2019 JSG Summer Hanmun Workshop (Intermediate)

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The purpose of this course is to provide students an intensive training in what is commonly referred to as “classical Chinese,” or hanmun, which constitutes the nucleus of the literary languages of premodern China, Korea, and Japan. Because this workshop is intended for future researchers and scholars of premodern Korean culture in a broader context of East Asian civilization, which some call the “Sinosphere,” we will focus on the most fundamental sentence patterns and grammatical devices commonly used in hanmun, exploring some canonical texts that embody the linguistic and cultural grammars of classical Chinese literature.

Each day, the class will study grammatical devices and patterns with simple sentences and read (excerpts of) regular hanmun texts for applied practice. We will read and critically analyze the texts, with which to formulate an academically-minded English translation of them. At the end of the workshop, students are expected to become familiar with different types of texts, to gain first-hand knowledge around the original texts of old Korean books, and more importantly, to become intellectually independent in their own future research critically engaging primary texts.


A daily class is divided into three sessions. In Session 1 we read the Kyemong p’yŏn 啓蒙篇 (A Chapter to Enlighten the Unenlightened), a collection of short prose-sentences to initiate beginners in hanmun texts. The class comprises studying syntactic and morphological patterns established by grammatical words, building up from the simplest forms to the more complex. In Session 2 we read the Ch’ugu 推句 (Versed Lines), a collection of quatrains epitomizing hanmun verses for those who have finished Ch’ŏnjamun 千字文 (Thousand-character text). Studying with Ch’ugu and Kyemong pyŏn allows us to experience a most typical foundation of hanmun education in both poetic- and prose-style sentences. The first two sessions will intensively engage two fundamental practices of hanmun literacy: parsing (both vocal and visual) and close reading. In Session 3 we translate excerpts from various literary pieces from China and Korea, applying the practices we learn in the first two sessions. The underlying focus of the study progresses as follows:

  • Week 1 : basic structure, predication and commenting, parts of speech and word order, substantives and predicatives, nouns and pronouns, action verbs and stative verbs, adverbs, etc.
  • Week 2 : discourse and context, parallelism and correspondence, building contexts and “dragging”, conjunctives and connectives, 語氣詞 and 語助詞
  • Week 3 : intertextuality, allusions, and pattern, literary precedents and elicitors

Reading the original text together, parsing its sentences, and carefully analyzing parts both syntactically and semantically, which will form a basic training of translation. The instructor will give lectures when needed, to reinforce the knowledge of grammatical words, information on reference tools, and relevant sociocultural context of fundamental importance. Each student will be responsible for looking up and learning unfamiliar hantcha, practicing to punctuate sentences that were studied in the previous classes, and participating in drafting translations. The outcome of translation will be archived and shared.

Translation: We aim to practice academic translation. An academic translation should prove to be comprehensive to an intellectual reader for whom no previous knowledge of or about the text is assumed, rendered in a clear, precise, yet hermeneutically nuanced language. There are four aspects of concentration in our training:

(1) Faithfulness to the original text
(2) Linguistic clarity of the translating language
(3) Detailed annotation to integrate contextual and intertextual information
(4) Observance of academic convention for translation



cf. 역대 참가자 Previous Participants

연도 성명 국적 소속 직위 연구/전공분야 그룹
2019 Arzberger, Nadia 미국
미국 하와이대학교 마노아
University of Hawaii-Manoa
Master's Student
Anthropology Intermediate Training Group
2019 Bass, Emma 캐나다
캐나다 퀸즈대학교
Queen's University
Master's Student
Cultural Studies Intermediate Training Group
2019 Belokon, Olga 러시아
캐나다 브리티시 컬럼비아대학교
University of British Columbia
Master's Student
Korean Literature Intermediate Training Group
2019 Kaltenbach, Kristina 독일
독일 베를린자유대학교
Freie Universität Berlin
Undergraduate Student
Korean Studies Intermediate Training Group
2019 Kim, Stella S. 미국
미국 컬럼비아대학교
Columbia University
Doctoral Student
East Asian Languages and Cultures (Premodern Korea/gender and women's history) Intermediate Training Group
2019 Kus, Canan 독일
독일 보훔 루르대학교
Ruhr-Universität Bochum
Master's Student
Korean Language and Literature Intermediate Training Group
2019 Sanchez, Hector I. 멕시코
미국 펜실베이니아대학교
University of Pennsylvania
Master's Student
East Asian Languages and Civilizations Intermediate Training Group
2019 Waddell, Ethan 미국
미국 시카고대학교
University of Chicago
Doctoral Student
Modern Korean Literature Intermediate Training Group
2019 Yi, Ivanna Sang Een 미국
미국 워싱턴대학교 세인트루이스
Washington University in St. Louis
박사 후 펠로우
Postdoctoral Fellow
Korean and Native American literatures and cultures Intermediate Training Group


  • Session 1 - 9:00–10:30 AM
  • Session 2 - 10:40 AM–12:00 PM
  • Session 3 - 1:00–3:00 PM

the 3-Week Schedule - View Details

Day Contents
7/1   Opening Ceremony, Placement Test


First Day

7/2 S1: Kyemong p’yŏn 1–3

S2: Ch’ugu 1, 3, 4

S3: Select readings 8, 23, 4

7/3 S1: Kyemong p’yŏn 4–6

S2: Select readings 12, 13, 16

Special lecture

Field trip

7/4 S1: Kyemong p’yŏn 7–9

S2: Ch’ugu 5, 6, 7

S3: Select readings 9, 24, 18, 27

7/5 S1: Kyemong p’yŏn 10–13

S2: Ch’ugu 9, 10, 13

S3: Select readings 25, 29, 30

7/8 S1: Kyemong p’yŏn 14–18

S2: Ch’ugu 14, 15, 16

S3: Select readings 40, 41

Special lecture

7/9 S1: Kyemong p’yŏn 19–22

S2: Ch’ugu 18, 19, 22

S3: Select readings 1, 5, 42

7/10 S1: Kyemong p’yŏn 22–26

S2: Ch’ugu 23, 24, 26

S3: Select readings 48, 28

7/11 S1: Kyemong p’yŏn 27–29

S2: Ch’ugu 28, 30, 32

S3: Select readings 34, 38, 36

7/12 S1: Kyemong p’yŏn 30–33

S2: Select readings 2, 14

Field Trip

7/15 S1: Kyemong p’yŏn 34–37

S2: Ch’ugu 37, 39, 42

S3: Select readings 22, 20, 31

7/16 S1: Kyemong p’yŏn 38–40

S2: Ch’ugu 46, 47, 50

Special Lecture

7/17 S1: Kyemong p’yŏn 41–43

S2: Ch’ugu 51, 56, 57

S3: Select readings 39, 33, 37

7/18 S1: Kyemong p’yŏn 44–45

S2: Ch’ugu 58, 59, 60

S3: Select readings 47, 49

7/19 S1: Review

S2: Closing ceremony



We aim to practice academic translation. An academic translation should prove to be comprehensive to an intellectual reader for whom no previous knowledge of or about the text is assumed, rendered in a clear, precise, yet hermeneutically nuanced language. There are four aspects of concentration in our training:

(1) Faithfulness to the original text
(2) Linguistic clarity of the translating language
(3) Detailed annotation to integrate contextual and intertextual information
(4) Observance of academic convention for translation

List of Hanmun Text

  • Session 1 : Kyemong p’yŏn 啓蒙篇 (A Chapter to Enlighten the Unenlightened)
  • Session 2 : Ch’ugu 推句 (Versed Lines)

Session 1: Kyemong p’yŏn 啓蒙篇

The Kyemong p’yŏn [Chapters to enlighten the unenlightened] was one of the first textbooks for novices, usually placed after learning the Ch’ŏnjamun 千字文 [Thousand-character text] and before reading the Tongmong sŏnsŭp 童蒙先習 [Preparatory Learning for the Youth] in the nineteenth-century-Chosŏn curriculum for hanmun education. The term kyemong 啓蒙 (Ch. qimeng) literally means “cracking open the [curtain] of ignorance,” where mong 蒙 is a usual word for the unenlightened. There are several primers containing mong in their titles in Sinitic tradition, e.g., Mengqiu 蒙求 [Saving the ignorance, 746], Kyŏngmong yogyŏl 擊蒙要訣 [Essential methods to awaken the unenlightened, 1577], Tongmeng xuzhi 童蒙須知 [What children should know, 1187], and the aforementioned Tongmong sŏnsŭp (ca. 1541). One should note that the word mong itself does not mean “children” but only “unenlightened” or “dim” unless it is compounded by tong 童, for ignorance (including illiteracy) is not necessarily a feature that applied only to children but to all uneducated. Especially in the Confucian context, knowledge and education take its ultimate meaning in moral cultivation, beyond the modern sense of general knowledge. Therefore, these traditional primers inevitably engage a strong sense of ethical-philosophical inculcation in their contents, such as the moral conducts of in the family, the meaning of being human, social ethics and proprieties.
The compiler-author of this books is unclear. It is often contributed to Chang Hon 張混 (1759-1828), a praised chungin 中人 (interclass) writer, poet, and educator whose family had lived in Seoul for generations. He worked in the Office of Printing Inspection (Kaminso 監印所) as a checker (sajun司準) from 1790 to 1818 and participated in numerous court publishing projects. Chang wrote a few primer-type books to educate children, including the Ahŭi wŏllam 兒戱原覽 [A primary read for children at play], Mongyu p’yŏn 蒙喻篇 [Instruction for the uneducated], and Ch’ohak chahwi 初學字彙 [Character book for beginners]. Considering his writings and the fact that interclass writers’ active involvement in elementary-literacy education in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the Kyemong p’yŏn was customarily attributed to Chang Hon, but there is no clear indication that he did brush this work. However, it is safe to assume that it was circulated and used in literacy education at town study halls (sŏdang 書堂) as late as in the late nineteenth century. It was also quite popularly published in the twentieth century, published in the form of ŏnhaebon 諺解本 (rendition with vernacular glosses and interpretation in hangŭl), i.e., Kyemongp’yŏn ŏnhae 啓蒙篇, in woodblock prints, types, and manuscripts. Interestingly, the edition without ŏnhae is not extant. The Jangsŏgak Library at AKS also has several editions of Kyemong p’yŏn ŏnhae, one of which is the early-twentieth-century block print that we include in the textbook.

date 啓蒙篇
7/02 啓蒙篇 01 - 03
7/03 啓蒙篇 04 - 06
7/04 啓蒙篇 07 - 09
7/05 啓蒙篇 10 - 13
7/08 啓蒙篇 14 - 18
7/9 啓蒙篇 19 - 22
7/10 啓蒙篇 23 - 26
7/11 啓蒙篇 27 - 29
7/12 啓蒙篇 30 - 33
7/15 啓蒙篇 34 - 37
7/16 啓蒙篇 38 - 40
7/17 啓蒙篇 41 - 43
7/18 啓蒙篇 44 - 45
7/19 啓蒙篇 Review

Session 2: Ch’ugu 推句

The Ch’ugu is a collection of pentasyllabic quatrains (o’ŏn chŏlgu 五言絕句) for beginners of hanmun during the Chosŏn dynasty. There are altogether 60 quatrains, many chosen from known poetic lines, containing motifs and images familiar to novices. It is one of the typical primers taught to learners who have finished character lessons with, most likely, the Ch’ŏnjamun 千字文, along with the Saja sohak 四字小學 [Four-character Minor Learning], Tongmong sŏnsŭp, and Kyŏngmong yogyŏl 擊夢要訣 [Essential precepts to awake the unenlightened]. The title "Ch’ugu" could be taken as “selected lines” (ch’u 推 “to select”) but also have come from ch’ugo (or proscriptively pronounced t’oego) 推敲 “push or knock,” a verb coined for the story of Jia Dao 賈島 (780?–843) and Han Yu 韓愈 (768–824) to mean “polish or perfect the language of a literary work.”[1] Ch’ugu 推句 as a verb was then used in the sense of writing poems, and if it was indeed where the title was chosen, it would more precise to pronounce the title as t'oegu, not ch’ugu. All extant copies of Ch’ugu is in the form of manuscript, but as Ŏ Sukkwŏn’s 魚叔權 Kosa ch’waryo 攷事撮要 (1554) recorded the presence of its printing blocks in 1558, it is possible that Ch’ugu was more popular as a primer in mid-Chosŏn period.


  1. Jia Dao once composed a poem, sitting on a mule, which included lines, “Birds sleep on the tree in the middle of the pond, a monk knocks on the door under the moon” 鳥宿池中樹, 僧敲月下門. He was having second thought of using t’oe 推 “push” instead of ko 敲 “knock,” but could not decide. Occupied by this thought, he failed to step back to make way when Han Yu’s mayoral march was progressing the street, which was a serious offense. Han Yu summoned Jia Dao and interrogated why Jia did not step aside. After hearing what happened, Han Yu said that he preferred ko instead of t’oe, upon which they became good friends in literature. This story is introduced in the Tangshi jishi 唐詩紀事.

date 推句
7/2 推句 01, 03, 04
7/4 推句 05, 06, 07
7/5 推句 09, 10, 13
7/8 推句 14, 15, 16
7/9 推句 18, 19, 22
7/10 推句 23, 24, 26
7/11 推句 28, 30, 32
7/15 推句 37, 39, 42
7/16 推句 46, 47, 50
7/17 推句 51, 56, 57
7/18 推句 58, 59, 60
7/19 推句 Review

Session 3: Select Readings 選讀

Excerpts for practice are selected from the following:

08. “Zhengren mai lü” 鄭人買履 [A person of Zheng state buys shoes], Han Fei zi 韓非子.
23. “Bu qin bu shou” 不禽不獸 [Neither a bird nor a beast], Guang xiaofu 廣笑府 by Feng Menglong 馮夢龍; Xiaolin guangji 笑林廣記 by Youxi zhuren 游戲主人.
04. “Solgŏ” 率居, Samguk sagi.

12. “Maodun” 矛盾 [Spear and shield], Han Fei zi.
13. “Chongsil P’ungsan su” 宗室豐山守 [Magistrate of P’ungsan, a royal kinsman], Sŏng Hyŏn 成俔, Yongjae ch’onghwa 慵齋叢話.
16. “Zhao san mu si” 朝三暮四 [Three in the morning, four in the evening], Zhuangzi.

09. “Shou zhu dai tu” 守株待兔 [Waiting for a hare while guarding the tree], Han Fei zi.
24. “Haehak” 諧謔 [Witty stories], Yi Su-gwang李睟光, Chibong yusŏl 芝峯類說.
18. “Zhi yu le” 知魚樂 [Knowing the joy of fish], Zhuangzi.
27. “Ch’ŏ pul yok chon” 妻不欲尊 [The wife doesn’t want to be respected], Ŏmyŏnsun禦眠楯.

25. “Yŏng mu pulp’yŏng chi sim ho?” 寧無不平之心乎 [How would it not have a mind of resentment?], Chibong yusŏl.
29. “Meng mu sanqian” 孟母三遷 [Mencius’ mother moves three times,” Lienü zhuan 列女傳.
30. “Shun ju zhi ren” 吮疽之仁 [Benevolence of sucking on abscess], Shuiyuan 説苑.

40. “Wanggŏm Chosŏn” 王儉朝鮮, Samguk yusa 三國遺事.
41. “Hŭngdŏk wang aengmu” 興德王鸚鵡 [King Hŭngdŏk and the parrot], Samguk yusa.

01. “Pak Hyŏkkŏse” 朴赫居世, Samguk sagi 三國史記.
05. “Kui t’o chi sŏl” 龜兔之說 [Story of a tortoise and a hare], Samguk sagi.
42. “Ch’ŏyong-nang” 處容郎, Samguk yusa.

48. "Passage from the Tongmong sŏnsŭp" 童蒙先習 (“Ch’ongnon” 總論)
28. “Kiridan” 伎利檀 [Christianity], Ŏu yadam 於于野談 by Yu Mongin 柳夢寅.

34. “Nubaek p’oho” 婁伯捕虎 [(Ch’oe) Nubaek captures the tiger], Samgang haengsil-to.
38. “Kim-ssi pak ho” 金氏撲虎 [Lady Kim strikes the tiger], Samgang haengsil-to.
36. “Pinyŏng tolchin” 丕寧突陳 [Pinyŏng charges at the enemy line], Samgang haengsil-to.

35. “Yŏlbu ip kang” 烈婦入江 [A devoted wife enters the river], Samgang haengsil-to.
02. “Tongmyŏng sŏngwang” 東明聖王 [Tongmyŏng, the Sagacious King], Samguk sagi.
14. “Sesok ogye” 世俗五戒 [Five worldly precepts], “Sŏk Wŏngwang” 釋圓光 in Haedong kosŭng chŏn 海東高僧傳.

22. “Xushi” 虛實 [Emptiness and fullness], Sunzi bingfa 孫子兵法.
20. “Zhuzhang” 助長 [Helping corn grow], Mencius.
31. “Saiweng shi ma” 塞翁失馬 [Old man in border town loses a horse], Huainanzi 淮南子.

39. “Hong Kisŏp” 洪夔燮, Myŏngsim pogam 明心寶鑑.
33. “Sŏkchin tan ji” 石珍斷指 [Sŏkchin cuts off his finger], Samgang haengsil-to.
37. “Sŏng Ch’ung oksa” 成忠獄死 [Sŏng Ch’ung dies in prison], Samgang haengsil-to.

47. "Lines from Chŏnjamun" 千字文 [Thousand-character text]
49. Select hansi 漢詩 [classical Chinese poems]

03. “Onjo wang” 溫祚王 [King Onjo], Samguk sagi.
06. “Kyebaek” 階伯, Samguk sagi.
07. “Kwanch’ang” 官昌, Samguk sagi.
10. “Ke zhou qiu jian” 刻舟求劍 [Notching the boat to find the sword], Lüshi chunqiu 呂氏春秋.
11. “Hua she tian zu” 畫蛇添足 [Draw a snake and add feet], Zhanguo ce 戰國策.
15. “Hudie meng” 蝴蝶夢 [Butterfly dream], Zhuangzi 莊子.
17. “Hundun” 渾沌, Zhuangzi.
19. “Pao Ding jie niu” 庖丁解牛 [Cook Ding cuts cow], Zhuangzi.
21. “Yi wushi bu xiao yibai bu” 以五十步笑一百步 [One who retreated fifty paces mocks another who retreated one hundred paces], Mencius.
26. “Ch’oe Yŏng” 崔瑩, Sŏng Hyŏn, Yongjae ch’onghwa.
32. “Mi ch’ŏ tam ch’o” 彌妻啖草 [(To) Mi’s Wife chews grass], Samgang haengsil-to 三綱行實圖.
35. “Yŏlbu ip kang” 烈婦入江 [A devoted wife enters the river], Samgang haengsil-to.
43. “Hyet’ong ch’ulga” 惠通出家 [Hyet’ong becomes a monk], Samguk yusa.
44. “Yŏno-rang Se’o-nyŏ” 延烏郞細烏女, Samguk yusa.
45 . “Sŏndŏk wang chigi samsa” 善德王知幾三事 [Queen Sŏndŏk foresees three events], Samguk yusa.
46. “Munhŭi maemong” 文姬買夢 [Munhŭi buys a dream]. Samguk yusa.

Text translated by Individual Project

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참고자료 References