2018 GGHS Team 1

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A comparison of the Technology of Goryeo and Foreign Countries.

Motives for doing research

Through the study of hidden technology from the Goryeo Dynasty that many people do not know about, by comparing the characteristics of the cannons and metal types of the Goryeo Dynasty with those of foreign cannons and metal types, we explained the excellence of the technology of the Goryeo Dynasty. As a student at Ganghwa Girls ' High School in Ganghwa Island, which was the capital of Goryeo, we wanted to accumulate diverse knowledge about the Goryeo Dynasty. As of 2018, the research was conducted to mark the 1100th anniversary of the founding of the Goryeo.

Background knowledge

What is a cannon(Chongtong gun)?

Cannons displayed in a Choi Moo Sun science museum[1]
  • A type of weapon used to fire arrows from the Goryeo Dynasty.
  • The chongtong gun is a cannon ball of the Joseon Dynasty. The names were divided according to the size, weight of gunpowder, the number of bullets, and the distance to which they were used, according to the order of 천자문(千子文) was separated by 천(天)·지(地)·현(玄)·황(黃)
  • A cannon is a large, uncarrying weapon with a large firing range and a greater range than the gun.

The stone cannon that was made in the 14th century was replaced by the steel one at the end of 15th century. At the same time in France a new lighter a cannon cast in bronze was placed on a horse-drawn motorcycle carriage, which led to the emergence of field guns. The new mobile French field gun has introduced the concept of a trunnion, making it easier for guns to be placed on permanent cartwheels, allowing for relatively accurate aim and range expansion.

What is metal types

Metal type from the Goryeo Dynasty [2]

Existing woodblocks were difficult to keep because they are easily split and bent. And all of the characters were carved on the woodblocks, and the characters were printed on one woodblock-printed book, so that only one type of book could be printed.Metal types were invented to compensate for these shortcomings.

The invention and use of metal types originated in Korea for the first time. however, there is no early records remaining, so it is unclear when it was invented and by whom.


Middle Ages

The physical principles of a cannon

When the magnitude of the force acting is the same, the longer the impact time, the greater the magnitude of the charge. Therefore, the formula F△t = I(the amount of charge) is established. For example, the longer the cannon is, the longer the shell flies. If powder is lit, impact will be applied to the shell, but the longer the gun is, the longer it will take to be impacted, causing the shell to fly further away.

European cannon

Inside the Rochelt cannon, manufactured in the early 14th century[4]

Among European cannons, a known internal structure was discovered in 1861, in Loshult, Sweden. It is believed to have been used in the 14th century and is a cannon barrel with a length of 310mm and a muzzle of 36mm.

The internal structure of the cannon, which is made of bronze, becomes narrower as it enters from a cannon and expands again in a medicine cabinet that explodes. And there is a hole in the medicine cabinet for inserting the ignition wire. It seems that cannons with this internal structure were used in Europe around the 14th century. These cannons used arrows as launches, with the wings of iron and leather attached to the middle of the arrows, which are well represented in the drawing of the book, which was published in 1326.

At the shooting scene, the powder can be filled in the medicine cabinet, the back of the arrow is inserted through the gun, and the powder can be set on fire. The arrow that is inserted into the muzzle by the explosive force is fired forward.


Chinese cannon

Chinese soldiers firing cannon[6]

Among the small cannons in China, the earliest cannon with internal structure announced to date is a small cannon made in bronze in the 11th year of the Yuan Dynasty (1351).

The internal structure of the designated 11-year cannon barrel with a length of 435mm, a muzzle of 30mm and a weight of 4.75kg which is composed of a bureau portion for inserting an arrow, a medicine cabinet for filling gunpowder, and a soldier holding a handle, like a Swedish roulette cannon, the bureau is gradually getting narrower from the muzzle to the side of the muzzle, and is shaped like a widening of the mouth. The outer shape has one node at the entrance of the bureau, two in the middle, and one each in front of and behind medicine cabinet.

The inscription text on the cannon “Fire breaks through all kinds of armor, and sound travels throughout the sky.” It is engraved with the words " mystery " in the middle section, and the inscription " Cheonsan(Sky mountain) " in the main hall. This early Chinese cannon barrel had a wooden sack attached to the rear part of the troop, and a wooden sack used by both hands.


The Goryeo cannons

<Gyeonghui cannon> Gyeonghui cannon is presumed to be independent. Among Korea's old cannons currently in existence, the cannon, which is believed to be made at the end of the Goryeo Dynasty, is two bronze cannon stored in the Gyeonghui University Museum. The cannon is a typical form of the 14th century, when it becomes narrower as it enters from the entrance and expands significantly in the area of gunpowder. The outer shape has a joint at the entrance to the bureau and one at the front and one at the back of the gunpowder bottle.

Gyeonghui cannon internal structure[8]
Gyeonghui cannon[9]

Gyeonghui cannon have the similar internal structure as the Rochelt cannon in Sweden and China's 14th century cannon. However, it is different from the structure of the Korean cannon, which appears in the latter part of King Sejong. Therefore, Gyeonghui cannon may be thought to be from China, but considering that the size of the artillery gun in the early period of China was 300 to 400 ㎜ or more than the Gyeonghui cannon, it is assumed the oldest cannon made in Goryeo.

The shooting sight of the cannon fills the medicine barrel of the cannon, inserts the back of the arrow through the gun, lights the signal line, and burns off the powder of the gun. The explosive force produces an arrow that is inserted into the barrel.

<juhwa> Choi Mu-seon also made the nation's first rocket, ' Juhwa ', which means ' Running Fire. ' "Juhwa " refers to putting gunpowder into a paper container made by rolling it, and the powder inside the paper barrel burns, and the combustion gases are blown back by force.

<general’s cannon,second commander’s cannon> As a distribution gun used to send arrows and bullets far away from the blast, it was used to strike and destroy enemy castles, gates, walls, and warships

<A signal shell> This is a signal fire that can be used to set up a camp with the sound of explosion, fire and smoke that are emitted at launch, or exchange signals between the fortress and the camp.

Although none of the gunpowder manufactured by Choi Mu-seon can be confirmed on the scale and structure of the weapons, it is certain that they are the foundation of the nation's gunpowder weapons. Choi Mu-seon's contribution to the nation through the development of gunpowder and gunpowder weapons is beyond comparison with anyone's achievements.

[10] [11]

German metal movable types

German metal type was invented by Gutenberg. Gutenberg invented the technology of type, taking advantage of his experience at the Mint in mainz.

He is Gutenberg[12]

The process of printing in metal type is 1. Lead type making 2. Plate making 3. Ink application 4. Printing with printing press. Gutenberg's metal types consisted of alloys of lead, tin, and antimony, and were made by pouring an alloy melted into a finely crafted type mold. made type was kept in a box divided into various and Pick up the things you need to imprint a page and put them on wooden plank. When wooden plank was full, that tied it up above correction iron and arranged it in a wooden plate shape. Gutenberg combined black ink, terepin and linseed oil to combine non-spreading ink. Gutenberg modified a wine compressor to make the first printing press. He used a typesetting stick to rearrange metal types to fit page strings and shapes. This was fixed in metal form and attached to the surface of the platen on top of the printing press. Then, put the paper on the plate, lower the weight of the bar soaked in ink, and push down on the hand - able heavy screw, so that the contents on the plate are evenly.

German movable metal type[13]

German metal types use lead that melts at 360 degrees, so everything is simple and type is made quickly. Also, Gutenberg's method of making metal types matched shape and size castings thanks to the use of steel molds and making machines. Even if frame of form was destroyed, it could be produced again as long as it had Hammer. In addition, it uses a press that was used to squeeze existing wine and oil to facilitate mass printing. Good printing of type requires sufficient pressure, but the labor force had limitations. In the East, about 40 copies can be taken in one edition all day, but in the West, printing presses can produce several hundred copies a day. The European alphabet has 26 letters. Even though you can distinguish upper and lower case letters and have separate decorative fonts, there are only a few that need to be made. Due to the nature of the alphabet, which states that voice can be written instantly, it was also easy to prevent illiteracy because it was possible to communicate only by knowing the alphabet and spelling out the words in one's own language.

In Germany, a pioneer in printing type, 'the 42nd bible' was more practical in spreading culture through books by publishing and distributing the Bible for anyone to see after publication. As many people began to read the Bible, the irregularities of the church were discovered, and in 1517, a religious reform was carried out by Luther. Also, the upper classes, which accumulated wealth through industrial development, turned to education and eventually led to the eradication of illiteracy, which led to the creation of universities. And democracy was achieved by highly educated intellectuals. As such, Gutenberg's influence was huge from the viewpoint of civilization and history.

[14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19]

Metal movable type from the Goryeo Dynasty

● The character of metal type

It was made of metal so it could be stored for a long time.

It was able to print different kinds of books by combining type with metal letters.

Goryeo made the world's first.

It is a traditional craft that shows the excellence of our nation.

● Process for making metal types in the Goryeo Dynasty

① It is carved into the wax one by one letter to form 어미자.

② Wrap the wax and then form a mold.

③ Pour molten iron from copper, tin, and lead into a mold.

④ Remove and polish metal types made from molten iron.

⑤ Arrange the types according to what you want to print.

⑥ Put ink on the type face and paper over it.



Modern times

Modern technology

3D Printer

3D printer.[22]

Today, a three-dimensional printer(3D - printer) has been created combining traditional printing technology with the wisdom of our ancestors. Three-dimensional printing is a manufacturing technique that produces three-dimensional objects by spraying a continuous layer of matter. By using this, they were able to create objects in three dimensions, not in two dimensions. [23]



The rocket weapons, including cannon, have at present developed into missiles. A missile is a generic term for a weapon that is driven by a rocket, jet engine, etc. and is guided until the target is reached at the point of induction. A missiles don't just shoot at targets like shells and fly away.also it's got an induction device inside it After it's launched, it measures its speed and direction. Missiles have the ability to hit the target by as amended it. [25] [26] [27]


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  2. https://terms.naver.com/entry.nhn?docId=2000469&cid=46717&categoryId=46763 [네이버 지식백과]고려시대 실물 금속활자 '복'
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