(Translation) 乾隆二十一年正月日 李乃蕃 戶口單子
|English||A Household Register of Kangnŭng prefect.|
|Chinese||乾隆二十一年正月日 李乃蕃 戶口單子|
|Korean(RR)||건륭이십일년정월일 이내번 호구단자(Geollyungisibillyeonjeongworil Inaebeon Hogudanja)|
|Key Concepts||Household register, government, slaves|
|Translator(s)||Participants of 2018 Summer Hanmun Workshop (Advanced Translation Group)|
|Editor(s)||Inho Choi, Sanghoon Na|
III-3. 乾隆二十一年正月日 李乃蕃 戶口單子
The household register of Gangneung Special City on a certain day of the first month of the 21st year  of Emperor Qianlong’s reign is as follows:
Im Cheonsang, the village headman, is charge of the first tong in Gyeongho-ri, Ganam [-myeon] north of the city. In the second household of the [first] tong lives Scholar Yi Naebeon, aged 64 and born in the year gyeyu, whose ancestral home is Wansan. His father is the late scholar [Yi] Juhwa. His grandfather is [Yi] Gwangho (n.d.), tonghundaebu [senior third rank] and acting assistant proctor at the office of ceremonial tent installment. His great-grandfather is [Yi] Seong (1562-1624), gaseondaebu [junior second rank] and acting vice-minister of personnel and concurrent deputy director of the bureau of state records, and duke of Wan-gye. His maternal grandfather is the late scholar Gwon Siheung, whose ancestral home is Andong.
His wife is Lady Won, aged 61 and born in the year byeongja , whose ancestral home is Wonju. Her father is the late scholar [Won] Chidae. Her grandfather is the late scholar [Won] Seung-hyeon. Her great-grandfather is [Won] Hwi, tonghundaebu [senior third rank] and acting magistrate of Gyeolseong prefecture. Her maternal grandfather is the late Yi Sa-il, whose ancestral home is Hongju.
[The Slave List] Corvee laborers: male slave Jeongsan, aged 40 and born in the year jeong’yu . Purchased male slave Osaeng, aged 43 and born in the year gabo , whose late mother is Makrye, a private female slave. Purchased female slave Jeomdeok, aged 30 and born in the year jeongmi , whose mother is Akrye, a private female slave. Purchased female slave Geumrye, aged 46 and born in the year sinyu , whose children are as follows: the first-born female slave Jeonggeum, aged 29 and born in the year musin , the second-born female slave Jeongmu, aged 13 and born in gapja , and third-born male slave Maknam, aged 8 and born in the year gisa . Purchased female slave Yungong, aged 43 and born in the year gabo .
Recorded in accordance with the old household register of the year gyeyu .
Household female slave Buchiljong, aged 68 and born in the year gapja .
The Magistrate of the Special City [Government Signature]
- How was this register made? Was it done by the voluntary work of the households, the result of the government survey over the local society or both? Is there any punishment if one fails to submit this register to the government?
- Why does a government register of a household needs to include ancestors who were long-dead with even his titles and offices?
- Also, is it a common practice to include an ancestral hometown in government household registers in other countries, too? What is it like in other East Asian countries and even European countries? Is it a unique phenomenon in Chosŏn.
- We can read this document together with other old documents that show the government intervention in the private exchanges. Do these documents show the increase in the infrastructural power of the Chosŏn state, i.e. the ability to provide socioeconomic infrastructures such as public transportation and statistics? In other words, how was this register used and by whom?
- Mann, Michael. 1984. The Autonomous Power of the State: Its Origins, Mechanisms and Results. European Journal of Sociology, 25(2), 185-213; Also, Mann, Michael. 2008. Infrastructural Power Revisited. Studies in Comparative International Development, 43(3-4), 355-35.
- 문현주. 2011. 조선후기 호구단자(戶口單子)와 준호구(準戶口)의 작성과정 연구: 경주부(慶州府)의 호구단자와 준호구를 중심으로. 고문서연구. 제 38권.
- Tong (five-family group) is a smallest local administrative unit. Five tong makes one ri. Several ri makes one myeon (township).
- Wansan is the present-day Jeonju in North Jeolla province.
- Acting is a translation of haeng 行. When a person was given a position lower than his rank, the prefix 行 was added to the title. When a person was given a position higher than his rank, the prefix su 守 was added to the title.
- Gyeolseong 結城 is located in the present-day Hongseong 洪城 in South Chungcheong province.
- Hongju 洪州 is the present-day Hongseong in South Chungcheong province.
- An alternate translation is that “Household female slave’s husband is Chiljong, aged 68 and born in the year gapja .” This is additional registration information which is not found in the old household register of the year gyeyu .