, 新羅人, 所出微, 故不記其族系,

Solgeo, a man from Silla, [had] a humble background, so [there is] no record of his family lineage.

生而善畫, 嘗於皇龍寺壁畫老松,

[He was] born good at painting. Once he had drawn an old pine tree on the wall of Hwangnyongsa temple. 1)

體幹鱗皴, 枝葉盤屈, 烏鳶燕雀, 往往望之飛入,

[Its] trunk and branches [had] scales and wrinkles, branches and leaves [were] twisted and bent. [Birds like] crows, hawks, swallows and sparrows saw it from a distance, flew towards it.

及到, 蹭蹬而落, 歲久色暗, 寺僧以丹靑補之, 烏雀不復至,

Reaching [the wall], they ran into it and fell down. As times went by, [its] colors became pale. A monk of the temple fixed it with red and blue colors. [After then] crows and sparrows did not come again.

又慶州芬皇寺 觀音菩薩 晉州 斷俗寺 維麾像, 皆其筆蹟, 世傳爲神畫.

The image of Bodhisattva觀音菩薩 at Bunhwangsa temple 2) in Gyeongju, the image of Yuma維麾 at Dansoksa temple 3) in Jinju were painted by him. Throughout generations, [these] became egendary paintings.

《三國史記.卷48》 <<Samguksagi Gwon48>>

1) Hwangnyongsa temple was the most renowned Buddhist temple from Silla period. It was established in Gyeongju, the capital of Silla, in 569 A.D.(Jinheung 29) but was burnt down in 1238 A.D.(Gojong 25) during the Mongolian invasion.

2) Bunhwangsa temple was built in the north of the palace in Gyeongju in 634 A.D. (Seondeok 3). Wonhyo resided here and wrote many articles such as 《華嚴經疏》·《金光明經疏》. It was also damaged during the Mongolian and Japanese invations.

3) Dansoksa temple was built in Jirisan mountain. As for its establishment, there are two theories: 대내마 이순(李純) built it in 748 (Gyeongdeok 7); 신충(信忠) built it in 763 (Gyeongdeok 25).


Student 7 : (Alexandre Le Marchand)


Solgo, from Silla kingdom, was born in a village so tiny that no one recorded {%%from a humble background and there was no record of %%} his family clan line. Since he was borne he was really good at painting. Once he painted old pine trees on the wall of Hwangyong temple. Trunks and branches were like chapped fish scales. {00 枝葉盤屈 is not translated.00} Crows, ravens, swallows and sparrows would fly into {^it^}as soon as they saw it by when they arrive they would crash and fall. Many years pass and the colors turn dark so a monk tried to fix it up with blue color, but the birds never come again. At Kyongju the Punhwang temple of Bodhisattva Guanyin and the image of Vimalakirti at Tansok temple of Jinju all have traces of his brush. He was {%%And [those paintings] were%%} known through generations as a holy painter {%%spritual paintings%%}.

Student 8 : Bryan Sauvadet


Solgŏ was a person from Silla state. Nobody knew his background origins {%%He came from a humble family background%%}, and there were any records of his family linage {%%no record of his lineage%%}. From birth, he was dexterous at painting. Once, He had painted old pine trees on the walls of the Hwangnyong-sa: the monastery of the dragon emperor {00Since this is a name of a temple, translation would not be necessary.00}. The major branches and trunks cracked {^like scales^} the little branches and leaves twisted between each others {%%and bent%%}. Crows, {^hawks,^} swallows, sparrows and various birds, often times, they {%%saw it and, and%%} flew and crashed into they the walls {^into it, and when they reached there, they slipped and fell off%%}. The time pasted {%%passed%%}, and the colors had darkened. So the monks fixed it with vermillion and blue pigments, and the crows and the other birds {%%sparrows%%} never returned to the walls of the monastery. Moreover, [through] the bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara on the Punhwang-sa: the monastery of imperial fragrance, in Kyŏngju; and the representation of the lay practitioner Vimalakīrti at the Tansok-sa: the monastery of the Samatā, in Chinju; everybody traced his brush {%%are the traces of his brush%%}. Generations after generations, people transmitted that he was a holy painter {%%they were transmitted as spiritual paintings.%%}

Student 9 : HeeJin Lee


Solgŏ [was] a man [of] Silla[.] [His] background [was] insignificant, and so his family lineage is not recorded[.] ]He was] born and drew well. [He] had once [done] a wall painting [of] an old pine tree at Hwangyŏng temple, [its] body [and] branches [were] scaled [and] wrinkly, [its] twigs [and] leaves [were] tangled [and] bent, crows[,] hawks[,] swallows[,] [and] sparrows, from time to time saw it [and] flew into it, [but] arriving/reaching [it,] skidded[,] slid[,] and fell[.] A year passed [and its] color darkened[,] [so] a monk [of] the temple restored it by using pigments, [but] the crows [and] sparrows [did] not again arrive[.] [Solgŏ] also painted the Guanyin boddhisattva at the Punhwang temple [at] Kyŏngju [and] the image of Yuma at the Tansok temple [at] Chinju[.] All the traces [of] his brush, people of [that] generation take to [be] legendary paintings.

Student 10 : Jelena Gledić


Solgo was a person from Silla. He was of humble background, and so there are no records of his lineage. From birth, he was good at drawing. Once he drew an old pine on the wall of Hwangnyong Temple[1] – the trunk and branches were rough and barky, the shoots and leaves coiled and bent. Crows, hawks, swallows and sparrows would often see it and want to fly into it. When they arrived, they were hapless and they fell. Years passed and the colors grew dim. A monk from the temple used red and blue pigments to restore it, and the crows and sparrows did not return. In addition, the images of Avalokitesvara at Bunhwangsa in Gyeongju and of Vimalakirti at Dansoksa in Jinju[2] all [carry] traces of his brush. Generation after generation considers them as legendary paintings. "Samguk Sagi, scroll 48"

Student 11 : (Write your name)



Student 12 : (Write your name)


Solgŏ is a person from Silla. Because his background is not clearly known, his lineage cannot be described (here). From his birth, (by nature) he was good at drawing. In his early career, he drew a painting of an old pine tree on the wall of the Hwangryong Buddhist temple. The trunk and stems looked like wrinkled; the branches and leaves looked like turned and twisted; crows, hawks, swallows, and sparrows often flew in, then hit the wall, and staggered and fell down. After a long time, as the colour faded, a Buddhist monk painted it over with colours of red and blue (tanch’ŏng is more like traditional multicoloured paintwork on wooden buildings). Swallows and sparrows did not come again. Also, Avalokitesvara in the Punhwang Buddhist Temple in Kyŏngju and the image of Vimalakīrti in the Tan’sok Buddhist Temple in Chinju are all his works. After generations, they are regarded as masterpieces in painting.

Student 13 : Ra Yeonjae


Solgo was a person of Silla. His background was humble, so there was no record about his family lineage. During his life, he was good at drawing. Once in the wall of Hwangryong temple, he drew an old pine tree. The trunk and the branches were scaled and wrinkled. The shoots and the leaves were twisted and bend. Crows, hawks, swallows and sparrows often looked it up and flied into it. Suddenly arriving, staggering and falling down. The time passed, the color became darken. The monk of the temple fixed with tanchong [3], the crows and the sparrows did not come again. Also the image of avalokitesvara on Punhwang temple in Gyeongju and the image of Yuma(維摩) on Tansok temple in Jinju were all his works. The paintings were transmitted and became legendary one.
  1. 皇龍寺, a temple central for Buddhism during the Silla period. It no longer exists, but it is said that at the time of its constructions it was the tallest wooden structure in the world.
  2. Images of significant Buddhist figures.
  3. Tanchong(丹靑): traditional technique decorating the traditional korean building with five pigments(blue, red, yellow, white, black)