2018 童蒙先習 01 - 04

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Original Script

::: 童蒙先習 :::
1. 天地之間 萬物之衆에 惟人이 最貴하니 所貴乎人者는 以其有五倫也니라
- 천지 사이에 있는 만물의 무리 가운데에서 오직 사람이 가장 존귀하다. 사람을 존귀하게 여기는 까닭은 五倫을 가지고 있기 때문이다.
2. 是故로 孟子曰 父子有親하며 君臣有義하며 夫婦有別하며 長幼有序하며 朋友有信이라하시니 人而不知有五常이면 則其違禽獸 不遠矣리라
- 이 때문에 孟子께서는 “아버지와 자식 사이에는 親愛함이 있어야 하며, 임금과 신하 사이에는 義理가 있어야 하며 남편과 아내 사이에는 區別이 있어야 하며 어른과 어린이 사이에는 차례가 있어야 하며 친구 사이에는 信義가 있어야 한다.”고 말씀하셨다. 사람이면서 五常이 있음을 알지 못하면 짐승과의 차이가 크지 않을 것이다.
3. 然則父慈子孝하며 君義臣忠하며 夫和婦順하며 兄友弟恭하며 朋友輔仁然後에야 方可謂之人矣리라
- 그러므로 부모는 자식을 사랑하고 자식은 부모에게 효도하며, 임금은 신하에게 의리를 지키고 신하는 임금에게 충성하며, 남편은 가족을 화합하고 아내는 남편에게 순종하며, 형은 동생을 사랑하고 동생은 형을 공경하며, 친구 사이에는 仁을 도와준 뒤에야 비로소 사람이라고 말할 수 있다.


:: 父子有親 ::

4. 父子는 天性之親이라 生而育之하고 愛而敎之하며 奉而承之하고 孝而養之하나니 是故로 敎之以義方하여 弗納於邪하며 柔聲以諫하여 不使得罪於鄕黨州閭하나니
- 부모와 자식은 하늘이 정해준 친한 관계이기 때문에 <부모는> 자식을 낳아서 기르고 사랑하고 가르쳐야 하며, <자식은> 부모를 받들어 부모님의 뜻을 이어가고 효도하면서 봉양해야 한다. 이 때문에 <부모는> 자식을 올바른 도리로 가르쳐서 부정한 곳에 발을 들여 놓지 않게 해야 하며, <자식은> 부모에게 부드러운 목소리로 말려서 고을에서 죄를 얻지 않게 해야 한다.


Translation

Passage 1 : Julian Butterfield


  • 童蒙先習 Tongmong sŏnsŭp 01

Between heaven and earth, amongst the multitude of ten thousand things, only human beings are the most precious. What is precious about human beings is that between them there are the Five Relationships.[1]

  • Discussion Questions

+ Does the word lun 倫 already bear the sense of ethical principle before its use in Confucian classics? (YO) I think the earliest usage of the character was associated "crowd/group" and "collection," and by extension the order within the group/collection.

Passage 2 : Nan Kathy Lin


  • Tongmong sonsup #2

This is the reason Mengzi said, “Between father and son there is intimacy. Between ruler and subject there is righteousness. Between husband and wife there is separation. Between old and young there is a proper order. Between friends there is trust. If there is a person who does not know that there are five cardinal relationships, s/he is not far from the birds and the beasts."

Passage 3 : Fran


Then the father is loving and the son is filial; the ruler is righteous and the minister is loyal; the husband is harmonious and the wife is obedient; the elder is brotherly and the younger is respectful; friends assist each other in benevolence; and it is afterwards that one can call it becoming human.

  • Discussion Questions:

+I wanted to bring in the sense of change in state indicated by the fang . . . yi construction by translating the end of the sentence as "becoming human."
(YO) I think it works. Or, "It is only after that when we are (finally?) human."

+I would add a note about poin referring to "曾子曰:「君子以文會友,以友輔仁。」" (Analects, 12:24.)

Passage 4 : Fran


The relationship between father and son is a natural form of intimacy. The father give life to the son and raises him, loves and teaches him. The son honors and maintains the father, practices filial piety and supports him. For this reason, the father teaches the son using proper means so that he does not enter wickedness, and the son softly remonstrates the father so that he does not cause offense in the villages and towns.

  • Discussion Questions:

+ For 奉而承之, how about something like "honors and carries on him (with his will/intention)"?

+ (Fran) The character 承 is hard to translate because it leaves unanswered the question of what exactly is being carried on or maintained. But perhaps what makes sense in the Confucian context is the family line and name, so perhaps "The son honors and maintains the father's legacy" is acceptable.
  1. The most prominent classical sources of these Five Relationships or ethical principles (五倫 wǔlún, o'lyun ) are the Zhongyong 中庸 (Ch. xx, 8) and the Mengzi 孟子 (Book III, Part 1 Ch. IV, 8).