2017 JSG Summer Hanmun Workshop (Intermediate)

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The purpose of this course is to provide students an intensive training in what is commonly referred to as “classical Chinese,” or hanmun, which constitutes the nucleus of the literary languages of premodern China, Korea, and Japan. Because this workshop is intended for future researchers and scholars of premodern Korean culture in a broader context of East Asian civilization, which some call the “Sinosphere,” we will focus on the most fundamental sentence patterns and grammatical devices commonly used in hanmun, exploring some canonical texts that embody the linguistic and cultural grammars of classical Chinese literature. Each day, the class will study grammatical devices and patterns with simple sentences and read (excerpts of) regular hanmun texts for applied practice. We will read and critically analyze the texts, with which to formulate an academically-minded English translation of them. At the end of the workshop, students are expected to become familiar with different types of texts, to gain first-hand knowledge around the original texts of old Korean books, and more importantly, to become intellectually independent in their own future research critically engaging primary texts.


A daily class is divided into three sessions. In Session 1 we read Pak Semu’s 朴世茂 (1487–1554) treatise to initiate students into Confucian literacy, Tongmong sŏnsŭp 童蒙先習 (Preparatory Learning for the Youth). Session 2 comprises studying syntactic and morphological patterns established by grammatical words, building up from the simplest forms to the more complex. This part of instruction will make use of the Hagŏjip 學語集 (Collection of Sentences for Learning), a late-Chosŏn primer for those who have finished character (hantcha) lessons and phrasal instructions. These two sessions will engage two foci of instruction: parsing (both vocal and visual) and close reading. In Session 3 we translate various excerpts from actual literary pieces from China and Korea. Reading the original text together, parsing its sentences, and carefully analyzing parts both syntactically and semantically, which will form a basic training of translation. The instructor will give lectures when needed, to reinforce the knowledge of grammatical words, information on reference tools, and relevant sociocultural context of fundamental importance. Each student will be responsible for looking up and learning unfamiliar hantcha, practicing to punctuate sentences that were studied in the previous classes, and participating in drafting translations. The outcome of translation will be archived and shared.

지도교수 Instructor

수강생 Participants

연도 성명 국적 소속 직위 연구/전공분야 그룹
2017 Na Sanghoon 대한민국
The Academy of Korean Studies
Master's Student
Korean Classics and Global Communication Intermediate Training Group
2017 Chang JaeYong 미국
미국 캘리포니아대학교 버클리 동아시아도서관
East Asian Library, University of California, Berkeley
Modern Korean History and bibliology of Western materials on Korea Intermediate Training Group
2017 Eom TaeYeon 대한민국
캐나다 브리티시 컬럼비아대학교
The University of British Columbia
Doctoral Student
Premodern Korean History Intermediate Training Group
2017 Kim MiRi 미국
미국 노리치대학교
Norwich University
Assistant Professor
Modern Chinese History Intermediate Training Group
2017 Lee HeeJin 대한민국
미국 캘리포니아대학교
University of California
Doctoral Student
Korean Literature Intermediate Training Group
2017 Gledic Jelena 세르비아
세르비아 베오그라드대학교
University of Belgrade
Cultural Studies /Identity studies, Chinese history Intermediate Training Group
2017 Bryan Sauvadet 프랑스
프랑스 국립동양학대학교(INALCO)
Master's Student
Korean Studies /Korean Art History /Korean Religious Studies Intermediate Training Group
2017 Le Marchand Alexandre Pierre Michel 프랑스
프랑스 파리7대학교
Paris Diderot University (Paris 7)
Undergraudate Student
Korean Language and Civilization Intermediate Training Group
2017 M’Ghari Younès 프랑스
프랑스 국립동양학대학교(INALCO) & 사회과학고등연구원
Master's Student
Linguistics & Philology Intermediate Training Group
2017 Ranjan Santosh Kumar 인도
인도 뉴델리 자와할랄네루대학교
Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi
Assistant Professor
Korean History(Colonial Period) /Korean Language and Literature Intermediate Training Group
2017 Svakova Petra 체코
한국 성균관대학교
Sungkyunkwan University
Master's Student
East Asian Studies Intermediate Training Group
2017 Lee Goeun 대한민국
The Academy of Korean Studies
Doctoral Student
Religion Intermediate Training Group

수업진도 Schedule


We aim to practice academic translation. An academic translation should prove to be comprehensive to an intellectual reader for whom no previous knowledge of or about the text is assumed, rendered in a clear, precise, yet hermeneutically nuanced language. There are four aspects of concentration in our training::

  • Faithfulness to the original text
  • Linguistic clarity of the translating language
  • Detailed annotation to integrate contextual and intertextual information
  • Observance of academic convention for translation

강독과제 Reading and Translation Assignments

  • List of Hanmun Text
  1. Tongmong sŏnsŭp 童蒙先習
  2. Hagŏjip 學語集
  3. Excerpts for practice

Session 1: 동몽선습(童蒙先習)

동몽선습 소개

  • The Tongmong sŏnsŭp is a well-known hanmun primer for novices after their initiation in hantcha with the Chŏnjamun 千字文. Its text spells out the fundamental ethico-historial framework of Confucianism, quoting and alluding most frequently used phrases and expressions in the traditional discourse of moral maxims. Its language is prosodic and suitable for vocal reading and reciting. The introduction delineates the ethics based on the Five Cardinal Relations (oryun 五倫), followed by an overview of Chinese and Korean histories as realizing ethical principles endowed in human civilization. Its authorship had been generally attributed to Pak Semu 朴世茂 (1487–1554), though some recorded Kim An’guk 金安國 (1478–1543) as its author. Yun Insŏ’s 尹仁恕 postface, included in the 1543 edition (printed at the P’yŏngan Magistrate Office), states that Min Chein 閔齊仁, then P’yŏngan Magistrate, co-authored this work. A recent discovery of a block-printed edition bearing Min Chein as the author strongly suggests that Min authored it before Pak did because it predates the manuscript edition that recorded Pak Semu as the author, which had been known as the earliest edition. Authorship aside, however, it appears reasonable to assume that the sentences in the Tongmong sŏnsŭp were commonly shared for pedagogical purposes among the literati since early Chosŏn. As it has also been used at the court to instruct royal princes since King Hyŏnjong’s reign (1659–1674), there are a number of prints and manuscripts extant. The 1759 edition especially contains King Yŏngjo’s 英祖 preface and Song Siyŏl’s 宋時烈 (1607–1689) postface, indicating that it was received widely.

동몽선습 Text & Translation

Session 2: 학어집(學語集)

학어집 소개

Hagŏjip [Collection of Learning Sentences] is a manuscript whose authorship is unknown. It contains short sentences explaining various subjects ranging from heaven and earth to flowers and animals, for the purpose of teaching the basic sentence structure and grammatical patterns of literary Chinese to novices. It is often confused with Hagŏ 學語 compiled by Pak Chaech’ŏl 朴載哲 with a similar purpose. Hagŏ was blockprinted in 1868 by Pak Chaechŏl’s son Pak Kyujin 朴圭鎮. The two are quite different texts. The latter is more oriented in Confucian learning of moral principles and quotations from classics, whereas the former is apparently mindful of linguistic pedagogy and introduces syntactic patterns with gradually increasing complexity. There are a few manuscript editions preserved in various archives in Korea, including Jangseogak. It appears that there are some textual variations depending on editions especially with the selection of sentences, though individual sentences remain mostly the same.

학어집 수업내용

문장 문형
문장 1 - 5 관계문형
문장 6 - 10 관계문형
문장 11 - 15 관계문형
문장 16 - 20 관계문형
문장 21 - 25 관계문형
문장 26 - 30 관계문형
문장 31 - 35 관계문형
문장 36 - 40 관계문형
문장 41 - 45 관계문형
문장 46 - 50 관계문형
문장 51 - 55 관계문형
문장 56 - 60 관계문형

Session 3: 번역 실습

  • Excerpts for practice:

01. Maodun 矛盾 [Spear and shield], Han Fei zi 韓非子

02. Hudie meng 蝴蝶夢 [Butterfly dream], Zhuangzi 莊子

03. “Chongsil P’ungsan su” 宗室豐山守 [Magistrate of P’ungsan, a royal kinsman], Yongjae ch’onghwa 慵齋叢話

04. “Zhuzhang” 助長 [Helping corn grow], Mencius 孟子

05. “Zhi yu le” 知魚樂 [Knowing the joy of fish], Zhuangzi

06. “Haehak” 諧謔 [Witty stories], Chibong yusŏl 芝峯類說, Vol. 1

07. “Ch’oe Yŏng” 崔瑩, Sŏng Hyŏn, Yongjae ch’onghwa, Vol. 5.

08. “Solgŏ” 率居, Samguk sagi 三國史記.

09. “Meng mu sanqian” 孟母三遷 [Mencius’ mother moves three times,” Lienü zhuan 列女傳.

10. “Shouzhu daitu” 守株待兔 [Waiting for a hare while guarding the tree], Han Fei zi.

11. “Shunju zhi ren” 吮疽之仁 [Benevolence of sucking on abscess], Shuiyuan 説苑.

12. “Yŏng mu pulp’yŏng chi sim ho?” 寧無不平之心乎 [How would it not have a mind of resentment?], Chibong yusŏl, Vol. 15.

13. “Yi wushibu xiao yibaibu” 以五十步笑一百步 [One who retreated fifty paces mocks another who retreated one hundred paces], Mencius.

14. “Saiweng shima” 塞翁失馬 [Old man in border town loses a horse], Huainanzi 淮南子.

15. “Kui t’o chi sŏl” 龜兔之說 [Story of a tortoise and a hare], Samguk sagi.

16. “Pao Ding jieniu” 庖丁解牛 [Cook Ding cuts cow], Zhuangzi.

17. “Mi ch’ŏ tam ch’o” 彌妻啖草 [(To) Mi’s Wife chews grass], Samgang haengsil-to 三綱行實圖.

18. “Nubaek p’oho” 婁伯捕虎 [(Ch’oe) Nubaek captures the tiger], Samgang haengsil-to.

19. “Sŏng Ch’ung oksa” 成忠獄死 [Sŏng Ch’ung dies in prison], Samgang haengsil-to.

20. “Hong Kisŏp” 洪夔燮, Myŏngsim pogam 明心寶鑑.

21. “Kyebaek” 階伯, Samguk sagi.

22. “Kwanch’ang” 官昌, Samguk sagi.

23. “Wanggŏm Chosŏn” 王儉朝鮮, Samguk yusa 三國遺事.

24. “Sŏndŏk wang chigi samsa” 善德王知幾三事 [Queen Sŏndŏk foresees three events], Samguk yusa.

25. “Munhŭi maemong” 文姬買夢 [Munhŭi buys a dream]. Samguk yusa.

장기 번역 과제

擊蒙要訣 격몽요결

1. Kyŏngmong yogyŏl(擊蒙要訣) translated by Sanghoon Na

東國正韻序 동국정운서

2. Tongguk Chŏng'un Sŏ(東國正韻序) translated by Younès M'Ghari

竹夫人傳 죽부인전

3. Chuk puin chŏn(竹夫人傳) translated by Petra Sváková

熱河日記 열하일기

4. Yŏrha ilgi(熱河日記 - 口外異聞) translated by Kim MiRi

高宗實錄 3年2月25日 고종실록 3년2월25일

5. 朝鮮王朝實錄 高宗實錄 3年2月25日 translated by Jae Yong Chang

芝峯集 지봉집

6. The compendium of Chibong 芝峯集 - translated by Bryan Sauvadet

孝宗實錄六年九月二日癸未 효종실록 6년9월2일계미

7. 孝宗實錄 孝宗 六年 九月 二日 癸未 translated by Eom TaeYeon

8. Xunerzhenyan(訓兒眞言) translated by Goeun Lee

위키 교실 Wiki Guide

참고자료 References