2018 GGHS Team 9
Management in Goryeo Dynasty, The stage of the Gaeseong merchant - Byeongnando
The Gaeseong merchant of the Goryeo Dynasty traded with different foreign countries through Byeongnando. It is also called 'Yeseong Port' and government officers were also hosted in the Byeongnanjong.
Management of the Gaeseong merchant in Goryeo Dynasty
During the Goryeo Dynasty, The trade was flourished by Gaeseong merchants beacuse of the frequent public and private trade with foreign merchantsas through 'Yeseonggang international port' that based in Byeongnando entrance.
Especially, ginseng was one of the highest traded product. Ginseng has cultivated in the Korean peninsula since the three Kingdoms era. During the unification of the later three Kingdoms, the ginseng that was grown on the Korean peninsula, was commonly called by Korean ginseng. In addition to that the Ginseng that was prdouced in Gaesong province has beacome famous since the middle of Goryeo period as it was the representative cultivation area of Korean ginseng.
Byeongnando is an international trade port of East Asia in the Goryeo Dynasty that was located in the lower part of Yeosong River in Hwanghae Province. Originally, Song people called it "Yesung Hang" that was called before as the entrance of Yesung river,and it was frequently destinated place for trade by song merchants as well as japan and other merchants form south and west areas. Especially at that time, 'korea' was created by interacting with Arabian merchants. In addition to being international trade port, it was also the gateway to Goryeo, which must be visited to go abroad or enter the country. The importance of Byeongnando has been increased as it was designated as national road to Kaesong and according to the modification of the road network. Furthermore, being an international port increased the importance of Byeongnando. In addition, government officers were also hosted in the Byeongnanjong that was located in Byeongnando.
In Goryeo, mainly noble and royal goods were imported, it was written in the will that inherited from Goryeo, people made a great gathering and arrange all kinds of goods, especially they made a lot of effort to show the red and black silk in very impressive way. However, the plates that were made by gold and silver, were displayed only when the king came but the custom was not like that. Government or office's messengers were able to see these things, but not now. Mostly, the custom was that the people did not have shops only they went to the market in the midday where men and women, old people, and technicians as well traded by exchanging their own things without using money
Exports and Imports
- Agricultural tools, grain, drape, stationery, gold, silver, najeon, hwamunseok, ginseng
- Jurchen imports - silver, fur, and horses
- Liao Dynasty imports - silver, fur, and horses
- Song Imports - silk, medicine, books, and porcelain
- Japan imports- pearl, Mercury, and sulfur
- Tamna Imports - Mercury, Flavor and Coral
Advantage of Location
- Byrullando was the gateway to Gaegyeong, the capital of Goryeo.
- It was also a port on the estuary of the Ye Sung River, so it was easy to trade and it was connected also to the sea. Not only that but also the water was too deep to allow even the huge ships to get through.
- Transportation was convenient as it is located between Song and japan.
- At that time, trading by sea route was widespread due to the Khitan and Jurchen.
It was the previous name of Byeongnando, and it was called also as the entrance of Yesung River by Song people. It was the outer port for Gaegyeong, the capital of Goryeo. It was the place that was always crowded with the Song officials and merchants, as well as Japanese and Southeast Asian merchants, and Arabian merchants for trading with Goryeo.
Byeonglangjeong is located in Jangdeok of the Ye Sung River. When a ship of envoy which load a report touches a river hill, the guard's welcome and deliver a report into Bullangjeong. Byeonglangjeong has two seats, so the west is called Byeonglangjeong which Keep a document and the east is called Byeonglangjeong Pavilion, which serves the chief posts of the royal family and Goryeo Dynasty. When you have rooms on both sides, you stay one day at a time. There is a road east and west, leading to virility. There are about ten residents on either side. When the envoy enters the castle, all the ships will dock in the harbor, so a boat captain will watch you in turn. 
- Lee, Shin Hee. 2018. History of Goryeo.
- Korean National Culture Encyclopedia
- Encyclopedia of Korean culture, The Academy of Korean Studies
- Goryeo Dogyeong three book
- Goryeo Dogyeong thirty-nine book
- Korean history special that high school student should know
- Goryeo Dogyeong twenty-seven books
- Cultural Contents.com
- Goryeo Dogyeong Twenty-seven book