(Translation) 1636年 外藩蒙古書信

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Introduction

Original Script

No 〈書信〉 原本 『淸太宗實錄』 天聰十年 二月 二日(p.013a)
1

金國外藩各蒙古貝勒, 奉書朝鮮國王.

我等蒙大明恩賞, 已二百餘年矣. 今非樂爲背離也. 祗因大明官長, 欺詐奸詭, 賄賂公行, 誑蔽君上, 大明皇帝, 茫然弗知, 貽禍家邦, 兼以將懦兵弱, 內之而奸詭昌熾, 外之而喪地折兵, 竊窺天意, 大明之歷數將終矣.

滿洲國外藩諸貝勒, 奉書朝鮮國王.

我等與明國交好, 已二百餘年矣. 今非樂爲背離也. 祗因明之諸臣, 欺詐姦詭, 賄賂公行, 蒙蔽其主, 明國皇帝, 茫然不知, 以致人心解體, 兼以將懦兵弱, 內而縱寇殃民, 外而覆師喪地, 竊窺天意, 明之曆數將終矣.

(A1)

(B1)

2

今我金國汗, 寬仁厚德, 博施濟衆, 招徠異國, 愛育黎庶, 語言行事, 無不恰當, 法度號令, 甚是明允, 更兼以將勇兵強, 所向無敵, 衆皆願慕, 皇天已屬意於我汗. 我等故仰承天意, 而樂就之矣.

今我滿洲國皇帝, 仁智兼全, 恩威竝濟, 招徠異國, 愛育黎庶, 立心行事, 動出公正, 法度號令, 整肅嚴明, 兼之將勇兵強, 所向無敵, 衆心願慕, 天眷有歸, 革命興邦, 知在此時矣. 我等故仰承天意, 而樂就之.

(A2)

(B2)

3

念我蒙古各國, 原來散亂無統. 近蒙我汗教化, 如春日之暄煦, 恩澤流洽於萬里, 我等諸國, 俱蒙福安康, 無復仍前散亂者矣.

因念我蒙古各國, 散亂無統, 近蒙我皇上, 誕布寬仁, 弘敷教化, 照臨在上, 如日方升, 流膏沛澤, 淪浹萬方, 諸國奠寧, 群生康樂.

(A3)

(B3)

4

是以我等各國貝勒, 曁軍民人等, 感激仁汗深恩, 每思捐軀報效, 無不傾耳戴目, 惟我汗驅使是聽, 以俟事機之至耳. 如有驅使, 即肝腦塗地, 投湯赴火, 亦莫之知避也.

是以感激上恩, 每思捐軀報効, 不憚勤勞, 聽上驅使, 以俟事機之至. 如有驅使, 即舉國從王, 攖鋒冒刃, 亦所不辭也.

(A4)

(B4)

5

前年蒙古各國貝勒, 朝聚於天興城中, 俱謂皇天眷顧金國, 業已顯赫, 我等宜仰承天意, 進汗尊號, 故與金國衆貝勒商議, 具本奏聞. 汗云, 果何所見而遽爲此事也, 遂拒而弗允.

去年我蒙古各國貝勒, 朝集盛京, 俱以天意眷顧我皇上, 欲恭上尊號, 以答天心, 與在內諸貝勒, 合辭陳請, 上拒而弗允.

(A5)

(B5)

6

今四十萬蒙古國太子空俄羅, ···(나머지 버일러들의 이름 생략)··· 我等十六國四十九貝勒, 約於昨年臘月內, 與金國衆貝勒合議, 咸謂我汗收各國, 獲玉璽, 天意明徵, 勸進之事, 實不容已. 今年新正, 復具本奏聞. 汗云, 朝鮮王吾弟也, 亦宜令彼知之.

今四十萬眾蒙古太子孔果爾, ···(나머지 버일러들의 이름 생략)··· 十六國四十九貝勒, 約於去年十二月內, 會於盛京, 與滿洲國諸貝勒議, 俱言皇上平服諸國, 兼之玉璽呈祥, 天意佑助, 信而有徵, 皇上宜建尊號, 以順天人之心. 今年新正, 復奉表奏聞. 上諭, 朝鮮王吾弟也, 亦宜令彼知之.

(A6)

(B6)

7

我等念此言甚合大義, 故特遣使相議, 王宜遣親近子弟來此, 共爲勸進可也. 我等承天意, 尊大號, 事已確定. 惟視王之從否何如耳. 特書.

我等謹遵上諭, 遣使相聞, 王可即遣親近子弟來此, 共爲陳奏. 我等承天意, 奉尊號, 事已確定. 推戴之誠, 諒王素有同心也.

(A7)

(B7)

Discussion Questions


Further Readings


References


Translation

(sample) : Jaeyoon Song


  • Discussion Questions:

我等念此言甚合大義, 故特遣使相議, 王宜遣親近子弟來此, 共爲勸進可也. 我等承天意, 尊大號, 事已確定. 惟視王之從否何如耳. 特書

As we think that these words correspond to the great righteousness, we have sent the special envoys to discuss this issue. The King of Joseon should send his brothers and sons to our place, and commonly encourage and promote [Hong Taiji to become emperor]. We follow the will of heaven and elevate the great name [of the emperor]. The state of affairs has already been established. We will only see whether or not the King of Joseon would follow us. Specially written*.


  • Specially written is a common phrase used at the end of an official letter at this time.

Student 1 : Yishu Ma


  • Discussion Questions:

金國外藩各蒙古貝勒, 奉書朝鮮國王.

我等蒙大明恩賞, 已二百餘年矣. 今非樂爲背離也. 祗因大明官長, 欺詐奸詭, 賄賂公行, 誑蔽君上, 大明皇帝, 茫然弗知...

Translation: The Mongol beiles (chiefs) from the outer fences of the State of Jin present this letter to the king of Joseon.

You and I have received graces and gifts from the great state of Ming for over two hundred years. Now we are unhappy to secede from the Ming state; it is only because the officials of the great state of Ming are cheating, cunning, and deceitful. They routinely bribe [one another] and deceive and blind the emperor [of the great Ming]. [But] the emperor [of the great Ming] is completely unaware [of these].

Student 2 : Samuel Sai Hay Chan 陳世熙 진세희


貽禍家邦, 兼以將懦兵弱, 內之而奸詭昌熾, 外之而喪地折兵, 竊窺天意, 大明之歷數將終矣.

[All these] are ruining and bringing disasters to families and the state. In addition, [the Ming's] generals are cowardly and the soldiers weak. Within [the court], perfidy and treachery are rampant. Without, lands were being lost and soldiers were being slaughtered (1). We humbly steal a glimpse of the will of the Heaven - the mandate of the Ming will soon meet its end.

Notes: 1. An alternative translation is "Farmers were losing lands and soldiers were being demobilized." This refers to the general social crisis that Ming faced in the 17th century, which historians attributed to the advent of the so-called "Little Ice Age" at the time.

  • Discussion Questions:

Student 3 : Younès M'Ghari


今我金國汗, 寬仁厚德, 博施濟衆, 招徠異國, 愛育黎庶, 語言行事, 無不恰當, 法度號令, 甚是明允, 更兼以將勇兵強,

Now our Khan of the Jin State is generous, benevolent, profoundly virtuous, [he] benefits and saves the people, [he] enjoins the other countries to come, [he] loves and educates the commoners. When he says something and carries out [state] affairs, nothing is inappropriate. When he imposes laws and gives orders, they are extremely clear and impartial. Furthermore, in addition, [his] generals being brave and [his] soldiers being strong,

今我滿洲國皇帝, 仁智兼全, 恩威竝濟, 招徠異國, 愛育黎庶, 立心行事, 動出公正, 法度號令, 整肅嚴明, 兼之將勇兵強,

Now our Emperor of the Manchu State is both benevolent and wise, [he] is kind, mighty and, also, aiding [others], [he] enjoins the other countries to come, [he] loves and educates the multitude. When [he] is determined in carrying out [state] affairs, [he] acts justly. When he imposes laws and gives orders, they are extremely clear and impartial. He consolidates strict fairness. In addition, [his] generals being brave and [his] soldiers being strong,


  • Discussion Questions:

Student 4 : King Kwong Wong


所向無敵, 衆皆願慕, 皇天已屬意於我汗. 我等故仰承天意, 而樂就之矣.

To whomever he faces he is invincible. All desire to admire him. The August Heaven has already fixed His mind on our khan. Thereby we look up to and receive Heaven's will and delightfully comply with it, nothing more.

  • Discussion Questions:

Student 5 : 신동조


  • Discussion Questions:

念 我蒙古各國, 原來散亂無統. 近蒙我汗教化, 如春日之暄煦, 恩澤流洽於萬里.

Think. We all states of the Mongol were originally chaotic with no leadership. But recently we have received the cultivation from our Khan, which has been like the warmness of the Spring Sun. His grace flows and permeates into one thousand li from here.

Student 6 : Stacey Lui


我等諸國, 俱蒙福安康, 無復仍前散亂者矣.

Our [Mongol] states have now all received fortune, stability and health, and will not again be broken and disorderly as before.


  • Discussion Questions:

Student 7 : Russell Guilbault


是以我等各國貝勒, 曁軍民人等, 感激仁汗深恩, 每思捐軀報效, 無不傾耳戴目

Because of this we are equal to the beile of every country, and the army and people are equal; we are grateful for the benevolent khan's profound grace, constantly thinking of how we may lay down our lives to repay his kindness, and no part of us does not earnestly await it.

  • Discussion Questions:

Student 8 : Q


惟我汗驅使是聽, 以俟事機之至耳.

["his only wish" or "we think"] Our han's [command or wish] for us is to heed, so as to wait for the final shape that the unfolding of the event would take.

如有驅使, 即肝腦塗地, 投湯赴火, 亦莫之知避也.

Should there be his command, be it to smear our livers and brains on the ground, leap into boiling water and walk on fire, no one [none of us] would know to evade.


  • Discussion Questions:

Student 9 : Yeonjae Ra


前年蒙古各國貝勒, 朝聚於天興城中, 俱謂皇天眷顧金國, 業已顯赫, 我等宜仰承天意, 進汗尊號,

Last year, beiles of every provinces from Mongol were gathered in the middle of castle prospered by the heaven(‘盛京’ in revised version). Everybody said that imperial heaven takes care of Jin Dynasty, and it is already apparent and shine. [Then] We should revere and accept the intention of the heaven, and eventually Khan [would be] respectfully named.

  • Discussion Questions:

Student 10 : (Write your name)



故與金國衆貝勒商議, 具本奏聞. 汗云, 果何所見而遽爲此事也, 遂拒而弗允.


We Mongols, therefore, discussed this issue with a group of beiles of the Jin state, so we could report it to the emperor. The khan said, “how can you suddenly pull up these affairs, based on what has been seen before?” Therefore, he refused and did not approve of it.


今四十萬蒙古國太子空俄羅 ···(나머지 버일러들의 이름 생략)··· 我等十六國四十九貝勒, 約於昨年臘月內, 與金國衆貝勒合議, 咸謂我汗收各國, 獲玉璽, 天意明徵, 勸進之事, 實不容已. 今年新正, 復具本奏聞. 汗云, 朝鮮王吾弟也, 亦宜令彼知之.


As of now, the prince of the Mongols (Ejei hongor) …. we, including the sixteen states and forty-nine beiles, made a treaty in the last leap month. I discussed this issue together with the beiles and they all said that our khan obtained each state and attained the imperial seal. The heavenly will is manifest and the affairs of advancing forward indeed should not stop. In the last month of the year, we reported to the Khan and he said, “Choson king is my younger brother. I should let him know of it.”

Student 11 : (Write your name)


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Student 12 : (Write your name)


  • Discussion Questions:


Student 13 : (Write your name)


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Student 14 : (Write your name)


  • Discussion Questions: