Difference between revisions of "2019 JSG Summer Hanmun Workshop (Intermediate)"

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[[File:Back2017.png|right|40px|link=2017_JSG_Summer_Hanmun_Workshop_(Intermediate)]]
 
[[File:Back2017.png|right|40px|link=2017_JSG_Summer_Hanmun_Workshop_(Intermediate)]]
 
[[File:Back2017.png|right|40px|link=2016_JSG_Summer_Hanmun_Workshop_(Intermediate)]]
 
[[File:Back2017.png|right|40px|link=2016_JSG_Summer_Hanmun_Workshop_(Intermediate)]]
 +
  
 
=='''Description'''==
 
=='''Description'''==
  
The purpose of this course is to provide students an intensive training in what is commonly referred to as “classical Chinese,” or hanmun, which constitutes the nucleus of the literary languages of premodern China, Korea, and Japan. Because this workshop is intended for future researchers and scholars of premodern Korean culture in a broader context of East Asian civilization, which some call the “Sinosphere,” we will focus on the most fundamental sentence patterns and grammatical devices commonly used in hanmun, exploring some canonical texts that embody the linguistic and cultural grammars of classical Chinese literature.  
+
The purpose of this course is to provide students an intensive training in what is commonly referred to as “classical Chinese,” or hanmun, which constitutes the nucleus of the literary languages of premodern China, Korea, and Japan. Because this workshop is intended for future researchers and scholars of premodern Korean culture in a broader context of East Asian civilization, which some call the “Sinosphere,” we will focus on the most fundamental sentence patterns and grammatical devices commonly used in hanmun, exploring some canonical texts that embody the linguistic and cultural grammars of classical Chinese literature.
 +
 
 
Each day, the class will study grammatical devices and patterns with simple sentences and read (excerpts of) regular hanmun texts for applied practice. We will read and critically analyze the texts, with which to formulate an academically-minded English translation of them. At the end of the workshop, students are expected to become familiar with different types of texts, to gain first-hand knowledge around the original texts of old Korean books, and more importantly, to become intellectually independent in their own future research critically engaging primary texts.
 
Each day, the class will study grammatical devices and patterns with simple sentences and read (excerpts of) regular hanmun texts for applied practice. We will read and critically analyze the texts, with which to formulate an academically-minded English translation of them. At the end of the workshop, students are expected to become familiar with different types of texts, to gain first-hand knowledge around the original texts of old Korean books, and more importantly, to become intellectually independent in their own future research critically engaging primary texts.
  
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::(4) Observance of academic convention for translation
 
::(4) Observance of academic convention for translation
 +
  
 
=='''Instructor'''==
 
=='''Instructor'''==
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''cf''. [[장서각 여름 한문 워크샵 참가자 JSG Summer Hanmun Workshop Participants|역대 참가자 Previous Participants]]
* 참가자 명단 Participants List ''cf''. [[장서각 여름 한문 워크샵 참가자 JSG Summer Hanmun Workshop Participants|역대 참가자 Previous Participants]]
 
 
{|class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:center;background-color:#fdfdfd;" width="100%"
 
{|class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:center;background-color:#fdfdfd;" width="100%"
 
|-
 
|-
 
! style="width:5%" | 연도 || style="width:15%" | 성명 || style="width:10%" | 국적 || style="width:20%" | 소속 || style="width:15%" | 직위 || style="width:20%" | 연구/전공분야 || style="width:15%" | 그룹
 
! style="width:5%" | 연도 || style="width:15%" | 성명 || style="width:10%" | 국적 || style="width:20%" | 소속 || style="width:15%" | 직위 || style="width:20%" | 연구/전공분야 || style="width:15%" | 그룹
 
|-
 
|-
|2019 || - || -|| - || - || - || Intermediate Training Group
+
|2019||Arzberger, Nadia||미국<br/>USA||미국 하와이대학교 마노아<br/>University of Hawaii-Manoa||석사과정<br/>Master's Student||Anthropology||Intermediate Training Group
 +
|-
 +
|2019||Bass, Emma||캐나다<br/>Canada||캐나다 퀸즈대학교<br/>Queen's University||석사과정<br/>Master's Student||Cultural Studies||Intermediate Training Group
 +
|-
 +
|2019||Belokon, Olga||러시아<br/>Russia||캐나다 브리티시 컬럼비아대학교<br/>University of British Columbia||석사과정<br/>Master's Student||Korean Literature||Intermediate Training Group
 +
|-
 +
|2019||Kaltenbach, Kristina||독일<br/>Germany||독일 베를린자유대학교<br/>Freie Universität Berlin||대학생<br/>Undergraduate Student||Korean Studies||Intermediate Training Group
 +
|-
 +
|2019||Kim, Stella S.||미국<br/>USA||미국 컬럼비아대학교<br/>Columbia University||박사과정<br/>Doctoral Student||East Asian Languages and Cultures (Premodern Korea/gender and women's history)||Intermediate Training Group
 +
|-
 +
|2019||Kus, Canan||독일<br/>Germany||독일 보훔 루르대학교<br/>Ruhr-Universität Bochum||석사과정<br/>Master's Student||Korean Language and Literature||Intermediate Training Group
 +
|-
 +
|2019||Sanchez, Hector I.||멕시코<br/>Mexico||미국 펜실베이니아대학교<br/>University of Pennsylvania||석사과정<br/>Master's Student||East Asian Languages and Civilizations||Intermediate Training Group
 +
|-
 +
|2019||Waddell, Ethan||미국<br/>USA||미국 시카고대학교<br/>University of Chicago||박사과정<br/>Doctoral Student||Modern Korean Literature||Intermediate Training Group
 +
|-
 +
|2019||Yi, Ivanna Sang Een||미국<br/>USA||미국 워싱턴대학교 세인트루이스<br/>Washington University in St. Louis||박사 후 펠로우<br/>Postdoctoral Fellow||Korean and Native American literatures and cultures||Intermediate Training Group
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
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[[Category:JSG Summer Hanmun Workshop]]
 
[[Category:JSG Summer Hanmun Workshop]]
 
[[Category:Participants]]
 
[[Category:Participants]]
 +
  
 
=='''Schedule'''==
 
=='''Schedule'''==
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<div class="mw-collapsible-content">
 
<div class="mw-collapsible-content">
 
{|class="wikitable" style="background-color:#ffffff;"
 
{|class="wikitable" style="background-color:#ffffff;"
!style="width:30px;"|Date || style="width:300px;"|Contents || style="width:200px;"|
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!style="width:30px;"|Day || style="width:300px;"|Contents || style="width:200px;"|
 
|-
 
|-
|7/1 || S1: Opening Ceremony, Placement Test
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|7/1 ||   Opening Ceremony, Placement Test
 
+
  Orientation
S2: Introduction: Classical Chinese, literary Chinese, Sino-Korean, and Hanmun
 
 
||  
 
||  
 +
First Day
 
|-
 
|-
|7/2 || S1: ''Tongmong sŏnsŭp'' 1–4
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|7/2 || S1: ''Kyemong p’yŏn'' 1–3
  
S2: ''Ch’ugu'' 1, 4; ''Hagŏjip'' 1–5
+
S2: ''Ch’ugu'' 1, 3, 4
  
S3: Short passages 8, 23, 43
+
S3: Select readings 8, 23, 4
 
||  
 
||  
 
|-
 
|-
|7/3 || S1: ''Tongmong sŏnsŭp'' 5–8
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|7/3 || S1: ''Kyemong p’yŏn'' 4–6
 
 
S2: ''Hagŏjip'' 6–10
 
  
 +
S2: Select readings 12, 13, 16
 +
||
 +
Special lecture
  
||
+
Field trip
 
|-
 
|-
|7/4 || S1: ''Tongmong sŏnsŭp'' 9–13
+
|7/4 || S1: ''Kyemong p’yŏn'' 7–9
  
S2: ''Ch’ugu'' 5, 7, 9; ''Hagŏjip'' 11–15
+
S2: ''Ch’ugu'' 5, 6, 7
  
S3: Short passages 10, 13, 16
+
S3: Select readings 9, 24, 18, 27
 
||  
 
||  
 
|-
 
|-
|7/5 || S1: ''Tongmong sŏnsŭp'' 14–17
+
|7/5 || S1: ''Kyemong p’yŏn'' 10–13
  
S2: ''Ch’ugu'' 13, 15, 16; ''Hagŏjip'' 16–20
+
S2: ''Ch’ugu'' 9, 10, 13
  
S3: Short passages 9, 15, 24
+
S3: Select readings 25, 29, 30
 
||  
 
||  
 
|-
 
|-
|7/8 || S1: ''Tongmong sŏnsŭp'' 18–22
+
|7/8 || S1: ''Kyemong p’yŏn'' 14–18
  
S2: ''Ch’ugu'' 18, 19; ''Hagŏjip'' 21–25
+
S2: ''Ch’ugu'' 14, 15, 16
  
S3: Short passages 4, 11, 12
+
S3: Select readings 40, 41
 
||  
 
||  
 +
Special lecture
 
|-
 
|-
|7/9 || S1: ''Tongmong sŏnsŭp'' 23–25
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|7/9 || S1: ''Kyemong p’yŏn'' 19–22
  
S2: ''Ch’ugu'' 22, 24, 30; ''Hagŏjip'' 26–30
+
S2: ''Ch’ugu'' 18, 19, 22
  
S3: Short passages 1, 11, 33, 37
+
S3: Select readings 1, 5, 42
 
||  
 
||  
 
|-
 
|-
|7/10 || S1: ''Tongmong sŏnsŭp'' 26–30
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|7/10 || S1: ''Kyemong p’yŏn'' 22–26
 
 
S2: ''Hagŏjip'' 31–35
 
  
 +
S2: ''Ch’ugu'' 23, 24, 26
  
 +
S3: Select readings 48, 28
 
||  
 
||  
 
 
 
|-
 
|-
|7/11 || S1: ''Tongmong sŏnsŭp'' 31–34
+
|7/11 || S1: ''Kyemong p’yŏn'' 27–29
  
S2: ''Ch’ugu'' 32, 37, 39; ''Hagŏjip'' 36–40
+
S2: ''Ch’ugu'' 28, 30, 32
  
S3: Short passages 5, 17, 20, 38
+
S3: Select readings 34, 38, 36
 
||  
 
||  
 
|-
 
|-
|7/12 || S1: ''Tongmong sŏnsŭp'' 35–38
+
|7/12 || S1: ''Kyemong p’yŏn'' 30–33
 
 
S2: ''Hagŏjip'' 41–45
 
 
 
  
 +
S2: Select readings 2, 14
 
||
 
||
 
+
Field Trip
 
 
 
|-
 
|-
|7/15 || S1: ''Tongmong sŏnsŭp'' 39–42
+
|7/15 || S1: ''Kyemong p’yŏn'' 34–37
  
S2: ''Ch’ugu'' 41, 46, 50; ''Hagŏjip'' 46–50
+
S2: ''Ch’ugu'' 37, 39, 42
  
S3: Short passages 21, 27, 36
+
S3: Select readings 22, 20, 31
 
||  
 
||  
 
|-
 
|-
|7/16 || S1: ''Tongmong sŏnsŭp'' 43–47
+
|7/16 || S1: ''Kyemong p’yŏn'' 38–40
 
 
S2: ''Hagŏjip'' 51–55
 
 
 
  
 +
S2: ''Ch’ugu'' 46, 47, 50
 
||
 
||
 
+
Special Lecture
 
 
 
|-
 
|-
|7/17 || S1: ''Tongmong sŏnsŭp'' 48–52
+
|7/17 || S1: ''Kyemong p’yŏn'' 41–43
  
S2: ''Ch’ugu'' 56, 57, 58; ''Hagŏjip'' 56–60
+
S2: ''Ch’ugu'' 51, 56, 57
  
S3: Short passages 2, 6, 43
+
S3: Select readings 39, 33, 37
 
||  
 
||  
 
|-
 
|-
|7/18 || S1: ''Tongmong sŏnsŭp'' 53–56
+
|7/18 || S1: ''Kyemong p’yŏn'' 44–45
  
S2: ''Ch’ugu'' 59, 60; ''Hagŏjip'' Review 1
+
S2: ''Ch’ugu'' 58, 59, 60
  
S3: Short passages 29, 34, 42
+
S3: Select readings 47, 49
 
||  
 
||  
 
|-
 
|-
|7/19 || S1: ''Tongmong sŏnsŭp'' Review  
+
|7/19 || S1: Review
  
S2: ''Ch’ugu'' Review; ''Hagŏjip'' Review 2
+
S2: Closing ceremony
 
 
S3: Short passages 28, 44
 
 
||  
 
||  
 +
Graduation
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
 
</div>
 
</div>
 
</div>
 
</div>
 +
  
 
=='''Translation'''==
 
=='''Translation'''==
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*'''Session 2''' :  ''Ch’ugu'' 推句 (Versed Lines)
 
*'''Session 2''' :  ''Ch’ugu'' 推句 (Versed Lines)
  
*'''Session 3''' : [[2019 JSG Summer Hanmun Workshop (Intermediate)#Session 3: 選讀 Short Passages for Practice|Excerpts for practice]]
+
*'''Session 3''' : [[2019 JSG Summer Hanmun Workshop (Intermediate)#Session 3: Select Readings 選讀|Excerpts for practice]]
  
  
===Session 1: ''Kyemong p’yŏn'' 啓蒙篇===
+
===Session 1: Kyemong p’yŏn 啓蒙篇===
 
----
 
----
 
The ''Kyemong p’yŏn'' [Chapters to enlighten the unenlightened] was one of the first textbooks for novices, usually placed after learning the ''Ch’ŏnjamun'' 千字文 [Thousand-character text] and before reading the ''Tongmong sŏnsŭp'' 童蒙先習 [Preparatory Learning for the Youth] in the nineteenth-century-Chosŏn curriculum for hanmun education. The term ''kyemong'' 啓蒙 (Ch. ''qimeng'') literally means “cracking open the [curtain] of ignorance,” where ''mong'' 蒙 is a usual word for the unenlightened. There are several primers containing mong in their titles in Sinitic tradition, e.g., ''Mengqiu'' 蒙求 [Saving the ignorance, 746], ''Kyŏngmong yogyŏl'' 擊蒙要訣 [Essential methods to awaken the unenlightened, 1577], ''Tongmeng xuzhi'' 童蒙須知 [What children should know, 1187], and the aforementioned ''Tongmong sŏnsŭp'' (ca. 1541). One should note that the word ''mong'' itself does not mean “children” but only “unenlightened” or “dim” unless it is compounded by tong 童, for ignorance (including illiteracy) is not necessarily a feature that applied only to children but to all uneducated. Especially in the Confucian context, knowledge and education take its ultimate meaning in moral cultivation, beyond the modern sense of general knowledge. Therefore, these traditional primers inevitably engage a strong sense of ethical-philosophical inculcation in their contents, such as the moral conducts of in the family, the meaning of being human, social ethics and proprieties. <br>
 
The ''Kyemong p’yŏn'' [Chapters to enlighten the unenlightened] was one of the first textbooks for novices, usually placed after learning the ''Ch’ŏnjamun'' 千字文 [Thousand-character text] and before reading the ''Tongmong sŏnsŭp'' 童蒙先習 [Preparatory Learning for the Youth] in the nineteenth-century-Chosŏn curriculum for hanmun education. The term ''kyemong'' 啓蒙 (Ch. ''qimeng'') literally means “cracking open the [curtain] of ignorance,” where ''mong'' 蒙 is a usual word for the unenlightened. There are several primers containing mong in their titles in Sinitic tradition, e.g., ''Mengqiu'' 蒙求 [Saving the ignorance, 746], ''Kyŏngmong yogyŏl'' 擊蒙要訣 [Essential methods to awaken the unenlightened, 1577], ''Tongmeng xuzhi'' 童蒙須知 [What children should know, 1187], and the aforementioned ''Tongmong sŏnsŭp'' (ca. 1541). One should note that the word ''mong'' itself does not mean “children” but only “unenlightened” or “dim” unless it is compounded by tong 童, for ignorance (including illiteracy) is not necessarily a feature that applied only to children but to all uneducated. Especially in the Confucian context, knowledge and education take its ultimate meaning in moral cultivation, beyond the modern sense of general knowledge. Therefore, these traditional primers inevitably engage a strong sense of ethical-philosophical inculcation in their contents, such as the moral conducts of in the family, the meaning of being human, social ethics and proprieties. <br>
The compiler-author of this books is unclear. It is often contributed to Chang Hon 張混 (1759-1828), a praised ''chungin'' 中人 (interclass) writer and poet who lived in Seoul. He worked in the Office of Printing Inspection (Kaminso 監印所) as a checker (sajun司準) from 1790 to 1818 and participated in numerous court publishing projects. Chang wrote a few primer-type books to educate children, including the ''Ahŭi wŏllam'' 兒戱原覽 [A primary read for children at play], ''Mongyu p’yŏn'' 蒙喻篇 [Instruction for the uneducated], and ''Ch’ohak chahwi'' 初學字彙 [Character book for beginners]. Considering his writings and the fact that interclass writers’ active involvement in elementary-literacy education in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the ''Kyemong p’yŏn'' was customarily attributed to Chang Hon, but there is no clear indication that he did brush this work. However, it is safe to assume that it was circulated and used in literacy education at town study halls (''sŏdang'' 書堂) as late as in the late nineteenth century. It was also quite popularly published in the twentieth century, published in the form of ''ŏnhaebon'' 諺解本 (rendition with vernacular glosses and interpretation in hangŭl), i.e., ''Kyemongp’yŏn ŏnhae'' 啓蒙篇, in woodblock prints, types, and manuscripts. Interestingly, the edition without ''ŏnhae'' is not extant. The Jangsŏgak Library at AKS also has several editions of ''Kyemong p’yŏn ŏnhae'', one of which is the early-twentieth-century block print that we include in the textbook.  
+
The compiler-author of this books is unclear. It is often contributed to Chang Hon 張混 (1759-1828), a praised ''chungin'' 中人 (interclass) writer, poet, and educator whose family had lived in Seoul for generations. He worked in the Office of Printing Inspection (Kaminso 監印所) as a checker (sajun司準) from 1790 to 1818 and participated in numerous court publishing projects. Chang wrote a few primer-type books to educate children, including the ''Ahŭi wŏllam'' 兒戱原覽 [A primary read for children at play], ''Mongyu p’yŏn'' 蒙喻篇 [Instruction for the uneducated], and ''Ch’ohak chahwi'' 初學字彙 [Character book for beginners]. Considering his writings and the fact that interclass writers’ active involvement in elementary-literacy education in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the ''Kyemong p’yŏn'' was customarily attributed to Chang Hon, but there is no clear indication that he did brush this work. However, it is safe to assume that it was circulated and used in literacy education at town study halls (''sŏdang'' 書堂) as late as in the late nineteenth century. It was also quite popularly published in the twentieth century, published in the form of ''ŏnhaebon'' 諺解本 (rendition with vernacular glosses and interpretation in hangŭl), i.e., ''Kyemongp’yŏn ŏnhae'' 啓蒙篇, in woodblock prints, types, and manuscripts. Interestingly, the edition without ''ŏnhae'' is not extant. The Jangsŏgak Library at AKS also has several editions of ''Kyemong p’yŏn ŏnhae'', one of which is the early-twentieth-century block print that we include in the textbook.  
  
  
 
{|class="wikitable" style="width:40%; text-align:center; color:#002080; background-color:#ffffff;"
 
{|class="wikitable" style="width:40%; text-align:center; color:#002080; background-color:#ffffff;"
!style="width:20%;"| date || style="width:80%;"|童蒙先習
+
!style="width:20%;"| date || style="width:80%;"|啓蒙篇
 
|-
 
|-
|7/03||[[2019 童蒙先習 01 - 04|童蒙先習 01 - 04]]
+
|7/02||[[2019 啓蒙篇 01 - 03|啓蒙篇 01 - 03]]
 
|-
 
|-
|7/04||[[2019 童蒙先習 05 - 08|童蒙先習 05 - 08]]
+
|7/03||[[2019 啓蒙篇 04 - 06|啓蒙篇 04 - 06]]
 
|-
 
|-
|7/05||[[2019 童蒙先習 09 - 13|童蒙先習 09 - 13]]
+
|7/04||[[2019 啓蒙篇 07 - 09|啓蒙篇 07 - 09]]
 
|-
 
|-
|7/06||[[2019 童蒙先習 14 - 17|童蒙先習 14 - 17]]
+
|7/05||[[2019 啓蒙篇 10 - 13|啓蒙篇 10 - 13]]
 
|-
 
|-
|7/09||[[2019 童蒙先習 18 - 22|童蒙先習 18 - 22]]
+
|7/08||[[2019 啓蒙篇 14 - 18|啓蒙篇 14 - 18]]
 
|-
 
|-
|7/10||[[2019 童蒙先習 23 - 25|童蒙先習 23 - 25]]
+
|7/9||[[2019 啓蒙篇 19 - 22|啓蒙篇 19 - 22]]
 
|-
 
|-
|7/11||[[2019 童蒙先習 26 - 30|童蒙先習 26 - 30]]
+
|7/10||[[2019 啓蒙篇 23 - 26|啓蒙篇 23 - 26]]
 
|-
 
|-
|7/12||[[2019 童蒙先習 31 - 34|童蒙先習 31 - 34]]
+
|7/11||[[2019 啓蒙篇 27 - 29|啓蒙篇 27 - 29]]
 
|-
 
|-
|7/13||[[2019 童蒙先習 35 - 38|童蒙先習 35 - 38]]
+
|7/12||[[2019 啓蒙篇 30 - 33|啓蒙篇 30 - 33]]
 
|-
 
|-
|7/16||[[2019 童蒙先習 39 - 42|童蒙先習 39 - 42]]
+
|7/15||[[2019 啓蒙篇 34 - 37|啓蒙篇 34 - 37]]
 
|-
 
|-
|7/17||[[2019 童蒙先習 43 - 47|童蒙先習 43 - 47]]
+
|7/16||[[2019 啓蒙篇 38 - 40|啓蒙篇 38 - 40]]
 
|-
 
|-
|7/18||[[2019 童蒙先習 48 - 52|童蒙先習 48 - 52]]
+
|7/17||[[2019 啓蒙篇 41 - 43|啓蒙篇 41 - 43]]
 
|-
 
|-
|7/19||[[2019 童蒙先習 53 - 56|童蒙先習 53 - 56]]
+
|7/18||[[2019 啓蒙篇 44 - 45|啓蒙篇 44 - 45]]
 
|-
 
|-
|*||[[2019 童蒙先習 御製童蒙先習序|御製童蒙先習序]]
+
|7/19||啓蒙篇 Review
 
|-
 
|-
|**||[[2019 童蒙先習 跋文|跋文]]
 
 
|}
 
|}
*[http://jsg.aks.ac.kr/data/viewer/bookImage.do?callNum=K1-200&vol= 장서각 소장 어제동몽선습언해(御製童蒙先習諺解)]
 
  
===Session 2: 推句 Versed Lines===
+
===Session 2: Ch’ugu 推句===
 
----
 
----
 
The Ch’ugu is a collection of pentasyllabic quatrains (''o’ŏn chŏlgu'' 五言絕句) for beginners of hanmun during the Chosŏn dynasty. There are altogether 60 quatrains, many chosen from known poetic lines, containing motifs and images familiar to novices. It is one of the typical primers taught to learners who have finished character lessons with, most likely, the ''Ch’ŏnjamun'' 千字文, along with the ''Saja sohak'' 四字小學 [Four-character Minor Learning], ''Tongmong sŏnsŭp'', and ''Kyŏngmong yogyŏl'' 擊夢要訣 [Essential precepts  to awake the unenlightened]. The title "Ch’ugu" could be taken as “selected lines” (ch’u 推 “to select”) but also have come from ch’ugo (or proscriptively pronounced ''t’oego'') 推敲 “push or knock,” a verb coined for the story of Jia Dao 賈島 (780?–843) and Han Yu 韓愈 (768–824) to mean “polish or perfect the language of a literary work.”<ref>Jia Dao once composed a poem, sitting on a mule, which included lines, “Birds sleep on the tree in the middle of the pond, a monk knocks on the door under the moon” 鳥宿池中樹, 僧敲月下門. He was having second thought of using ''t’oe'' 推 “push” instead of ''ko'' 敲 “knock,” but could not decide. Occupied by this thought, he failed to step back to make way when Han Yu’s mayoral march was progressing the street, which was a serious offense. Han Yu summoned Jia Dao and interrogated why Jia did not step aside. After hearing what happened, Han Yu said that he preferred ''ko'' instead of ''t’oe'', upon which they became good friends in literature. This story is introduced in the ''Tangshi jishi'' 唐詩紀事.</ref>  Ch’ugu 推句 as a verb was then used in the sense of writing poems, and if it was indeed where the title was chosen, it would more precise to pronounce the title as ''t'oegu'', not ''ch’ugu''. All extant copies of Ch’ugu is in the form of manuscript, but as Ŏ Sukkwŏn’s 魚叔權 ''Kosa ch’waryo'' 攷事撮要 (1554) recorded the presence of its printing blocks in 1558, it is possible that ''Ch’ugu'' was more popular as a primer in mid-Chosŏn period.
 
The Ch’ugu is a collection of pentasyllabic quatrains (''o’ŏn chŏlgu'' 五言絕句) for beginners of hanmun during the Chosŏn dynasty. There are altogether 60 quatrains, many chosen from known poetic lines, containing motifs and images familiar to novices. It is one of the typical primers taught to learners who have finished character lessons with, most likely, the ''Ch’ŏnjamun'' 千字文, along with the ''Saja sohak'' 四字小學 [Four-character Minor Learning], ''Tongmong sŏnsŭp'', and ''Kyŏngmong yogyŏl'' 擊夢要訣 [Essential precepts  to awake the unenlightened]. The title "Ch’ugu" could be taken as “selected lines” (ch’u 推 “to select”) but also have come from ch’ugo (or proscriptively pronounced ''t’oego'') 推敲 “push or knock,” a verb coined for the story of Jia Dao 賈島 (780?–843) and Han Yu 韓愈 (768–824) to mean “polish or perfect the language of a literary work.”<ref>Jia Dao once composed a poem, sitting on a mule, which included lines, “Birds sleep on the tree in the middle of the pond, a monk knocks on the door under the moon” 鳥宿池中樹, 僧敲月下門. He was having second thought of using ''t’oe'' 推 “push” instead of ''ko'' 敲 “knock,” but could not decide. Occupied by this thought, he failed to step back to make way when Han Yu’s mayoral march was progressing the street, which was a serious offense. Han Yu summoned Jia Dao and interrogated why Jia did not step aside. After hearing what happened, Han Yu said that he preferred ''ko'' instead of ''t’oe'', upon which they became good friends in literature. This story is introduced in the ''Tangshi jishi'' 唐詩紀事.</ref>  Ch’ugu 推句 as a verb was then used in the sense of writing poems, and if it was indeed where the title was chosen, it would more precise to pronounce the title as ''t'oegu'', not ''ch’ugu''. All extant copies of Ch’ugu is in the form of manuscript, but as Ŏ Sukkwŏn’s 魚叔權 ''Kosa ch’waryo'' 攷事撮要 (1554) recorded the presence of its printing blocks in 1558, it is possible that ''Ch’ugu'' was more popular as a primer in mid-Chosŏn period.
  
  
 +
'''Note'''
 
<references/>
 
<references/>
  
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!style="width:20%;"| date || style="width:80%;"|推句
 
!style="width:20%;"| date || style="width:80%;"|推句
 
|-
 
|-
|7/03||[[2019 推句 01 - 04|推句 01, 04]]
+
|7/2||[[2019 推句 01 - 04|推句 01, 03, 04]]
 
|-
 
|-
|7/05||[[2019 推句 05 - 10|推句 05, 07, 09]]
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|7/4||[[2019 推句 05 - 07|推句 05, 06, 07]]
 
|-
 
|-
|7/06||[[2019 推句 11 - 16|推句 13, 15, 16]]
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|7/5||[[2019 推句 09 - 13|推句 09, 10, 13]]
 
|-
 
|-
|7/09||[[2019 推句 17 - 20|推句 18, 19]]
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|7/8||[[2019 推句 14 - 16|推句 14, 15, 16]]
 
|-
 
|-
|7/10||[[2019 推句 21 - 30|推句 22, 24, 30]]
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|7/9||[[2019 推句 18 - 22|推句 18, 19, 22]]
 
|-
 
|-
|7/12||[[2019 推句 31 - 40|推句 32, 37, 39]]
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|7/10||[[2019 推句 23 - 26|推句 23, 24, 26]]
 
|-
 
|-
|7/16||[[2019 推句 41 - 50|推句 41, 46, 50]]
+
|7/11||[[2019 推句 28 - 32|推句 28, 30, 32]]
 
|-
 
|-
|7/18||[[2019 推句 56 - 58|推句 56, 57, 58]]
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|7/15||[[2019 推句 37 - 42|推句 37, 39, 42]]
 
|-
 
|-
|7/19||[[2019 推句 59 - 60|推句 59, 60]]
+
|7/16||[[2019 推句 46 - 50|推句 46, 47, 50]]
 
|-
 
|-
|7/20||推句 Review
+
|7/17||[[2019 推句 51 - 57|推句 51, 56, 57]]
 
|-
 
|-
|}
+
|7/18||[[2019 推句 58 - 60|推句 58, 59, 60]]
 
 
===Session 2-2: 學語集 Collection of Sentences for Learning===
 
----
 
The ''Hagŏjip'' is a manuscript whose authorship is unknown. It contains short sentences explaining various subjects ranging from heaven and earth to flowers and animals, for the purpose of teaching the basic sentence structure and grammatical patterns of literary Chinese to novices. It is often confused with ''Hagŏ'' 學語 compiled by Pak Chaech’ŏl 朴載哲 with a similar purpose. ''Hagŏ'' was blockprinted in 1868 by Pak Chaechŏl’s son Pak Kyujin 朴圭鎮. The two are quite different texts. The latter is more oriented in Confucian learning of moral principles and quotations from classics, whereas the former is apparently mindful of linguistic pedagogy and introduces syntactic patterns with gradually increasing complexity. There are a few manuscript editions preserved in various archives in Korea, including Jangseogak. It appears that there are some textual variations depending on editions especially with the selection of sentences, though individual sentences remain mostly the same.
 
 
 
 
 
Format
 
 
 
In the following, each sentence is given in three ways. First without punctuation, then with punctuation, and the last with t’o 토. Punctuation of literary Chinese provides where the sentence breaks into a series of clasuses and phrases, and thus clues to the meaning of the entire sentence. T’o is specific to Korean culture, in which people spoke a fundamentally different language from Chinese. Carrying a similar function to that of Japanese ''kaeriten'' 返点 (returning point), t’o adds grammatical words of Korean to points where the Chinese sentences breaks so that the grammatical relation between parts.
 
 
 
 
 
    E.g.  學而時習之'''면'''    不亦悅乎'''아'''<br/>
 
             if         Q-ending
 
 
 
 
 
The traditional pedagogy of literary Chinese placed a great importance to t’o. It served as a device to train students in parsing sentences, as well as to help them read aloud and recite sentences.
 
 
 
 
 
After the sentence, key grammatical words and patterns will be introduced.
 
 
 
 
 
    C: Clause  P: Phrase  V: Verb  A: Adjective  N: Noun  Adv: Adverb
 
 
 
 
 
{|class="wikitable" style="width:40%; text-align:center; color:#002080; background-color:#ffffff;"
 
!style="width:20%;"|date || style="width:80%;"|學語集
 
 
|-
 
|-
|7/3 ||[[2019 學語集 01 - 05|學語集 01 - 05]]
+
|7/19||推句 Review
 
|-
 
|-
|7/4 ||[[2019 學語集 06 - 10|學語集 06 - 10]]
 
|-
 
|7/5 ||[[2019 學語集 11 - 15|學語集 11 - 15]]
 
|-
 
|7/6 ||[[2019 學語集 16 - 20|學語集 16 - 20]]
 
|-
 
|7/9 ||[[2019 學語集 21 - 25|學語集 21 - 25]]
 
|-
 
|7/10 ||[[2019 學語集 26 - 30|學語集 26 - 30]]
 
|-
 
|7/11 ||[[2019 學語集 31 - 35|學語集 31 - 35]]
 
|-
 
|7/12 ||[[2019 學語集 36 - 40|學語集 36 - 40]]
 
|-
 
|7/13 ||[[2019 學語集 41 - 45|學語集 41 - 45]]
 
|-
 
|7/16 ||[[2019 學語集 46 - 50|學語集 46 - 50]]
 
|-
 
|7/17 ||[[2019 學語集 51 - 55|學語集 51 - 55]]
 
|-
 
|7/18 ||[[2019 學語集 56 - 62|學語集 56 - 62]]
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
===Session 3: 選讀 Short Passages for Practice===
+
===Session 3: Select Readings 選讀===
 
----
 
----
 
<div class="mw-collapsible" >
 
<div class="mw-collapsible" >
Excerpts for practice:
+
Excerpts for practice are selected from the following:
 +
 
 
<div class="mw-collapsible-content">
 
<div class="mw-collapsible-content">
# [[(Translation) 鄭人買履|“Zhengren mai lü” 鄭人買履 [A person of Zheng state buys shoes], Han Fei zi 韓非子.]]
+
08. [[(Translation) 2019 鄭人買履|“Zhengren mai lü” 鄭人買履 [A person of Zheng state buys shoes], Han Fei zi 韓非子.]]<br />
# [[(Translation) 不禽不獸|“Bu qin bu shou” 不禽不獸 [Neither a bird nor a beast], Guang xiaofu 廣笑府 by Feng Menglong 馮夢龍; Xiaolin guangji 笑林廣記 by Youxi zhuren 游戲主人.]]
+
23. [[(Translation) 2019 不禽不獸|“Bu qin bu shou” 不禽不獸 [Neither a bird nor a beast], Guang xiaofu 廣笑府 by Feng Menglong 馮夢龍; Xiaolin guangji 笑林廣記 by Youxi zhuren 游戲主人.]]<br />
# [[(Translation) 惠通出家|“Hyet’ong ch’ulga” 惠通出家 [Hyet’ong becomes a monk], Samguk yusa.]]
+
04. [[(Translation) 2019 率居|“Solgŏ” 率居, Samguk sagi.]]<br />
# [[(Translation) 刻舟求劍|“Ke zhou qiu jian” 刻舟求劍 [Notching the boat to find the sword], Lüshi chunqiu 呂氏春秋.]]
+
----
# [[(Translation) 宗室豐山守|“Chongsil P’ungsan su” 宗室豐山守 [Magistrate of P’ungsan, a royal kinsman], Sŏng Hyŏn 成俔, Yongjae ch’onghwa 慵齋叢話.]]
+
12. [[(Translation) 2019 矛盾|“Maodun” 矛盾 [Spear and shield], Han Fei zi.]]<br />
# [[(Translation) 朝三暮四|“Zhao san mu si” 朝三暮四 [Three in the morning, four in the evening], Zhuangzi.]]
+
13. [[(Translation) 2019 宗室豐山守|“Chongsil P’ungsan su” 宗室豐山守 [Magistrate of P’ungsan, a royal kinsman], Sŏng Hyŏn 成俔, Yongjae ch’onghwa 慵齋叢話.]]<br />
# [[(Translation) 守株待兔|“Shou zhu dai tu” 守株待兔 [Waiting for a hare while guarding the tree], Han Fei zi. ]]
+
16. [[(Translation) 2019 朝三暮四|“Zhao san mu si” 朝三暮四 [Three in the morning, four in the evening], Zhuangzi.]]<br />
# [[(Translation) 蝴蝶夢|“Hudie meng” 蝴蝶夢 [Butterfly dream], Zhuangzi 莊子.]]
+
----
# [[(Translation) 諧謔|“Haehak” 諧謔 [Witty stories], Yi Su-gwang李睟光, Chibong yusŏl 芝峯類說.]]
+
09. [[(Translation) 2019 守株待兔|“Shou zhu dai tu” 守株待兔 [Waiting for a hare while guarding the tree], Han Fei zi. ]]<br />
# [[(Translation) 伎利檀|“Kiridan” 伎利檀 [Christianity], Ŏu yadam 於于野談 by Yu Mongin 柳夢寅.]]
+
24. [[(Translation) 2019 諧謔|“Haehak” 諧謔 [Witty stories], Yi Su-gwang李睟光, Chibong yusŏl 芝峯類說.]]<br />
# [[(Translation) 洪夔燮|“Hong Kisŏp” 洪夔燮, Myŏngsim pogam 明心寶鑑.]]
+
18. [[(Translation) 2019 知魚樂|“Zhi yu le” 知魚樂 [Knowing the joy of fish], Zhuangzi.]]<br />
# [[(Translation) 石珍斷指|“Sŏkchin tan ji” 石珍斷指 [Sŏkchin cuts off his finger], Samgang haengsil-to.]]
+
27. [[(Translation) 2019 妻不欲尊|“Ch’ŏ pul yok chon” 妻不欲尊 [The wife doesn’t want to be respected], Ŏmyŏnsun禦眠楯.]]<br />
# [[(Translation) 烈婦入江|“Yŏlbu ip kang” 烈婦入江 [A devoted wife enters the river], Samgang haengsil-to.]]
+
----
# [[(Translation) 婁伯捕虎 |“Nubaek p’oho” 婁伯捕虎 [(Ch’oe) Nubaek captures the tiger], Samgang haengsil-to.]]
+
25. [[(Translation) 2019 寧無不平之心乎|“Yŏng mu pulp’yŏng chi sim ho?” 寧無不平之心乎 [How would it not have a mind of resentment?], Chibong yusŏl.]]<br />
# [[(Translation) 朴赫居世|“Pak Hyŏkkŏse” 朴赫居世, Samguk sagi 三國史記.]]
+
29. [[(Translation) 2019 孟母三遷|“Meng mu sanqian” 孟母三遷 [Mencius’ mother moves three times,” Lienü zhuan 列女傳.]]<br />
# [[(Translation) 處容郎|“Ch’ŏyong-nang” 處容郎, Samguk yusa.]]
+
30. [[(Translation) 2019 吮疽之仁|“Shun ju zhi ren” 吮疽之仁 [Benevolence of sucking on abscess], Shuiyuan 説苑.]]<br />
# [[(Translation) 龜兔之說|“Kui t’o chi sŏl” 龜兔之說 [Story of a tortoise and a hare], Samguk sagi.]]
+
----
# [[(Translation) 渾沌|“Hundun” 渾沌, Zhuangzi.]]
+
40. [[(Translation) 2019 王儉朝鮮|“Wanggŏm Chosŏn” 王儉朝鮮, Samguk yusa 三國遺事.]]<br />
# [[(Translation) 畫蛇添足|“Hua she tian zu” 畫蛇添足 [Draw a snake and add feet], Zhanguo ce 戰國策.]]
+
41. [[(Translation) 2019 興德王鸚鵡|“Hŭngdŏk wang aengmu” 興德王鸚鵡 [King Hŭngdŏk and the parrot], Samguk yusa.]]<br />
# [[(Translation) 金氏撲虎|“Kim-ssi pak ho” 金氏撲虎 [Lady Kim strikes the tiger], Samgang haengsil-to.]]
+
----
# [[(Translation) 以五十步笑一百步|“Yi wushi bu xiao yibai bu” 以五十步笑一百步 [One who retreated fifty paces mocks another who retreated one hundred paces], Mencius.]]
+
01. [[(Translation) 2019 朴赫居世|“Pak Hyŏkkŏse” 朴赫居世,  Samguk sagi 三國史記.]]<br />
# [[(Translation) 妻不欲尊|“Ch’ŏ pul yok chon” 妻不欲尊 [The wife doesn’t want to be respected], Ŏmyŏnsun禦眠楯.]]
+
05. [[(Translation) 2019 龜兔之說|“Kui t’o chi sŏl” 龜兔之說 [Story of a tortoise and a hare], Samguk sagi.]]<br />
# [[(Translation) 丕寧突陳|“Pinyŏng tolchin” 丕寧突陳 [Pinyŏng charges at the enemy line], Samgang haengsil-to.]]
+
42. [[(Translation) 2019 處容郎|“Ch’ŏyong-nang” 處容郎, Samguk yusa.]]<br />
# [[(Translation) 東明聖王|“Tongmyŏng sŏngwang” 東明聖王 [Tongmyŏng, the Sagacious King], Samguk sagi.]]
+
----
# [[(Translation) 階伯|“Kyebaek” 階伯, Samguk sagi.]]
+
48. [[(Translation) 2019 童蒙先習|"Passage from the Tongmong sŏnsŭp" 童蒙先習 (“Ch’ongnon” 總論)]]<br />
# [[(Translation) 延烏郞細烏女|“Yŏno-rang Se’o-nyŏ” 延烏郞細烏女, Samguk yusa.]]
+
28. [[(Translation) 2019 伎利檀|“Kiridan” 伎利檀 [Christianity], Ŏu yadam 於于野談 by Yu Mongin 柳夢寅.]]<br />
# [[(Translation) 虛實|"Xushi" 虛實 [Emptiness and fullness], ''Sunzi bingfa'' 孫子兵法]]
+
----
 +
34. [[(Translation) 2019 婁伯捕虎 |“Nubaek p’oho” 婁伯捕虎 [(Ch’oe) Nubaek captures the tiger], Samgang haengsil-to.]]<br />
 +
38. [[(Translation) 2019 金氏撲虎|“Kim-ssi pak ho” 金氏撲虎 [Lady Kim strikes the tiger], Samgang haengsil-to.]]<br />
 +
36. [[(Translation) 2019 丕寧突陳|“Pinyŏng tolchin” 丕寧突陳 [Pinyŏng charges at the enemy line], Samgang haengsil-to.]]<br />
 +
----
 +
35. [[(Translation) 2019 烈婦入江|“Yŏlbu ip kang” 烈婦入江 [A devoted wife enters the river], Samgang haengsil-to.]]<br />
 +
02. [[(Translation) 2019 東明聖王|“Tongmyŏng sŏngwang” 東明聖王 [Tongmyŏng, the Sagacious King], Samguk sagi.]]<br />
 +
14. [[(Translation) 2019 世俗五戒|“Sesok ogye” 世俗五戒 [Five worldly precepts], “Sŏk Wŏngwang” 釋圓光 in Haedong kosŭng chŏn 海東高僧傳.]]<br />
 +
----
 +
22. [[(Translation) 2019 虛實|“Xushi” 虛實 [Emptiness and fullness], Sunzi bingfa 孫子兵法.]]<br />
 +
20. [[(Translation) 2019 助長|“Zhuzhang” 助長 [Helping corn grow], Mencius.]]<br />
 +
31. [[(Translation) 2019 塞翁失馬|“Saiweng shi ma” 塞翁失馬 [Old man in border town loses a horse], Huainanzi 淮南子.]]<br />
 +
----
 +
39. [[(Translation) 2019 洪夔燮|“Hong Kisŏp” 洪夔燮, Myŏngsim pogam 明心寶鑑.]]<br />
 +
33. [[(Translation) 2019 石珍斷指|“Sŏkchin tan ji” 石珍斷指 [Sŏkchin cuts off his finger], Samgang haengsil-to.]]<br />
 +
37. [[(Translation) 2019 成忠獄死|“Sŏng Ch’ung oksa” 成忠獄死 [Sŏng Ch’ung dies in prison], Samgang haengsil-to.]]<br />
 +
----
 +
47. [[(Translation) 2019 千字文|"Lines from Chŏnjamun" 千字文 [Thousand-character text] ]]<br />
 +
49. [[(Translation) 2019 漢詩|Select hansi 漢詩 [classical Chinese poems] ]]<br />
 +
----
 +
03. [[(Translation) 2019 溫祚王|“Onjo wang” 溫祚王 [King Onjo], Samguk sagi.]]<br />
 +
06. [[(Translation) 2019 階伯|“Kyebaek” 階伯, Samguk sagi.]]<br />
 +
07. [[(Translation) 2019 官昌|“Kwanch’ang” 官昌, Samguk sagi.]]<br />
 +
10. [[(Translation) 2019 刻舟求劍|“Ke zhou qiu jian” 刻舟求劍 [Notching the boat to find the sword], Lüshi chunqiu 呂氏春秋.]]<br />
 +
11. [[(Translation) 2019 畫蛇添足|“Hua she tian zu” 畫蛇添足 [Draw a snake and add feet], Zhanguo ce 戰國策.]]<br />
 +
15. [[(Translation) 2019 蝴蝶夢|“Hudie meng” 蝴蝶夢 [Butterfly dream], Zhuangzi 莊子.]]<br />
 +
17. [[(Translation) 2019 渾沌|“Hundun” 渾沌, Zhuangzi.]]<br />
 +
19. [[(Translation) 2019 庖丁解牛|“Pao Ding jie niu” 庖丁解牛 [Cook Ding cuts cow], Zhuangzi.]]<br />
 +
21. [[(Translation) 2019 以五十步笑一百步|“Yi wushi bu xiao yibai bu” 以五十步笑一百步 [One who retreated fifty paces mocks another who retreated one hundred paces], Mencius.]]<br />
 +
26. [[(Translation) 2019 崔瑩|“Ch’oe Yŏng” 崔瑩, Sŏng Hyŏn, Yongjae ch’onghwa.]]<br />
 +
32. [[(Translation) 2019 彌妻啖草|“Mi ch’ŏ tam ch’o” 彌妻啖草 [(To) Mi’s Wife chews grass], Samgang haengsil-to 三綱行實圖.]]<br />
 +
35. [[(Translation) 2019 烈婦入江|“Yŏlbu ip kang” 烈婦入江 [A devoted wife enters the river], Samgang haengsil-to.]]<br />
 +
43. [[(Translation) 2019 惠通出家|“Hyet’ong ch’ulga” 惠通出家 [Hyet’ong becomes a monk], Samguk yusa.]]<br />
 +
44. [[(Translation) 2019 延烏郞細烏女|“Yŏno-rang Se’o-nyŏ” 延烏郞細烏女, Samguk yusa.]]<br />
 +
45 . [[(Translation) 2019 善德王知幾三事|“Sŏndŏk wang chigi samsa” 善德王知幾三事 [Queen Sŏndŏk foresees three events], Samguk yusa.]]<br />
 +
46. [[(Translation) 2019 文姬買夢|“Munhŭi maemong” 文姬買夢 [Munhŭi buys a dream]. Samguk yusa.]]<br />
 +
 
  
(Poetry) [[(Translation) Poems|Sample Classical Chinese Poems]]
+
<!--
 +
1. [[(Translation) 2019 朴赫居世|“Pak Hyŏkkŏse” 朴赫居世,  Samguk sagi 三國史記.]]<br />
 +
2. [[(Translation) 2019 東明聖王|“Tongmyŏng sŏngwang” 東明聖王 [Tongmyŏng, the Sagacious King], Samguk sagi.]]<br />
 +
3. [[(Translation) 2019 溫祚王|“Onjo wang” 溫祚王 [King Onjo], Samguk sagi.]]<br />
 +
4. [[(Translation) 2019 率居|“Solgŏ” 率居, Samguk sagi.]]<br />
 +
5. [[(Translation) 2019 龜兔之說|“Kui t’o chi sŏl” 龜兔之說 [Story of a tortoise and a hare], Samguk sagi.]]<br />
 +
6. [[(Translation) 2019 階伯|“Kyebaek” 階伯, Samguk sagi.]]<br />
 +
7. [[(Translation) 2019 官昌|“Kwanch’ang” 官昌, Samguk sagi.]]<br />
 +
8. [[(Translation) 2019 鄭人買履|“Zhengren mai lü” 鄭人買履 [A person of Zheng state buys shoes], Han Fei zi 韓非子.]]<br />
 +
9. [[(Translation) 2019 守株待兔|“Shou zhu dai tu” 守株待兔 [Waiting for a hare while guarding the tree], Han Fei zi. ]]<br />
 +
10. [[(Translation) 2019 刻舟求劍|“Ke zhou qiu jian” 刻舟求劍 [Notching the boat to find the sword], Lüshi chunqiu 呂氏春秋.]]<br />
 +
11. [[(Translation) 2019 畫蛇添足|“Hua she tian zu” 畫蛇添足 [Draw a snake and add feet], Zhanguo ce 戰國策.]]<br />
 +
12. [[(Translation) 2019 矛盾|“Maodun” 矛盾 [Spear and shield], Han Fei zi.]]<br />
 +
13. [[(Translation) 2019 宗室豐山守|“Chongsil P’ungsan su” 宗室豐山守 [Magistrate of P’ungsan, a royal kinsman], Sŏng Hyŏn 成俔, Yongjae ch’onghwa 慵齋叢話.]]<br />
 +
14. [[(Translation) 2019 世俗五戒|“Sesok ogye” 世俗五戒 [Five worldly precepts], “Sŏk Wŏngwang” 釋圓光 in Haedong kosŭng chŏn 海東高僧傳.]]<br />
 +
15. [[(Translation) 2019 蝴蝶夢|“Hudie meng” 蝴蝶夢 [Butterfly dream], Zhuangzi 莊子.]]<br />
 +
16. [[(Translation) 2019 朝三暮四|“Zhao san mu si” 朝三暮四 [Three in the morning, four in the evening], Zhuangzi.]]<br />
 +
17. [[(Translation) 2019 渾沌|“Hundun” 渾沌, Zhuangzi.]]<br />
 +
18. [[(Translation) 2019 知魚樂|“Zhi yu le” 知魚樂 [Knowing the joy of fish], Zhuangzi.]]<br />
 +
19. [[(Translation) 2019 庖丁解牛|“Pao Ding jie niu” 庖丁解牛 [Cook Ding cuts cow], Zhuangzi.]]<br />
 +
20. [[(Translation) 2019 助長|“Zhuzhang” 助長 [Helping corn grow], Mencius.]]<br />
 +
21. [[(Translation) 2019 以五十步笑一百步|“Yi wushi bu xiao yibai bu” 以五十步笑一百步 [One who retreated fifty paces mocks another who retreated one hundred paces], Mencius.]]<br />
 +
22. [[(Translation) 2019 虛實|“Xushi” 虛實 [Emptiness and fullness], Sunzi bingfa 孫子兵法.]]<br />
 +
23. [[(Translation) 2019 不禽不獸|“Bu qin bu shou” 不禽不獸 [Neither a bird nor a beast], Guang xiaofu 廣笑府 by Feng Menglong 馮夢龍; Xiaolin guangji 笑林廣記 by Youxi zhuren 游戲主人.]]<br />
 +
24. [[(Translation) 2019 諧謔|“Haehak” 諧謔 [Witty stories], Yi Su-gwang李睟光, Chibong yusŏl 芝峯類說.]]<br />
 +
25. [[(Translation) 2019 寧無不平之心乎|“Yŏng mu pulp’yŏng chi sim ho?” 寧無不平之心乎 [How would it not have a mind of resentment?], Chibong yusŏl.]]<br />
 +
26. [[(Translation) 2019 崔瑩|“Ch’oe Yŏng” 崔瑩, Sŏng Hyŏn, Yongjae ch’onghwa.]]<br />
 +
27. [[(Translation) 2019 妻不欲尊|“Ch’ŏ pul yok chon” 妻不欲尊 [The wife doesn’t want to be respected], Ŏmyŏnsun禦眠楯.]]<br />
 +
28. [[(Translation) 2019 伎利檀|“Kiridan” 伎利檀 [Christianity], Ŏu yadam 於于野談 by Yu Mongin 柳夢寅.]]<br />
 +
29. [[(Translation) 2019 孟母三遷|“Meng mu sanqian” 孟母三遷 [Mencius’ mother moves three times,” Lienü zhuan 列女傳.]]<br />
 +
30. [[(Translation) 2019 吮疽之仁|“Shun ju zhi ren” 吮疽之仁 [Benevolence of sucking on abscess], Shuiyuan 説苑.]]<br />
 +
31. [[(Translation) 2019 塞翁失馬|“Saiweng shi ma” 塞翁失馬 [Old man in border town loses a horse], Huainanzi 淮南子.]]<br />
 +
32. [[(Translation) 2019 彌妻啖草|“Mi ch’ŏ tam ch’o” 彌妻啖草 [(To) Mi’s Wife chews grass], Samgang haengsil-to 三綱行實圖.]]<br />
 +
33. [[(Translation) 2019 石珍斷指|“Sŏkchin tan ji” 石珍斷指 [Sŏkchin cuts off his finger], Samgang haengsil-to.]]<br />
 +
34. [[(Translation) 2019 婁伯捕虎 |“Nubaek p’oho” 婁伯捕虎 [(Ch’oe) Nubaek captures the tiger], Samgang haengsil-to.]]<br />
 +
35. [[(Translation) 2019 烈婦入江|“Yŏlbu ip kang” 烈婦入江 [A devoted wife enters the river], Samgang haengsil-to.]]<br />
 +
36. [[(Translation) 2019 丕寧突陳|“Pinyŏng tolchin” 丕寧突陳 [Pinyŏng charges at the enemy line], Samgang haengsil-to.]]<br />
 +
37. [[(Translation) 2019 成忠獄死|“Sŏng Ch’ung oksa” 成忠獄死 [Sŏng Ch’ung dies in prison], Samgang haengsil-to.]]<br />
 +
38. [[(Translation) 2019 金氏撲虎|“Kim-ssi pak ho” 金氏撲虎 [Lady Kim strikes the tiger], Samgang haengsil-to.]]<br />
 +
39. [[(Translation) 2019 洪夔燮|“Hong Kisŏp” 洪夔燮, Myŏngsim pogam 明心寶鑑.]]<br />
 +
40. [[(Translation) 2019 王儉朝鮮|“Wanggŏm Chosŏn” 王儉朝鮮, Samguk yusa 三國遺事.]]<br />
 +
41. [[(Translation) 2019 興德王鸚鵡|“Hŭngdŏk wang aengmu” 興德王鸚鵡 [King Hŭngdŏk and the parrot], Samguk yusa.]]<br />
 +
42. [[(Translation) 2019 處容郎|“Ch’ŏyong-nang” 處容郎, Samguk yusa.]]<br />
 +
43. [[(Translation) 2019 惠通出家|“Hyet’ong ch’ulga” 惠通出家 [Hyet’ong becomes a monk], Samguk yusa.]]<br />
 +
44. [[(Translation) 2019 延烏郞細烏女|“Yŏno-rang Se’o-nyŏ” 延烏郞細烏女, Samguk yusa.]]<br />
 +
45 . [[(Translation) 2019 善德王知幾三事|“Sŏndŏk wang chigi samsa” 善德王知幾三事 [Queen Sŏndŏk foresees three events], Samguk yusa.]]<br />
 +
46. [[(Translation) 2019 文姬買夢|“Munhŭi maemong” 文姬買夢 [Munhŭi buys a dream]. Samguk yusa.]]<br />
 +
47. [[(Translation) 2019 千字文|"Lines from Chŏnjamun" 千字文 [Thousand-character text] ]]<br />
 +
48. [[(Translation) 2019 童蒙先習|"Passage from the Tongmong sŏnsŭp" 童蒙先習 (“Ch’ongnon” 總論)]]<br />
 +
49. [[(Translation) 2019 漢詩|Select hansi 漢詩 [classical Chinese poems] ]]<br />-->
  
 
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Latest revision as of 15:22, 18 October 2019

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Description

The purpose of this course is to provide students an intensive training in what is commonly referred to as “classical Chinese,” or hanmun, which constitutes the nucleus of the literary languages of premodern China, Korea, and Japan. Because this workshop is intended for future researchers and scholars of premodern Korean culture in a broader context of East Asian civilization, which some call the “Sinosphere,” we will focus on the most fundamental sentence patterns and grammatical devices commonly used in hanmun, exploring some canonical texts that embody the linguistic and cultural grammars of classical Chinese literature.

Each day, the class will study grammatical devices and patterns with simple sentences and read (excerpts of) regular hanmun texts for applied practice. We will read and critically analyze the texts, with which to formulate an academically-minded English translation of them. At the end of the workshop, students are expected to become familiar with different types of texts, to gain first-hand knowledge around the original texts of old Korean books, and more importantly, to become intellectually independent in their own future research critically engaging primary texts.


Class

A daily class is divided into three sessions. In Session 1 we read the Kyemong p’yŏn 啓蒙篇 (A Chapter to Enlighten the Unenlightened), a collection of short prose-sentences to initiate beginners in hanmun texts. The class comprises studying syntactic and morphological patterns established by grammatical words, building up from the simplest forms to the more complex. In Session 2 we read the Ch’ugu 推句 (Versed Lines), a collection of quatrains epitomizing hanmun verses for those who have finished Ch’ŏnjamun 千字文 (Thousand-character text). Studying with Ch’ugu and Kyemong pyŏn allows us to experience a most typical foundation of hanmun education in both poetic- and prose-style sentences. The first two sessions will intensively engage two fundamental practices of hanmun literacy: parsing (both vocal and visual) and close reading. In Session 3 we translate excerpts from various literary pieces from China and Korea, applying the practices we learn in the first two sessions. The underlying focus of the study progresses as follows:


  • Week 1 : basic structure, predication and commenting, parts of speech and word order, substantives and predicatives, nouns and pronouns, action verbs and stative verbs, adverbs, etc.
  • Week 2 : discourse and context, parallelism and correspondence, building contexts and “dragging”, conjunctives and connectives, 語氣詞 and 語助詞
  • Week 3 : intertextuality, allusions, and pattern, literary precedents and elicitors


Reading the original text together, parsing its sentences, and carefully analyzing parts both syntactically and semantically, which will form a basic training of translation. The instructor will give lectures when needed, to reinforce the knowledge of grammatical words, information on reference tools, and relevant sociocultural context of fundamental importance. Each student will be responsible for looking up and learning unfamiliar hantcha, practicing to punctuate sentences that were studied in the previous classes, and participating in drafting translations. The outcome of translation will be archived and shared.


Translation: We aim to practice academic translation. An academic translation should prove to be comprehensive to an intellectual reader for whom no previous knowledge of or about the text is assumed, rendered in a clear, precise, yet hermeneutically nuanced language. There are four aspects of concentration in our training:


(1) Faithfulness to the original text
(2) Linguistic clarity of the translating language
(3) Detailed annotation to integrate contextual and intertextual information
(4) Observance of academic convention for translation


Instructor


Participants

cf. 역대 참가자 Previous Participants

연도 성명 국적 소속 직위 연구/전공분야 그룹
2019 Arzberger, Nadia 미국
USA
미국 하와이대학교 마노아
University of Hawaii-Manoa
석사과정
Master's Student
Anthropology Intermediate Training Group
2019 Bass, Emma 캐나다
Canada
캐나다 퀸즈대학교
Queen's University
석사과정
Master's Student
Cultural Studies Intermediate Training Group
2019 Belokon, Olga 러시아
Russia
캐나다 브리티시 컬럼비아대학교
University of British Columbia
석사과정
Master's Student
Korean Literature Intermediate Training Group
2019 Kaltenbach, Kristina 독일
Germany
독일 베를린자유대학교
Freie Universität Berlin
대학생
Undergraduate Student
Korean Studies Intermediate Training Group
2019 Kim, Stella S. 미국
USA
미국 컬럼비아대학교
Columbia University
박사과정
Doctoral Student
East Asian Languages and Cultures (Premodern Korea/gender and women's history) Intermediate Training Group
2019 Kus, Canan 독일
Germany
독일 보훔 루르대학교
Ruhr-Universität Bochum
석사과정
Master's Student
Korean Language and Literature Intermediate Training Group
2019 Sanchez, Hector I. 멕시코
Mexico
미국 펜실베이니아대학교
University of Pennsylvania
석사과정
Master's Student
East Asian Languages and Civilizations Intermediate Training Group
2019 Waddell, Ethan 미국
USA
미국 시카고대학교
University of Chicago
박사과정
Doctoral Student
Modern Korean Literature Intermediate Training Group
2019 Yi, Ivanna Sang Een 미국
USA
미국 워싱턴대학교 세인트루이스
Washington University in St. Louis
박사 후 펠로우
Postdoctoral Fellow
Korean and Native American literatures and cultures Intermediate Training Group


Schedule

  • Session 1 - 9:00–10:30 AM
  • Session 2 - 10:40 AM–12:00 PM
  • Session 3 - 1:00–3:00 PM

the 3-Week Schedule - View Details

Day Contents
7/1   Opening Ceremony, Placement Test

  Orientation

First Day

7/2 S1: Kyemong p’yŏn 1–3

S2: Ch’ugu 1, 3, 4

S3: Select readings 8, 23, 4

7/3 S1: Kyemong p’yŏn 4–6

S2: Select readings 12, 13, 16

Special lecture

Field trip

7/4 S1: Kyemong p’yŏn 7–9

S2: Ch’ugu 5, 6, 7

S3: Select readings 9, 24, 18, 27

7/5 S1: Kyemong p’yŏn 10–13

S2: Ch’ugu 9, 10, 13

S3: Select readings 25, 29, 30

7/8 S1: Kyemong p’yŏn 14–18

S2: Ch’ugu 14, 15, 16

S3: Select readings 40, 41

Special lecture

7/9 S1: Kyemong p’yŏn 19–22

S2: Ch’ugu 18, 19, 22

S3: Select readings 1, 5, 42

7/10 S1: Kyemong p’yŏn 22–26

S2: Ch’ugu 23, 24, 26

S3: Select readings 48, 28

7/11 S1: Kyemong p’yŏn 27–29

S2: Ch’ugu 28, 30, 32

S3: Select readings 34, 38, 36

7/12 S1: Kyemong p’yŏn 30–33

S2: Select readings 2, 14

Field Trip

7/15 S1: Kyemong p’yŏn 34–37

S2: Ch’ugu 37, 39, 42

S3: Select readings 22, 20, 31

7/16 S1: Kyemong p’yŏn 38–40

S2: Ch’ugu 46, 47, 50

Special Lecture

7/17 S1: Kyemong p’yŏn 41–43

S2: Ch’ugu 51, 56, 57

S3: Select readings 39, 33, 37

7/18 S1: Kyemong p’yŏn 44–45

S2: Ch’ugu 58, 59, 60

S3: Select readings 47, 49

7/19 S1: Review

S2: Closing ceremony

Graduation


Translation

We aim to practice academic translation. An academic translation should prove to be comprehensive to an intellectual reader for whom no previous knowledge of or about the text is assumed, rendered in a clear, precise, yet hermeneutically nuanced language. There are four aspects of concentration in our training:


(1) Faithfulness to the original text
(2) Linguistic clarity of the translating language
(3) Detailed annotation to integrate contextual and intertextual information
(4) Observance of academic convention for translation


List of Hanmun Text

  • Session 1 : Kyemong p’yŏn 啓蒙篇 (A Chapter to Enlighten the Unenlightened)
  • Session 2 : Ch’ugu 推句 (Versed Lines)


Session 1: Kyemong p’yŏn 啓蒙篇


The Kyemong p’yŏn [Chapters to enlighten the unenlightened] was one of the first textbooks for novices, usually placed after learning the Ch’ŏnjamun 千字文 [Thousand-character text] and before reading the Tongmong sŏnsŭp 童蒙先習 [Preparatory Learning for the Youth] in the nineteenth-century-Chosŏn curriculum for hanmun education. The term kyemong 啓蒙 (Ch. qimeng) literally means “cracking open the [curtain] of ignorance,” where mong 蒙 is a usual word for the unenlightened. There are several primers containing mong in their titles in Sinitic tradition, e.g., Mengqiu 蒙求 [Saving the ignorance, 746], Kyŏngmong yogyŏl 擊蒙要訣 [Essential methods to awaken the unenlightened, 1577], Tongmeng xuzhi 童蒙須知 [What children should know, 1187], and the aforementioned Tongmong sŏnsŭp (ca. 1541). One should note that the word mong itself does not mean “children” but only “unenlightened” or “dim” unless it is compounded by tong 童, for ignorance (including illiteracy) is not necessarily a feature that applied only to children but to all uneducated. Especially in the Confucian context, knowledge and education take its ultimate meaning in moral cultivation, beyond the modern sense of general knowledge. Therefore, these traditional primers inevitably engage a strong sense of ethical-philosophical inculcation in their contents, such as the moral conducts of in the family, the meaning of being human, social ethics and proprieties.
The compiler-author of this books is unclear. It is often contributed to Chang Hon 張混 (1759-1828), a praised chungin 中人 (interclass) writer, poet, and educator whose family had lived in Seoul for generations. He worked in the Office of Printing Inspection (Kaminso 監印所) as a checker (sajun司準) from 1790 to 1818 and participated in numerous court publishing projects. Chang wrote a few primer-type books to educate children, including the Ahŭi wŏllam 兒戱原覽 [A primary read for children at play], Mongyu p’yŏn 蒙喻篇 [Instruction for the uneducated], and Ch’ohak chahwi 初學字彙 [Character book for beginners]. Considering his writings and the fact that interclass writers’ active involvement in elementary-literacy education in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the Kyemong p’yŏn was customarily attributed to Chang Hon, but there is no clear indication that he did brush this work. However, it is safe to assume that it was circulated and used in literacy education at town study halls (sŏdang 書堂) as late as in the late nineteenth century. It was also quite popularly published in the twentieth century, published in the form of ŏnhaebon 諺解本 (rendition with vernacular glosses and interpretation in hangŭl), i.e., Kyemongp’yŏn ŏnhae 啓蒙篇, in woodblock prints, types, and manuscripts. Interestingly, the edition without ŏnhae is not extant. The Jangsŏgak Library at AKS also has several editions of Kyemong p’yŏn ŏnhae, one of which is the early-twentieth-century block print that we include in the textbook.


date 啓蒙篇
7/02 啓蒙篇 01 - 03
7/03 啓蒙篇 04 - 06
7/04 啓蒙篇 07 - 09
7/05 啓蒙篇 10 - 13
7/08 啓蒙篇 14 - 18
7/9 啓蒙篇 19 - 22
7/10 啓蒙篇 23 - 26
7/11 啓蒙篇 27 - 29
7/12 啓蒙篇 30 - 33
7/15 啓蒙篇 34 - 37
7/16 啓蒙篇 38 - 40
7/17 啓蒙篇 41 - 43
7/18 啓蒙篇 44 - 45
7/19 啓蒙篇 Review

Session 2: Ch’ugu 推句


The Ch’ugu is a collection of pentasyllabic quatrains (o’ŏn chŏlgu 五言絕句) for beginners of hanmun during the Chosŏn dynasty. There are altogether 60 quatrains, many chosen from known poetic lines, containing motifs and images familiar to novices. It is one of the typical primers taught to learners who have finished character lessons with, most likely, the Ch’ŏnjamun 千字文, along with the Saja sohak 四字小學 [Four-character Minor Learning], Tongmong sŏnsŭp, and Kyŏngmong yogyŏl 擊夢要訣 [Essential precepts to awake the unenlightened]. The title "Ch’ugu" could be taken as “selected lines” (ch’u 推 “to select”) but also have come from ch’ugo (or proscriptively pronounced t’oego) 推敲 “push or knock,” a verb coined for the story of Jia Dao 賈島 (780?–843) and Han Yu 韓愈 (768–824) to mean “polish or perfect the language of a literary work.”[1] Ch’ugu 推句 as a verb was then used in the sense of writing poems, and if it was indeed where the title was chosen, it would more precise to pronounce the title as t'oegu, not ch’ugu. All extant copies of Ch’ugu is in the form of manuscript, but as Ŏ Sukkwŏn’s 魚叔權 Kosa ch’waryo 攷事撮要 (1554) recorded the presence of its printing blocks in 1558, it is possible that Ch’ugu was more popular as a primer in mid-Chosŏn period.


Note

  1. Jia Dao once composed a poem, sitting on a mule, which included lines, “Birds sleep on the tree in the middle of the pond, a monk knocks on the door under the moon” 鳥宿池中樹, 僧敲月下門. He was having second thought of using t’oe 推 “push” instead of ko 敲 “knock,” but could not decide. Occupied by this thought, he failed to step back to make way when Han Yu’s mayoral march was progressing the street, which was a serious offense. Han Yu summoned Jia Dao and interrogated why Jia did not step aside. After hearing what happened, Han Yu said that he preferred ko instead of t’oe, upon which they became good friends in literature. This story is introduced in the Tangshi jishi 唐詩紀事.


date 推句
7/2 推句 01, 03, 04
7/4 推句 05, 06, 07
7/5 推句 09, 10, 13
7/8 推句 14, 15, 16
7/9 推句 18, 19, 22
7/10 推句 23, 24, 26
7/11 推句 28, 30, 32
7/15 推句 37, 39, 42
7/16 推句 46, 47, 50
7/17 推句 51, 56, 57
7/18 推句 58, 59, 60
7/19 推句 Review

Session 3: Select Readings 選讀


Excerpts for practice are selected from the following:

08. “Zhengren mai lü” 鄭人買履 [A person of Zheng state buys shoes], Han Fei zi 韓非子.
23. “Bu qin bu shou” 不禽不獸 [Neither a bird nor a beast], Guang xiaofu 廣笑府 by Feng Menglong 馮夢龍; Xiaolin guangji 笑林廣記 by Youxi zhuren 游戲主人.
04. “Solgŏ” 率居, Samguk sagi.


12. “Maodun” 矛盾 [Spear and shield], Han Fei zi.
13. “Chongsil P’ungsan su” 宗室豐山守 [Magistrate of P’ungsan, a royal kinsman], Sŏng Hyŏn 成俔, Yongjae ch’onghwa 慵齋叢話.
16. “Zhao san mu si” 朝三暮四 [Three in the morning, four in the evening], Zhuangzi.


09. “Shou zhu dai tu” 守株待兔 [Waiting for a hare while guarding the tree], Han Fei zi.
24. “Haehak” 諧謔 [Witty stories], Yi Su-gwang李睟光, Chibong yusŏl 芝峯類說.
18. “Zhi yu le” 知魚樂 [Knowing the joy of fish], Zhuangzi.
27. “Ch’ŏ pul yok chon” 妻不欲尊 [The wife doesn’t want to be respected], Ŏmyŏnsun禦眠楯.


25. “Yŏng mu pulp’yŏng chi sim ho?” 寧無不平之心乎 [How would it not have a mind of resentment?], Chibong yusŏl.
29. “Meng mu sanqian” 孟母三遷 [Mencius’ mother moves three times,” Lienü zhuan 列女傳.
30. “Shun ju zhi ren” 吮疽之仁 [Benevolence of sucking on abscess], Shuiyuan 説苑.


40. “Wanggŏm Chosŏn” 王儉朝鮮, Samguk yusa 三國遺事.
41. “Hŭngdŏk wang aengmu” 興德王鸚鵡 [King Hŭngdŏk and the parrot], Samguk yusa.


01. “Pak Hyŏkkŏse” 朴赫居世, Samguk sagi 三國史記.
05. “Kui t’o chi sŏl” 龜兔之說 [Story of a tortoise and a hare], Samguk sagi.
42. “Ch’ŏyong-nang” 處容郎, Samguk yusa.


48. "Passage from the Tongmong sŏnsŭp" 童蒙先習 (“Ch’ongnon” 總論)
28. “Kiridan” 伎利檀 [Christianity], Ŏu yadam 於于野談 by Yu Mongin 柳夢寅.


34. “Nubaek p’oho” 婁伯捕虎 [(Ch’oe) Nubaek captures the tiger], Samgang haengsil-to.
38. “Kim-ssi pak ho” 金氏撲虎 [Lady Kim strikes the tiger], Samgang haengsil-to.
36. “Pinyŏng tolchin” 丕寧突陳 [Pinyŏng charges at the enemy line], Samgang haengsil-to.


35. “Yŏlbu ip kang” 烈婦入江 [A devoted wife enters the river], Samgang haengsil-to.
02. “Tongmyŏng sŏngwang” 東明聖王 [Tongmyŏng, the Sagacious King], Samguk sagi.
14. “Sesok ogye” 世俗五戒 [Five worldly precepts], “Sŏk Wŏngwang” 釋圓光 in Haedong kosŭng chŏn 海東高僧傳.


22. “Xushi” 虛實 [Emptiness and fullness], Sunzi bingfa 孫子兵法.
20. “Zhuzhang” 助長 [Helping corn grow], Mencius.
31. “Saiweng shi ma” 塞翁失馬 [Old man in border town loses a horse], Huainanzi 淮南子.


39. “Hong Kisŏp” 洪夔燮, Myŏngsim pogam 明心寶鑑.
33. “Sŏkchin tan ji” 石珍斷指 [Sŏkchin cuts off his finger], Samgang haengsil-to.
37. “Sŏng Ch’ung oksa” 成忠獄死 [Sŏng Ch’ung dies in prison], Samgang haengsil-to.


47. "Lines from Chŏnjamun" 千字文 [Thousand-character text]
49. Select hansi 漢詩 [classical Chinese poems]


03. “Onjo wang” 溫祚王 [King Onjo], Samguk sagi.
06. “Kyebaek” 階伯, Samguk sagi.
07. “Kwanch’ang” 官昌, Samguk sagi.
10. “Ke zhou qiu jian” 刻舟求劍 [Notching the boat to find the sword], Lüshi chunqiu 呂氏春秋.
11. “Hua she tian zu” 畫蛇添足 [Draw a snake and add feet], Zhanguo ce 戰國策.
15. “Hudie meng” 蝴蝶夢 [Butterfly dream], Zhuangzi 莊子.
17. “Hundun” 渾沌, Zhuangzi.
19. “Pao Ding jie niu” 庖丁解牛 [Cook Ding cuts cow], Zhuangzi.
21. “Yi wushi bu xiao yibai bu” 以五十步笑一百步 [One who retreated fifty paces mocks another who retreated one hundred paces], Mencius.
26. “Ch’oe Yŏng” 崔瑩, Sŏng Hyŏn, Yongjae ch’onghwa.
32. “Mi ch’ŏ tam ch’o” 彌妻啖草 [(To) Mi’s Wife chews grass], Samgang haengsil-to 三綱行實圖.
35. “Yŏlbu ip kang” 烈婦入江 [A devoted wife enters the river], Samgang haengsil-to.
43. “Hyet’ong ch’ulga” 惠通出家 [Hyet’ong becomes a monk], Samguk yusa.
44. “Yŏno-rang Se’o-nyŏ” 延烏郞細烏女, Samguk yusa.
45 . “Sŏndŏk wang chigi samsa” 善德王知幾三事 [Queen Sŏndŏk foresees three events], Samguk yusa.
46. “Munhŭi maemong” 文姬買夢 [Munhŭi buys a dream]. Samguk yusa.


Text translated by Individual Project

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