GGHS 2019 Winter - Team 7
- 1 Team
- 2 Topic: Renewable Energy and Environmental Protection.
- 2.1 Introduction
- 2.2 Body
- 2.2.1 Field of Renewable Energy
- 18.104.22.168 Renewable Energy
- 22.214.171.124 Renewable Energy Used in Ganghwa
- 2.2.2 Field of Environmental Protection
- 126.96.36.199 Creatures inhabit in the Ganghwa mud flat
- 188.8.131.52 Plant Species inhabit in the Ganghwa
- 184.108.40.206 Migrants relaxing in Ganghwa
- 220.127.116.11 Definition/Conservation Methods of Biodiversity
- 2.2.1 Field of Renewable Energy
- 2.3 Conclusion
- 3 Map(s)
- 4 Network Graph(s)
- 5 References
|No.||Team Topic||Teacher||Role||Name (Korean)||No. of Students|
|7|| Renewable Energy and Environmental Protection
Topic: Renewable Energy and Environmental Protection.
Motivation and Purpose of the research
With the increase in fossil fuel use and the increase in greenhouse gas emissions due to industrial development, serious resource depletion problems arise. The use of fossil fuels also destroy nature and make it impossible for humans and nature to coexist in harmony, as there are problems of environmental destruction such as environmental degradation and reduction of biodiversity. Therefore, firstly, we want to find new and renewable energy sources to replace fossil fuels in Ganghwa, secondly, find ways to solve these environmental problems, and finally through working with them find ways for preserving biodiversity in Ganghwa.
- Raising social participation in the protection of biodiversity
- Extending awareness of using renewable energy in Ganghwa
- Expanding renewable energy use areas
- Implementing ecological system and biodiversity protection in daily life
- Spread awareness of importance of biodiversity preservation
- Eliminate resource depletion and environmental degradation
Field of Renewable Energy
Definition of Renewable Energy
Renewable energy is environmental friendly energy that can be used by changing existing fossil fuels or converting renewable energy.
Types of Renewable Energy
Solar Energy Generation
Photovoltaic energy uses energy from the Sun to create electricity to run appliances and lighting. It is a more advanced way of solar power technology that uses solar heat directly for heating. Also solar power generation helps to generate electricity by converting directly sunlight into it. Solar power uses solar panels with several solar cells attached. So nowadays keeping up with increasing demand for renewable energy we can notice there is the high production of solar and photovoltaic cells too.
Tidal Barrage Generation
The principle of tidal barrage generation is generally to turn the generator by closing the floodgate and then opening the door, using the force of water spilling. The fall is usually less than 10m, smaller than the fall from the hydraulic power. There are only a limited number of countries that have tidal resources because the tidal difference is only available in large areas with large capacity reserves. In particular, Korea's west coast has various sizes of bight, and due to its large geographical features, it is considered a good place to develop tidal energy. Tidal power is a clean energy source with low power costs and no pollutants. In addition, they are in the spotlight because their energy sources are unlimited and infinite. The main advantage is a production of electricity twice a day without being affected by weather conditions. It is the only one renewable energy source that makes possible long-run prediction. Because the tide phenomenon is a regular and accurate long-term forecast as it is caused by regular celestial movements.
Biomass Energy Generation
Bioenergy is energy that uses biomass. It was the most used energy source in the world until the 19th century, when trees were the main energy resource. Nowadays about 10 percent of the world's primary energy consumption is generated from biomass. When biomass is heated with a small amount of oxygen, a medium gas is produced. The gas can be purified and used to produce heat and electricity through a cogeneration generator. If biomass is heated to a high temperature of 500°C with the air completely cut off, heat decomposition occurs. Heat decomposition produces bio oil, gas, and charcoal, which is used to produce electricity and heat, and charcoal is used to fuel.
Wind Energy Generation
Wind energy is energy used to convert the kinetic energy of a natural wind into rotating energy and eventually produce electricity. Wind power is a form of solar energy that can produce electricity through wind turbines. It is unlimited and clean energy that can be called pollution-free. The amount of wind energy is determined by the length of the rotor blades and the speed of the wind. Also as a diameter of the wing is larger, the wind velocity becomes higher and the possibility of electrical production becomes greater. The cost of installation and maintenance is lower than other renewable energy sources, and facilities such as windmills can also be used for tourism. However, if the wind is not strong enough, the development of this type of energy technology is difficult. In addition special device is needed to store energy. Also, the noise from wind turbines can effect badly on surroundings.  Consequently, there are large ocean wind farms that have been increasing the efficiency of wind power generation. 
Pros/Cons of Renewable Energy
While fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas, and coal are being depleted, it had been analyzed that the using of some resources has already exceeded their limits. But renewable energy does not run out easily because it produces energy through nature. Also, renewable energy has a low greenhouse gas emissions compared to fossil fuels. The renewable energy industry is fast growing, and it can help to make energy self-supported and create new jobs in Korea.
On the other hand, there are many disadvantages. The cost of producing electricity using solar power is 12 times more expensive than the cost of producing electricity from nuclear power, and the initial investment cost is so high. Also, because of the natural environment must be consistent, electricity cannot be produced at the same time when it’s needed. Finally, despite a small production of greenhouse gas, it could lead to more greenhouse gas emissions if solar power or biofuel crops are cultivated by damaging forests. 
Renewable Energy Used in Ganghwa
Photovoltaics in Ganahwa
New and renewable energy fusion support project introduced in Ganghwa-do Ganghwa-gun was selected as a new and renewable energy fusion support project for three consecutive years. The renewable energy fusion support project is a project to promote the renewable energy supply and supports two or more facilities. Ganghwa-gun's new renewable energy fusion support project will put a total of 1,332 million won in project costs to the Samsan area in 2016. The project will be completed at the Samsan Onsen Experience Site (Geothermal + Photovoltaic), Samsanmun Health Site (Geothermal Heat), Seomdo Island Arboretum and Recreational Forest And solar energy). In 2017, the company has invested 1.56 billion Won in Seo-Doon Gamyeongdo to build an energy complex in 85 buildings (solar + geothermal) and public buildings such as the cotton factory, the sunlight.
Incheon's first water-condition power station, Kangjung Reservoir Water-based photovoltaic power generation is environmentally friendly, has high efficiency characteristics, and can save forests and farmland against terrestrial solar power generation. Also, the module cooling effect increased the power generation efficiency by 10%. By installing a photovoltaic system on the waterfront, solar water can be blocked by preventing sunlight, and water evaporation can be reduced to protect water resources. It also forms an in-water structure to provide a fish spawning ground environment. 
Tidal Barrage Generation in Ganghwa
The oceans, which account for 71 percent of the Earth's surface area, are constantly receiving energy from the sun and the moon in the form of heat, kinetic and potential energy, but most are not directly utilized as energy sources. Marine energy is drawing attention due to the need to develop new and renewable energy, and tidal barrage is one of the most representative examples of marine energy. Tidal barrage is a method that produces electricity by using the falling tide of the ebb and flow twice a day. To do this, large estuaries and tidal reservoirs must be formed in the estuary or the bay where strong tides occur. Among them, Ganghwa, the largest of its kind, is regarded as a strong rock and a well-developed Liaseian beach. Contrary to such expectations, however, the current tidal energy is not used in Ganghwa. The government has been excluded from the national energy development project due to concerns from various civic organization. "Lack of facts on data from environmental impact assessment, lack of reliability of numerical model data, lack of protection measures against milk shrimp farms, and suspicion of reducing damage to fish farms by stonecutri."  Within Ganghwa, "the Incheon Sunlight Development Cooperative"  was formed to create an alternative solar power plant in order to create new renewable energy instead of dismissing the plan of energy.
Bioenergy in Ganghwa
Wood Pallet Boiler in Ganghwa
Wood pallet is a biomass solid fuel that can produce bioenergy and is a new renewable energy source that can produce high-quality energy in low quantities. It is about 3 cm long and 0.6-0.8 cm thick and has a calorific value higher than that of the general tree, and its combustion rate reaches 95% and ash is hardly left. Even ash that does not come out can be used as a fertilizer. In addition, carbon emissions are only one-twelve times as much as that of general fuel, which is eco-friendly to reduce greenhouse gases and fine dust, and is called economic advanced energy fuel.  "Pellet Boiler" for a household uses less carbon dioxide and air pollutants than oil boilers to save about 30% of fuel. In 2018, Ganghwa-gun supported 14 wood pellet boilers, and contributed to low-carbon green growth by spreading boilers of low fuel efficiency to elderly households, with paying 70 percent of the cost of installation and burdening 30 percent of the cost each home. 
Heat Pump Boiler in Ganghwa
In Ganghwado Island, heat pumps are used. It is a device that controls heating and cooling water by using heat sources in the outlet water or seawater from a fish farm. There are at least 60 percent savings over conventional boilers, and since fossil fuels are not used, carbon emissions can be greatly reduced, which is also desirable in terms of environment. In the summer, the heat pump can be used to cool down, helping prevent the waste of aquatic organisms due to high temperature. The project to supply heat pumps is part of the government's policy to reduce energy use and carbon dioxide emissions. It is also expected to play a big role in the eco-friendly green growth of Ganghwa-gun. 
Field of Environmental Protection
Creatures inhabit in the Ganghwa mud flat
What is mudflats? It is a coastal land that appears twice a day between land and sea. The mudflats are usually formed by a long accumulation of sediment on the coast, where the slope of the coast is gentle and the difference between the tide and the ebb is huge. 
Ganghwa mudflats The Ganghwa mudflats spread over Southern Ganghwa, Seongmodo Island, Boreumdo. The Ganghwa mudflats are one of the largest mudflats in Korea, one of the world's five largest mudflats. The Ganghwa mudflats are in good condition and their economic value is infinite. In 2000, the government designated the surrounding mudflats of Ganghwado Island, Seokmodo Island, and Boreumdo as Natural Monument No.419. 
Creatures that Inhabit the Ganghwa mudflats There are many creatures like Manila clam, Sand crab, Globular ghost crab, Pea ghost crab, swimming crab, Surf clam, Jack Knife clam, cockle, barnacle, goby, lugworm.
Manila clam (바지락)
The Manila clams are small sea shells belonging to the lily family. The oval shell is about 3cm high and 4cm wide, but the large body can reach 6cm wide. They can range from white to black, mountain-shaped radiation patterns and yellow-brown waves. The name “Bajirak” is said to have been given the "Bajirack Bajirack" of the clapping sound when scraping on the mudflats. 
Sand crab (농게)
They lives a lot in Korea in the Yellow Sea mudflats, and the number of habitats is declining due to reclamation projects. Both claws of females are small and symmetrical, and the claws are long and spoon-shaped, making them suitable for scraping food on mudflats. Male's claw is the same as a female, while the other is larger with a claw length of 50mm. They burrow into mud mudflats, sometimes as deep as about 80 centimeters. 
Globular ghost crab (엽낭게)
They live in groups in the estuary of the whole country except East Sea Coast or the sandy mud floor in the bay. 
Surf clam (동죽)
The shell is round triangle shape, gray color, and white inside. However, the color varies slightly depending on the mudflats that live in the area. They have a round black line, which represents the age of the shell. They scattering at a water temperature of 22°C in May and October. There is a habit of spouting water from time to time like a fountain. Their prey is plant plankton and small floating organic fragments. 
There is no stomach of Barnacle. Their heads have neither eyes nor touch. They eat plankton in the water from the upper gills. He is a self-proclaimed creature, but he also mixes with other objects. 
Plant Species inhabit in the Ganghwa
Sosa tree of Ganghwa Chamseongdan Altar
This tree is represented by balanced appearance of typical shrubs and stand alone on top of the stone tablets of the Chamseongdan Altar, representing our country's sosa tree in scale and beauty.
Sosa trees have small leaves and their stems look like old trees, which have long been loved as a bonsai material.
Sosa tree grows in the mountains along the coast and its hair grows on the twigs and leaves of the birch tree. The leaves are dislocated, egg-shaped, blunt, and pointed. 
Trifoliate Orange Tree of Ganghwa
Trifoliate Orange Tree also grows in Japan and China. The trees of our country are believed to have been imported from China. The fruit and skin are used as medicine and have spines on the stalks, making them suitable for the orchard fence.
Standing next to the Ganghwa History Museum, Trifoliate Orange Tree of Kagot-ri is estimated to be about 400 years old and is 4.2 meters high and 2.12 meters around the root.
At the past, the fortress was built on Ganghwa as a means of stopping foreign enemy and a Trifoliate Orange Tree was planted on the outside of the fortress to prevent them from being easily accessible. Trifoliate Orange Tree of Ganghwa is historical relics of national defense that our ancestors planted against foreign invasions. 
Ginkgo Tree of Boreumdo
This Ginkgo trees, which are as old as living fossils, are located in Korea, Japan, and China. It is said that they were introduced to Korea first when Confucianism and Buddhism came to Korea. It is about 800 years old, and 24 meters high and 8.96 meters high around his chest. It is regarded as a sacred tree that protects and protects the village. 
Chinese Juniper of Bomunsa Temple
Chinese junipers (Juniperus chinensis L.) can be found in the southern part of Korea, as well as in Ulleungdo Island and Japan. They have a strong scent and are therefore used as incense in ancestral rituals and commonly planted in gardens and parks.
This Chinese juniper, growing on the rock in front of the Grotto of Bomunsa Temple, is assumed to be about 700 years old. It was designated as Incheon Monument No. 17 in recognition of its biological value. It seemed to have withered during the Korean War (1950-1953), but revived itself three years later. It is 20 m in height and 3.2 m in circumference. 
Migrants relaxing in Ganghwa
Ganghwa mudflat and Black-faced spoonbill
Ganghwa mudflat is a place where birds migrating from Siberia and Alaska to Australia and New Zealand can stay and find food provision for themselves. Thus, the world's best Ganghwa mudflats are designated as natural monuments to protect the habitat of the spoonbills. The spoonbill has a beak length of 145mm to 193mm and wingspan of 329 to 376mm. They usually live and sleep in a shallow spot, reclaimed land, and rice paddies. They usually reproduce in a desert island which have a mudflat, and they find food in inland swallow reservoir, waterway, and a rice paddy. They often act as 1 to 2 individual, in some cases they act in a group of 20~50 individual. The reproducing period of black-faced spoonbill is March~July and the number of eggs are 4~6. They usually eat fish, frog and shellfish and ect. The name ‘저어새’ is based on their appearance sweeping their spatula-looked beak from side to side, looking for food. These ‘black-faced spoonbills’ beak have a very developed sense of touch so they have advantageous in finding food. These species are only living in east-Asia and they are distributed to Korea, Hongkong, Taiwan, Japan, and Philippines. 
They are mostly migratory birds that breed in the tundra, cold or warm grasslands. The total length varies between 13 to 66cm, the top of the feather is brown or gray and the bottom of the feather is a light color, a camouflage color. Characteristics of them are relatively long wings and short tails, and there are many species with long legs and long necks. Crying can be varied by species. Usually, they lay 2~4 eggs but there are also more than four eggs that can be laid. Eggs usually have several patterns on a tan or green background, they are shaped like western pears. The food is mollusc, crustaceans, insects in the water, sometimes they eat plants, too. 
It's white on the whole, second and third wing feather, the part from the forehead to the cheek to the neck, and legs are black. Forehead, the front part, the crown of a head are red. They are winter migratory bird which distribute China, Japan, Mongolia and Russia. In Korea, They stay in the estuary, mudflats, wetlands and farmland near the DMZ from late October to March of the following year. As a omnivorousness, they often eat leaves or grass seeds left in the farmland after harvest, or they eat small aquatic invertebrates like bristle worm and fish like chinese muddy loach in mudflats and marshes. 
The body of chinese egret is about 65 centimeters long. Their whole body are white and they have an ornamental collar on their head. There are also straight decorative feathers, but it is short and the beak is yellow. They eat fish and crustaceans while living in the bay, reclaimed land and mudflats on the coast. These species distribute in Korea, Japan, Taiwan, China and elsewhere. They're international protective bird on the brink of extinction. It was designated as Natural Monument No.361 on August 23, 1988 and was designated as Class 1 endangered wildlife on May 31, 2012 and they have been protecting. 
Definition/Conservation Methods of Biodiversity
Definition of biodiversity
It is a overall concept of three steps of diversity in genes, species and ecosystems. Nowadays biodiversity is in serious danger, about 25,000 to 50,000 species are disappearing every year because of industialization and pollution. By preserving biodiversity, we should realize the importance of a peace between humans and nature. What can we do to preserve biodiversity in our lives? Various species are inhabiting in the Ganghwa mudflats and their preservation is enormous value . However, some people do not realize that preserving mudflats is more beneficial than developing them, so they are pursuing development. A case in point is the reclamation project, and the current coastline of Ganghwa Island is mostly straightened by reclamation projects since the Goryeo Dynasty. Also, Youngsang wetlands in the southern part of the country have almost disappeared. And the reclamation project has a negative impact on the ecological environment of Ganghwado Island and other areas. Therefore, every citizen should oppose those projects that destroying it. We can say that this is the first effort to preserve biodiversity. Conservation of ecosystems is directly linked to the preservation of biodiversity that lives there. It is our role to monitor policies pushed by society and cities where we live, especially those that damage the ecosystem or adversely affect the functioning of the ecosystem, which will require monitoring of everyone and thorough preparation. It also leads us to realize that we are always interested in protecting the environment, and one of examples is the campaign. Our team actually planned the campaign, and the slogan of it is that the more effort, the more green. The campaign aims to have a lot of influence and allow people all over the world to participate in it. It also used a foreign-designed 'Colletrash' project and targeted places where the most garbage is dumped unauthorised in Ganghwa-gun. Collect-Trash(Collectrash) refers to voting using trash. And it can attract people to participate in the separate and correct collection of waste, and it also utilizes a very simple material called 'waste' that everyone can participate in. Through this, we expect the goal of 'Participation of all citizens in the world' and 'promoting citizen’s participation' to be realized. In everyday life, we can try to preserve biodiversity by refraining from using disposable products, using public transportation, and using low-carbon products. The most important thing to preserve biodiversity is people's interest and active participation. The more effort, the more green Like our slogan, a small participation of everyone will create great hopes for all of us.
Conservation of Ganghwa Ecosystem through the Conservation of Biological Diversity
Nowadays, global warming is not only hot issue but also international problem. Global warming causes severe problems such as destroying habitat of animals and even the base of life of human being. Especially, because of the destruction of many habitats, including rainforests, also known as the earth's lungs, numerous creatures are disappearing on the earth, and loss of the biodiversity is able to have a bad influence on survival of mankind. Thus, It is coming to the fore that necessity for effort of mankind to conserve biodiversity. At first, we should oppose reclamation projects. As be with text, present coastline of the Ganghwa island’s is straightened by reclamation projects ever since Goryeo period. The reclamation project induces the destruction of the ecosystem in the area and changes in the nearby area's algae, water levels, and temperature, thus destroying the ecological balance and causing loss of fish resources. As such, the reclamation project has a negative impact on the ecosystem of Ganghwa Island, so should be opposed. And the last and second way is keep watching the policy that society and the city where we live is pushing ahead with. Also, It leads to have a interest about environment and realize conservation of it, one of examples is a environmental campaign. Our team made a slogan "The more effort, The more green" ourselves, so we was able to make a small but big contribution.
The need to recognize the coexistence of humans and nature through the reinforcement of new and renewable energy
At present, In Ganghwa, People are producing electricity by using renewable energy such as solar energy, tidal energy, bio energy, and geothermal energy. Our dormitory is also using solar energy. These way of producing electricity not only slow down global warming but also effective in conserving biodiversity. Therefore, we need to notice necessity that nature is not the object to conquer but the equal existence that must be respected and coexisted.
- YOUR TEAM GRAPH: GGHS2019W_Team7.lst
- 인천광역시 문화유산 - 영문 해설문 포함 (한국학중앙연구원)