(Translation) 乾隆二十一年正月日 李乃蕃 戶口單子

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Introduction

Original Script

Classical Chinese English

乾隆二十一年正月日 江陵府戶口

府北嘉南鏡湖里第一統統首林千相統內

第二戶幼學李內蕃年六十四癸酉本完山

父學生 冑華

祖通訓大夫行典司別坐 光湖

曾祖嘉善大夫行吏曹參判兼春秋館事完溪君 惺

外祖學生權始興本安東

妻元氏㱓六十一丙子籍原州

父學生 治大

祖學生 承賢

曾祖通訓大夫行結城縣監 徽

外祖 學生李士一本洪州

<奴婢秩>

仰役奴丁山年四十丁酉買得奴五生年四十三甲午故母私婢莫礼買得

婢占德年三十丁未母私婢惡礼買得婢金礼年四十六辛卯同婢一所

生婢丁今年二十九戊申二所生婢丁毋年十三甲子三所生奴莫

男年八己巳買得婢允功年四十三甲午故癸酉戶口相準

婢夫七宗年六十八甲子

大都護府使[官押]


The *th day of the first month, the 21st year of Emperor Qianlong. A household register of Kangnŭng Prefecture.

In the First group, whose head is Imch'ŏnsang, of Kyŏngho sub-district of the north Kanam district of the prefecture above.

In the second household, the associate student(幼學) Inaebŏn, aged 64 and born in the year of Kyeyu, whose ancestral hometown is Wŏnsan.

The father is the registered student(學生) Chuhwa.

The grandfather is T’onghundaebu[1], the custodian of the secretary of the Office of Establishment, Kwangho.[2]

The great grandfather is Kasŏndaebu[3], the custodian of the vice minister of the Ministry of Personnel and the director of the College of Historiography, Prince Wan'gye, Sŏng.

The maternal grandfather is the registered student Kwŏnshihŭng, whose ancestral hometown is Andong.

The wife is Ms. Wŏn, aged 61 and born in the year of Pyŏngja, whose original place is Wŏnju.

Her father is the registered student Ch'idea.

Her grandfather is the registered student Sŭnghyŏn.

Her great grandfather is T’onghundaebu[4], the custodian of the magistrate of Kyŏlsŏng county(縣), Hwi.

Her maternal great father is the registered student Isail, whose ancestral hometown is Hongju.

<The slaves list>

A master-serving male slave Chŏngsan, aged 40 and born in the year of Chŏngyu,

A bought male slave Osaeng, aged 43 and born in the year of 甲午,

Aunt’s personal female slave 莫礼,

A bought female slave 占德, aged 30 and born in the year of 丁未,

Mother’s personal female slave 惡礼,

A bought female slave 金礼, aged 46 and born in the year of 辛卯,

The first-born female slave of the above slave, 丁今, aged 29 and born in the year of 戊申,

The second-born female slave 丁毋, aged 13 and born in the year of 甲子,

The third-born male slave 莫男, aged 8 and born in the year of 己巳,

A bought female slave 允功, aged 43 and born in the year of 甲午,

Hereby, confirms mutually with the household register from the year of 癸酉.

Including the husband of a female slave 七宗, aged 68 and born in the year of 甲子.

Confirmed by the magistrate of the grand first rank prefect(大都護府使).


Discussion Questions

  1. How was this register made? Was it done by the voluntary work of the households, the result of the government survey over the local society or both? Is there any punishment if one fails to submit this register to the government?
  2. Why does a government register of a household needs to include ancestors who were long-dead with even his titles and offices?
  3. Also, is it a common practice to include a ancestral hometown in government household registers in other countries, too? What is it like in other East Asian countries and even European countries? Is it a unique phenomenon in Chosŏn.
  4. We can read this document together with other old documents that show the government intervention in the private exchanges. Do these document shows the increase in the infrastructural power of the Chosŏn state, i.e. the ability to provide socioeconomic infrastructure such as public transportation and statistics? In other words, how was this register used and by whom?

Further Readings

  • Mann, Michael. 1984. The Autonomous Power of the State: Its Origins, Mechanisms and Results. European Journal of Sociology, 25(2), 185-213; Also, Mann, Michael. 2008. Infrastructural Power Revisited. Studies in Comparative International Development, 43(3-4), 355-35.
  • 문현주. 2011. 조선후기 호구단자(戶口單子)와 준호구(準戶口)의 작성과정 연구: 경주부(慶州府)의 호구단자와 준호구를 중심으로. 고문서연구. 제 38권.

References

  1. a senior third rank title
  2. the custodian is the translation of 行. When the rank of a person's title is lower than the rank of the office itself, the designation 行 was put before the name of the office to show the discrepancy between the two ranks. In opposite cases, the designation 守 was used.
  3. a junior second rank title
  4. a senior third rank title

Translation

(sample) : Jaeyoon Song


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Student 1 : (Write your name)


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Student 2 : (Write your name)


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Student 3 : (Write your name)


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Student 4 : (Write your name)


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Student 5 : Inho Choi


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Student 6 : (Write your name)


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Student 7 : (Write your name)


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Student 8 : (Write your name)


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Student 9 : (Write your name)


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Student 10 : (Write your name)


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Student 11 : (Write your name)


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Student 12 : (Write your name)


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Student 13 : (Write your name)


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Student 14 : (Write your name)


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