(Translation) 1636年 外藩蒙古書信

From 장서각위키
Revision as of 09:47, 19 July 2019 by Jangseogak (talk | contribs)

Jump to: navigation, search
Backward.png


Introduction

Original Script

No 〈書信〉 原本 『淸太宗實錄』 天聰十年 二月 二日(p.013a)
1

金國外藩各蒙古貝勒, 奉書朝鮮國王.

我等蒙大明恩賞, 已二百餘年矣. 今非樂爲背離也. 祗因大明官長, 欺詐奸詭, 賄賂公行, 誑蔽君上, 大明皇帝, 茫然弗知, 貽禍家邦, 兼以將懦兵弱, 內之而奸詭昌熾, 外之而喪地折兵, 竊窺天意, 大明之歷數將終矣.

滿洲國外藩諸貝勒, 奉書朝鮮國王.

我等與明國交好, 已二百餘年矣. 今非樂爲背離也. 祗因明之諸臣, 欺詐姦詭, 賄賂公行, 蒙蔽其主, 明國皇帝, 茫然不知, 以致人心解體, 兼以將懦兵弱, 內而縱寇殃民, 外而覆師喪地, 竊窺天意, 明之曆數將終矣.

The State of Jin and all the Mongol Beiles1 of the outer hedge2 present [this] letter to3 the King of Chosôn.

We have been receiving the Great Ming’s graces and gifts for over 200 years. Now, it is not with pleasure that we are going to turn our back and separate [with them]. It is only because the government officials of the Great Ming treacherously swindle, practice open bribery, dupe and hide [things] to their sovereign. The Emperor of the Great Ming does not know anything [about it] and bequeaths disasters to the country. In addition, because [his] generals are cowards, [his] soldiers are weak, inwardly, those who treacherously swindle are prosperously flourishing, outwardly, lands are gone and soldiers are lost4. We humbly looked into the Heaven’s intentions: the years of the Great Ming will end.

The Manchu State and the Beiles1 of the outer hedge2 present [this] letter to3 the King of Chosôn.

We have had a good relationship with the Ming State for over 200 years. Now, it is not with pleasure that we are going to turn our back and separate [with them]. It is only because the ministers of the Ming treacherously swindle, practice open bribery, dupe their ruler. The Emperor of the Ming State does not know anything [about it] and, as a result, people’s minds are falling apart. In addition, because [his] generals are cowards, [his] soldiers are weak, inwardly, he releases bandits and brings disaster to people, outwardly, he sacrifices troops and loses lands4. We humbly looked into the Heaven’s intentions: the years of the Ming will end.

2

今我金國汗, 寬仁厚德, 博施濟衆, 招徠異國, 愛育黎庶, 語言行事, 無不恰當, 法度號令, 甚是明允, 更兼以將勇兵強, 所向無敵, 衆皆願慕, 皇天已屬意於我汗. 我等故仰承天意, 而樂就之矣.

今我滿洲國皇帝, 仁智兼全, 恩威竝濟, 招徠異國, 愛育黎庶, 立心行事, 動出公正, 法度號令, 整肅嚴明, 兼之將勇兵強, 所向無敵, 衆心願慕, 天眷有歸, 革命興邦, 知在此時矣. 我等故仰承天意, 而樂就之.

Now our Khan of the Jin State is generous, benevolent, profoundly virtuous, he provides relief and saves the people, he enjoins the other countries to come, he loves and nurtures the commoners. When he says something and carries out [state] affairs, nothing is inappropriate. When he imposes laws and gives orders, they are extremely clear and impartial. Furthermore, in addition, because [his] generals are brave and [his] soldiers are strong, wherever he goes, he is invincible. The commoners are all willing to admire [him]. The August Heaven has already set its choice on our Khan. We consequently comply to the will of Heaven and gladly follow it.

Now our Emperor of the Manchu State is both benevolent and wise, he is kind, mighty and, also, aiding [others], he enjoins the other countries to come, he loves and nurtures the commoners. When he is determined in carrying out [state] affairs, he acts justly. When he imposes laws and gives orders, they are extremely clear and impartial. He consolidates strict fairness. In addition, because [his] generals are brave and [his] soldiers are strong, wherever he goes, he is invincible. The people are willing to admire [him] in their mind. The favors of Heaven are given [to him]. The change of Mandate rises up in the country; it is [now] known at this very moment. We consequently comply to the will of Heaven and gladly follow it.

3

念我蒙古各國, 原來散亂無統. 近蒙我汗教化, 如春日之暄煦, 恩澤流洽於萬里, 我等諸國, 俱蒙福安康, 無復仍前散亂者矣.

因念我蒙古各國, 散亂無統, 近蒙我皇上, 誕布寬仁, 弘敷教化, 照臨在上, 如日方升, 流膏沛澤, 淪浹萬方, 諸國奠寧, 群生康樂.

We consider that all the Mongol states were originally scattered, in disorder, with no unity. [But] Recently we received moral suasion from our Khan. Like the warmness of the Spring Sun, [his] grace flows and spreads through [up to] a thousand li. Our [Mongol] states have all received fortune, peace, ease. [They] Will not again be left scattered and in disorder [as before].

Originally we consider that all the Mongol states were scattered, in disorder, with no unity. [But] Recently we met our Emperor. He greatly spreads generosity and benevolence. He greatly applies moral suasion. His Highness shines from above like when the Sun is rising, in thickets and marshes flows [his] gracea, in the core of all places [it] goes through. All the states are establishing peace and the livings are at ease and happy.


a '膏' (MR: ko, RR: go, pinyin: gao) is often used as a metaphor for '恩澤' which was used in the original version of this text.

4

是以我等各國貝勒, 曁軍民人等, 感激仁汗深恩, 每思捐軀報效, 無不傾耳戴目, 惟我汗驅使是聽, 以俟事機之至耳. 如有驅使, 即肝腦塗地, 投湯赴火, 亦莫之知避也.

是以感激上恩, 每思捐軀報効, 不憚勤勞, 聽上驅使, 以俟事機之至. 如有驅使, 即舉國從王, 攖鋒冒刃, 亦所不辭也.

Because of this we are the Beiles of each state, and the army and people are equal. We are grateful for the benevolent Khan's profound grace. We constantly think of how we may lay down our lives to repay [his] kindness and invariably listen [to him] with attention and regard [him] with respect. Only our Khan commands and we listen. We just wait for the opportunity [to act] to present itself. If there is a command, we spill our livers and brains on the groundb, we leap into hot water and walk on fire, and no one would know to escape [from it].


b '肝腦塗地' (MR: kannoe-doji, RR: gannoe-doji, pinyin: gannao-tudi) is an idiomatic expression meaning "to lay down one's life in fighting for one' sovereign".

Because of this we are grateful for the sovereign's grace. We constantly think of how we may lay down our lives to repay [his] kindness. We are not afraid of diligent labor. We listen to the sovereign's commands. We wait for the opportunity [to act] to present itself. If there is a command, the whole country follows the King. We run against the blades, brave the swords, and do not shrink [from them].

5

前年蒙古各國貝勒, 朝聚於天興城中, 俱謂皇天眷顧金國, 業已顯赫, 我等宜仰承天意, 進汗尊號, 故與金國衆貝勒商議, 具本奏聞. 汗云, 果何所見而遽爲此事也, 遂拒而弗允.

去年我蒙古各國貝勒, 朝集盛京, 俱以天意眷顧我皇上, 欲恭上尊號, 以答天心, 與在內諸貝勒, 合辭陳請, 上拒而弗允.

A year ago, Beiles of all the Mongol states, organized a court gathering in the center of the heavenly Shengjing5. Everyone declared that the August Heaven was caring for the Jin State. It was already showing [its] splendor. We should comply with the will of Heaven [and] admit the Khan's respectful title. Therefore, we debated with the people and the Beiles of the Jin State [and] provided a report based on what was said. The Khan said, “How can you suddenly pull up this affair based on what has been seen before?”He then resisted and did not consent.

Last year, our Beiles of all the Mongol states, organized a court assembly in Shengjing5. Everyone was thinking of our Emperor because of the will of Heaven. We desired to honor the respectful title of his Highness. Because of the answer of the thoughts of Heaven, all the Beiles were included [with him]. We collected the says and wrote a petition; his Highness resisted and did not consent.

6

今四十萬蒙古國太子空俄羅, ···(나머지 버일러들의 이름 생략)··· 我等十六國四十九貝勒, 約於昨年臘月內, 與金國衆貝勒合議, 咸謂我汗收各國, 獲玉璽, 天意明徵, 勸進之事, 實不容已. 今年新正, 復具本奏聞. 汗云, 朝鮮王吾弟也, 亦宜令彼知之.

今四十萬眾蒙古太子孔果爾, ···(나머지 버일러들의 이름 생략)··· 十六國四十九貝勒, 約於去年十二月內, 會於盛京, 與滿洲國諸貝勒議, 俱言皇上平服諸國, 兼之玉璽呈祥, 天意佑助, 信而有徵, 皇上宜建尊號, 以順天人之心. 今年新正, 復奉表奏聞. 上諭, 朝鮮王吾弟也, 亦宜令彼知之.

Now, the crown prince of the 400 thousand Mongols Ejei Khongghor, … (list of the names of the various Beiles) … our 49 Beiles of the 16 states made an appointment in the last month, a year ago, to make an agreement with the people and Beiles of the Jin State. Everyone declared that our Khan would embrace all the countries and obtain the jade seal. The will of Heaven is clear and manifest. As to the affairs of encouraging and promoting [the Khan], we indeed cannot stop. The first month of this year, we provided another report. The Khan said, “The King of Chosôn is my little brother. It is appropriate to have them know of it.”

Now, the crown prince of the 400 thousand Mongols Khongghor, … (list of the names of the various Beiles)49 Beiles of the 16 states made an appointment in the twelfth month of last year, to meet in Shengjing and to make an agreement with the Beiles of the Mandchu State. Everyone said that the Emperor would maintain [under his leadership] all the countries. In addition, the jade seal would be conceded [to him]. The will of Heaven is bringing [him] assistance. It has been borne out by the evidence. The respectful title has been appropriately established by the Emperor because it follows the heavenly law. The first month of this year, we presented with respect another memorial and made [the Emperor] hear [about] it. His Highness gave an instruction, “The King of Chosôn is my little brother. It is appropriate to have them know of it.”

7

我等念此言甚合大義, 故特遣使相議, 王宜遣親近子弟來此, 共爲勸進可也. 我等承天意, 尊大號, 事已確定. 惟視王之從否何如耳. 特書.

我等謹遵上諭, 遣使相聞, 王可即遣親近子弟來此, 共爲陳奏. 我等承天意, 奉尊號, 事已確定. 推戴之誠, 諒王素有同心也.

We think that these words correspond to the great righteousness. Therefore, we have sent special envoys to discuss [this issue] with each other. The King [of Chosôn] should send his own sons and brothers to our place and commonly encourage and promote [the Khan]. We carry the will of Heaven and elevate the great name [of the Emperor]. This matter has now been settled. We will only see whether or not the King [of Chosôn] would follow us. Specially writtenc.


c 特書 ("Specially written") is a common phrase used at the end of official letters at this time.

We have solemnly observed the imperial edict and sent envoys to hear each other. The King [of Chosôn] can now send his own sons and brothers to our place and commonly present a memorial [to the Emperor]. We carry the will of Heaven and elevate the great name [of the Emperor]. This matter has now been settled. As for the sincerity of supporting [the Emperor], we expect the King [of Chosôn] to always [be thinking] with that one heart.

1 貝勒 (Beile) is the name of the Mongol chiefs.

2 外藩 ("outer hedge") is name given to the first group of countries surrounding China, that is China's vassal states.

3 The expression '奉書' shows that the Chosôn court is not totally disregarded in this message.

4 The authors of these two texts are, in this passage, either mentioning (1) the famines and desertions which happened during the Little Ice Age (at the beginning of the 17th century) or (2) the loss of lands to the northern enemies (notably most of Inner Mongolia in 1632).

5 盛京 (pinyin: Shengjing) was the name of the city 瀋陽(pinyin: Shenyang) at the time.

Discussion Questions


Further Readings

  • Rossabi, Morris (1979), "Muslim and Central Asian Revolts", in Spence, Jonathan D.; Wills, John E. Jr. (eds.), From Ming to Ch'ing: Conquest, Region, and Continuity in Seventeenth-Century China, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, pp. 167–99

References


Translation

(sample) : Jaeyoon Song


  • Discussion Questions:

我等念此言甚合大義, 故特遣使相議, 王宜遣親近子弟來此, 共爲勸進可也. 我等承天意, 尊大號, 事已確定. 惟視王之從否何如耳. 特書

As we think that these words correspond to the great righteousness, we have sent the special envoys to discuss this issue. The King of Joseon should send his brothers and sons to our place, and commonly encourage and promote [Hong Taiji to become emperor]. We follow the will of heaven and elevate the great name [of the emperor]. The state of affairs has already been established. We will only see whether or not the King of Joseon would follow us. Specially written*.


  • Specially written is a common phrase used at the end of an official letter at this time.

Student 1 : Yishu Ma


  • Discussion Questions:

金國外藩各蒙古貝勒, 奉書朝鮮國王.

我等蒙大明恩賞, 已二百餘年矣. 今非樂爲背離也. 祗因大明官長, 欺詐奸詭, 賄賂公行, 誑蔽君上, 大明皇帝, 茫然弗知...

Translation: The Mongol beiles (chiefs) from the outer fences of the State of Jin present this letter to the king of Joseon.

You and I have received graces and gifts from the great state of Ming for over two hundred years. Now we are unhappy to secede from the Ming state; it is only because the officials of the great state of Ming are cheating, cunning, and deceitful. They routinely bribe [one another] and deceive and blind the emperor [of the great Ming]. [But] the emperor [of the great Ming] is completely unaware [of these].

Student 2 : Samuel Sai Hay Chan 陳世熙 진세희


貽禍家邦, 兼以將懦兵弱, 內之而奸詭昌熾, 外之而喪地折兵, 竊窺天意, 大明之歷數將終矣.

[All these] are ruining and bringing disasters to families and the state. In addition, [the Ming's] generals are cowardly and the soldiers weak. Within [the court], perfidy and treachery are rampant. Without, lands were being lost and soldiers were being slaughtered (1). We humbly steal a glimpse of the will of the Heaven - the mandate of the Ming will soon meet its end.

Notes: 1. An alternative translation is "Farmers were losing lands and soldiers were being demobilized." This refers to the general social crisis that Ming faced in the 17th century, which historians attributed to the advent of the so-called "Little Ice Age" at the time.

  • Discussion Questions:

What kind of relation was the Mongolian princes seeking with Choson? How did this relation implicate Choson's relationship with the Ming?

Student 3 : Younès M'Ghari


今我金國汗, 寬仁厚德, 博施濟衆, 招徠異國, 愛育黎庶, 語言行事, 無不恰當, 法度號令, 甚是明允, 更兼以將勇兵強,

Now our Khan of the Jin State is generous, benevolent, profoundly virtuous, he provides relief and saves the people, he enjoins the other countries to come, he loves and nurtures the commoners. When he says something and carries out [state] affairs, nothing is inappropriate. When he imposes laws and gives orders, they are extremely clear and impartial. Furthermore, in addition, [his] generals being brave and [his] soldiers being strong, ...

今我滿洲國皇帝, 仁智兼全, 恩威竝濟, 招徠異國, 愛育黎庶, 立心行事, 動出公正, 法度號令, 整肅嚴明, 兼之將勇兵強,

Now our Emperor of the Manchu State is both benevolent and wise, he is kind, mighty and, also, aiding [others], he enjoins the other countries to come, [he] loves and nurtures the commoners. When he is determined in carrying out [state] affairs, he acts justly. When he imposes laws and gives orders, they are extremely clear and impartial. He consolidates strict fairness. In addition, [his] generals being brave and [his] soldiers being strong, ...


  • Discussion Questions:

When and how did the expression "beile" become known to the Chosôn court scholars? Who first proposed these Chinese characters?

Student 4 : King Kwong Wong


所向無敵, 衆皆願慕, 皇天已屬意於我汗. 我等故仰承天意, 而樂就之矣.

To whomever he faces he is invincible. All desire to admire him. The August Heaven has already fixed His mind on our khan. Thereby we look up to and receive Heaven's will and delightfully comply with it, nothing more.

  • Discussion Questions:

Student 5 : 신동조


  • Discussion Questions:

念 我蒙古各國, 原來散亂無統. 近蒙我汗教化, 如春日之暄煦, 恩澤流洽於萬里.

I think that we all states of the Mongol were originally scattered and chaotic with no leadership. But recently we have received the moral suasion from our Khan. Like the warmness of the Spring Sun, His grace flows and permeates into one thousand li from here.

Student 6 : Stacey Lui


我等諸國, 俱蒙福安康, 無復仍前散亂者矣.

Our [Mongol] states have now all received fortune, stability and health, and will not again be scattered and disorderly as before.


  • Discussion Questions:

The document was signed by 47 out of 49 beiles. Whose signatures were omitted and what might this suggest?

Student 7 : Russell Guilbault


是以我等各國貝勒, 曁軍民人等, 感激仁汗深恩, 每思捐軀報效, 無不傾耳戴目

Because of this we are the beile of every country, and the army and people are equal; we are grateful for the benevolent khan's profound grace, constantly thinking of how we may lay down our lives to repay his kindness, and no part of us does not earnestly await it.

  • Discussion Questions:

Student 8 : Q


惟我汗驅使是聽, 以俟事機之至耳.

["his only wish" or "we think"] Our han's [command or wish] for us is to heed, so as to wait for the opportunity to present itself.

如有驅使, 即肝腦塗地, 投湯赴火, 亦莫之知避也.

Should there be his command, be it to smear our livers and brains on the ground, leap into boiling water and walk on fire, no one [none of us] would know to evade.


  • Discussion Questions:

Student 9 : Yeonjae Ra


前年蒙古各國貝勒, 朝聚於天興城中, 俱謂皇天眷顧金國, 業已顯赫, 我等宜仰承天意, 進汗尊號,

Last year, beiles of every provinces from Mongol were gathered in the middle of castle prospered by the heaven(‘盛京’ in revised version). Everybody said that imperial heaven takes care of the Jin Dynasty, and it is already apparent and shine. [Then] We should revere and accept the intention of the heaven, and eventually Khan [would be] respectfully named.

  • Discussion Questions:

Student 10 : (Kanghun Ahn)



故與金國衆貝勒商議, 具本奏聞. 汗云, 果何所見而遽爲此事也, 遂拒而弗允.


We Mongols, therefore, discussed this issue with a group of beiles of the Jin state, so we could report it to the emperor. The khan said, “how can you suddenly pull up this affair, based on what has been seen before?” The khan eventually refused and did not approve of it.


今四十萬蒙古國太子空俄羅 ···(나머지 버일러들의 이름 생략)··· 我等十六國四十九貝勒, 約於昨年臘月內, 與金國衆貝勒合議, 咸謂我汗收各國, 獲玉璽, 天意明徵, 勸進之事, 實不容已. 今年新正, 復具本奏聞. 汗云, 朝鮮王吾弟也, 亦宜令彼知之.


As of now, the prince of the Mongols (Ejei hongor) …. we, the forty-nine beiles of the sixteen states, made a treaty in the last leap month. We discussed this issue together with the beiles and they all said that our khan embraced all the countries and obtained the seal of the mongols. The heavenly will is manifest and the affairs of encouraging and promoting (Hong Taiji to become an emperor) indeed should not stop. In the first month of the year, we reported to the Khan and he said, “Choson king is my younger brother. It is appropriate to have him know of it.”

Student 11 : (Write your name)


  • Discussion Questions:


Student 12 : (Write your name)


  • Discussion Questions:


Student 13 : (Write your name)


  • Discussion Questions:


Student 14 : (Write your name)


  • Discussion Questions: