Difference between revisions of "The June Democracy Movement and South Korea's Democratization"

From Korea100
Jump to: navigation, search
m (Lyndsey님이 The June Democracy Movement and Korea's Democratization 문서를 넘겨주기를 만들지 않고 The June Democracy Movement and South Korea's Democratization 문서로 이동했습니다)
 
Line 2: Line 2:
 
|Article=국민의 권리 되찾은 민주주의 운동
 
|Article=국민의 권리 되찾은 민주주의 운동
 
}}
 
}}
The April Revolution of 1960 marked the beginning of subsequent democracy movements in South Korea that ingrained into the people’s minds the core values and principles of democracy. It was sparked by a protest against the rigged presidential and vice-presidential elections held on March 15. Rhee Syngman, who had been in office since 1948 was re-elected after his opponents were executed for being Communists or “accidentally” died of heart attacks.  
+
The [[1960 April Revolution|April Revolution]] of 1960 marked the beginning of subsequent democracy movements in [[Republic of Korea (South Korea)|South Korea]] that ingrained into the people’s minds the core values and principles of democracy. It was sparked by a protest against the rigged presidential and vice-presidential elections held on March 15. [[Syngman Rhee]], who had been in office since 1948 was re-elected after his opponents were executed for being Communists or "accidentally" died of heart attacks.  
  
When the opposition Democratic Party, exposed the Rhee government’s electoral fraud, a protest erupted in Masan City of South Gyeongsang Province. When the body of high school student Kim Ji-yeol was found on the shore in April, a massive protest erupted nation-wide. He had been shot by a tear-gas grenade in a violent clash between the protesters and the police.  
+
When the opposition Democratic Party, exposed the Rhee government's electoral fraud, a protest erupted in the City of [[Masan, Gyeongsangbuk-do]]. When the body of high school student [[Kim Ji-yeol]] was found on the shore in April, a massive protest erupted nation-wide. He had been shot by a tear-gas grenade in a violent clash between the protesters and the police.  
  
On April 19, 2,000 protesters consisting mostly of university students but also middle and high school students, marched to the Blue House demanding President Rhee’s resignation. The police opened fire on the protesters, killing 21 people and injuring 172.
+
On April 19, 2,000 protesters consisting mostly of university students but also middle and high school students, marched to the [[Blue House]] demanding President Rhee’s resignation. The police opened fire on the protesters, killing 21 people and injuring 172.
  
On the same day, the government declared martial law in major cities. However, the student protests did not stop. On April 25, the Democratic Party submitted an official request for Rhee’s resignation to the National Assembly while university professors joined the student and citizen protestors. The April Revolution ultimately led to President Rhee’s resignation on April 27.
+
On the same day, the government declared martial law in major cities. However, the student protests did not stop. On April 25, the Democratic Party submitted an official request for Rhee's resignation to the [[National Assembly]] while university professors joined the student and citizen protestors. The April Revolution ultimately led to President Rhee’s resignation on April 27.
  
The June Struggle of 1987 was the second nation-wide democratization movement that inherited the values and spirit of the April Revolution.  A 1972 referendum granted the president absolute control over the government and increased the term of presidency to six years without any restrictions on how many terms he or she could serve. The president also held indirect power over the National Council of Electoral College, the highest government authority that appointed members of the National Assembly as well as the president under the Yusin Constitution implemented by President Park Chung-hee.  
+
A 1972 referendum granted the president absolute control over the government and increased the term of presidency to six years without any restrictions on how many terms he or she could serve. The president also held indirect power over the National Council of Electoral College, the highest government authority that appointed members of the National Assembly as well as the president under the [[Yusin Constitution]] implemented by President [[Park Chung-hee]].  
  
 
The Korean people, who had elected six previous presidents through direct elections since 1952, could not easily accept the indirect electoral college system. They held firmly to the belief that direct election was an exercise of their democratic rights.  
 
The Korean people, who had elected six previous presidents through direct elections since 1952, could not easily accept the indirect electoral college system. They held firmly to the belief that direct election was an exercise of their democratic rights.  
  
In mid-October 1979, student protests that erupted in Busan and Masan soon spread nation-wide as more citizens joined the movement. Kim Jae-gyu, the director of Korean Central Intelligence Agency who thought that President Park had lost the people’s trust, assassinated him on October 26. This marked the end of the Yusin regime, but not the its dictatorship.
+
In mid-October 1979, student protests that erupted in [[Busan]] and [[Masan, Gyeongsangbuk-do|Masan]] soon spread nation-wide as more citizens joined the movement. [[Kim Jae-gyu]], the director of Korean Central Intelligence Agency who thought that President Park had lost the people's trust, assassinated him on October 26. This marked the end of the Yusin regime, but not the its dictatorship.
  
Chun Doo-Hwan ascended to power as Park’s successor by the appointment of the National Council of Electoral College in 1981. Chun ignored the people’s demand for an amendment to the Yusin constitution. His plan to hold presidential election under the same Yusin system enraged the opposition leaders, and they formed a coalition for democratization. Student activists joined forces with the coalition.
+
[[Chun Doo-hwan]] ascended to power as Park's successor by the appointment of the National Council of Electoral College in 1981. Chun ignored the people’s demand for an amendment to the Yusin constitution. His plan to hold presidential election under the same Yusin system enraged the opposition leaders, and they formed a coalition for democratization. Student activists joined forces with the coalition.
  
In May 1987, Park Jong-chul, a student-protester died during a brutal interrogation and torture. Protests against the Chun regime became more violent until another student named Lee Han-yeol was killed by a tear gas grenade shot by the police. The two students’ deaths were commemorated by a massive demonstration joined by not only students but also office workers nicknamed the ‘necktie troops’ who were angered by the state’s violent abuse of basic human rights.
+
In May 1987, [[Park Jong-chul]], a student-protester died during a brutal interrogation and torture. Protests against the Chun regime became more violent until another student named [[Lee Han-yeol]] was killed by a tear gas grenade shot by the police. The two students' deaths were commemorated by a massive demonstration joined by not only students but also office workers nicknamed the "necktie troops"  who were angered by the state's violent abuse of basic human rights. The [[1987 June Democracy Movement]] was the second nation-wide democratization movement that inherited the values and spirit of the April Revolution.
 
    
 
    
On June 28, Roh Tae-woo, a presidential candidate and Chun’s successor, promised to amend the Constitution to restore the system of direct presidential elections and limited the winners to a single 5-year term. As a result, the 9th amendment of the Constitution was adopted through a referendum. South Korea’s democratization was thus achieved by the people’s persistent struggle and sacrifice.
+
On June 28, [[Roh Tae-woo]], a presidential candidate and Chun’s successor, promised to amend the Constitution to restore the system of direct presidential elections and limited the winners to a single 5-year term. As a result, the 9th amendment of the Constitution was adopted through a referendum. South Korea’s democratization was thus achieved by the people’s persistent struggle and sacrifice.
  
 
<gallery mode=packed heights=220px>
 
<gallery mode=packed heights=220px>
Line 29: Line 29:
  
 
=='''Related Articles'''==
 
=='''Related Articles'''==
 +
*[[The Name of Honor and Prosperity - The Republic of Korea (South Korea)]]
 +
*[[Candlelight Democracy]]
 +
*[[1960 April Revolution]]
 +
*[[1987 June Democracy Movement]]
 +
*[[Republic of Korea (South Korea)]]
 +
*[[Syngman Rhee]]
 +
*[[Park Chung-hee]]
 +
*[[Kim Jae-gyu]]
 +
*[[Chun Doo-hwan]]
 +
*[[Kim Ji-yeol]]
 +
*[[Park Jong-chul]]
 +
*[[Lee Han-yeol]]
 +
*[[Roh Tae-woo]]
 +
*[[Masan, Gyeongsangbuk-do]]
 +
*[[Blue House]]
 +
*[[National Assembly]]
 +
*[[Yusin Constitution]]
  
 
=='''References'''==
 
=='''References'''==

Latest revision as of 14:00, 29 November 2017

Kor icon.JPG


The April Revolution of 1960 marked the beginning of subsequent democracy movements in South Korea that ingrained into the people’s minds the core values and principles of democracy. It was sparked by a protest against the rigged presidential and vice-presidential elections held on March 15. Syngman Rhee, who had been in office since 1948 was re-elected after his opponents were executed for being Communists or "accidentally" died of heart attacks.

When the opposition Democratic Party, exposed the Rhee government's electoral fraud, a protest erupted in the City of Masan, Gyeongsangbuk-do. When the body of high school student Kim Ji-yeol was found on the shore in April, a massive protest erupted nation-wide. He had been shot by a tear-gas grenade in a violent clash between the protesters and the police.

On April 19, 2,000 protesters consisting mostly of university students but also middle and high school students, marched to the Blue House demanding President Rhee’s resignation. The police opened fire on the protesters, killing 21 people and injuring 172.

On the same day, the government declared martial law in major cities. However, the student protests did not stop. On April 25, the Democratic Party submitted an official request for Rhee's resignation to the National Assembly while university professors joined the student and citizen protestors. The April Revolution ultimately led to President Rhee’s resignation on April 27.

A 1972 referendum granted the president absolute control over the government and increased the term of presidency to six years without any restrictions on how many terms he or she could serve. The president also held indirect power over the National Council of Electoral College, the highest government authority that appointed members of the National Assembly as well as the president under the Yusin Constitution implemented by President Park Chung-hee.

The Korean people, who had elected six previous presidents through direct elections since 1952, could not easily accept the indirect electoral college system. They held firmly to the belief that direct election was an exercise of their democratic rights.

In mid-October 1979, student protests that erupted in Busan and Masan soon spread nation-wide as more citizens joined the movement. Kim Jae-gyu, the director of Korean Central Intelligence Agency who thought that President Park had lost the people's trust, assassinated him on October 26. This marked the end of the Yusin regime, but not the its dictatorship.

Chun Doo-hwan ascended to power as Park's successor by the appointment of the National Council of Electoral College in 1981. Chun ignored the people’s demand for an amendment to the Yusin constitution. His plan to hold presidential election under the same Yusin system enraged the opposition leaders, and they formed a coalition for democratization. Student activists joined forces with the coalition.

In May 1987, Park Jong-chul, a student-protester died during a brutal interrogation and torture. Protests against the Chun regime became more violent until another student named Lee Han-yeol was killed by a tear gas grenade shot by the police. The two students' deaths were commemorated by a massive demonstration joined by not only students but also office workers nicknamed the "necktie troops" who were angered by the state's violent abuse of basic human rights. The 1987 June Democracy Movement was the second nation-wide democratization movement that inherited the values and spirit of the April Revolution.

On June 28, Roh Tae-woo, a presidential candidate and Chun’s successor, promised to amend the Constitution to restore the system of direct presidential elections and limited the winners to a single 5-year term. As a result, the 9th amendment of the Constitution was adopted through a referendum. South Korea’s democratization was thus achieved by the people’s persistent struggle and sacrifice.

Related Articles

References