Difference between revisions of "(Translation) 乾隆二十一年正月日 李乃蕃 戶口單子"

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{{Primary Source Document3
 
{{Primary Source Document3
 
|Image = 1756이내번호구단자.jpg
 
|Image = 1756이내번호구단자.jpg
|English =  
+
|English = A Household Register of Kangnŭng prefect.
 
|Chinese = 乾隆二十一年正月日 李乃蕃 戶口單子
 
|Chinese = 乾隆二十一年正月日 李乃蕃 戶口單子
 
|Korean = 건륭이십일년정월일 이내번 호구단자(''Geollyungisibillyeonjeongworil Inaebeon Hogudanja'')
 
|Korean = 건륭이십일년정월일 이내번 호구단자(''Geollyungisibillyeonjeongworil Inaebeon Hogudanja'')
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|Author = 李乃蕃   
 
|Author = 李乃蕃   
 
|Year = 1756
 
|Year = 1756
|Key Concepts= Cencus returns
+
|Key Concepts= Household register, government, slaves
 
|Translator = [[2018 Summer Hanmun Workshop (Advanced)#Participants | Participants of 2018 Summer Hanmun Workshop (Advanced Translation Group)]]
 
|Translator = [[2018 Summer Hanmun Workshop (Advanced)#Participants | Participants of 2018 Summer Hanmun Workshop (Advanced Translation Group)]]
|Editor =  
+
|Editor = Inho Choi, Sanghoon Na
 
|Translation Year = 2018
 
|Translation Year = 2018
  
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<奴婢秩>
 
<奴婢秩>
  
仰役奴丁山年四十丁酉買得奴五生年四十三甲午故母私婢莫礼買得
+
<span style="color:red">仰役</span>奴丁山年四十丁酉買得奴五生年四十三甲午故母私婢莫礼買得
  
 
婢占德年三十丁未母私婢惡礼買得婢金礼年四十六辛卯同婢一所
 
婢占德年三十丁未母私婢惡礼買得婢金礼年四十六辛卯同婢一所
Line 59: Line 59:
 
男年八己巳買得婢允功年四十三甲午故癸酉戶口相準
 
男年八己巳買得婢允功年四十三甲午故癸酉戶口相準
  
率婢夫七宗年六十八甲子
+
<span style="color:red">率</span>婢夫七宗年六十八甲子
  
 
 
Line 67: Line 67:
  
 
||
 
||
The *th day of the first month, the 21st year of Qianlong Emperor.
 
A household register of Kangnŭng prefect.
 
  
In the First group, whose head is Imch'ŏnsang, of Kyŏngho sub-district of the north Kanam district of the said prefect.
+
III-3. 乾隆二十一年正月日 李乃蕃 戶口單子
 +
  
In the second household, the associate student(幼學) Inaebŏn, aged 64 and born in the year of Kyeyu, whose ancestral hometown is Wŏnsan.
+
乾隆二十一年正月日 江陵府戶口
  
The father is the registered student(學生) Chuhwa.
+
The household register of Gangneung Special City on a certain day of the first month of the 21st year [1756] of Emperor Qianlong’s reign is as follows:
  
The grandfather is T’onghundaebu<ref>a senior third rank title</ref>, the holder of(行) the secretary of the Office of Establishment, Kwangho.
 
  
The great grandfather is Kasŏndaebu<ref>a junior second rank title</ref>, the holder of the vice minister of the Ministry of Personnel and the director of the College of Historiography, Prince Wan'gye, Sŏng.
+
府北嘉南鏡湖里 第一統 統首林千相 統內第二戶 幼學李內蕃 年六十四 癸酉 本完山 父學生 冑華 祖通訓大夫 行典司別坐 光湖 曾祖嘉善大夫 行吏曹參判兼春秋館事完溪君 惺 外祖學生權始興本安東
  
The maternal grandfather is the registered student Kwŏnshihŭng, whose ancestral hometown is Andong.
+
Im Cheonsang, the village headman, is charge of the first ''tong''<ref> ''Tong'' (five-family group) is a smallest local administrative unit. Five ''tong'' makes one ''ri''. Several ''ri'' makes one myeon (township).</ref> in Gyeongho-ri, Ganam [-myeon] north of the city. In the second household of the [first] ''tong'' lives Scholar Yi Naebeon, aged 64 and born in the year ''gyeyu'', whose ancestral home is Wansan.<ref> Wansan is the present-day Jeonju in North Jeolla province.</ref> His father is the late scholar [Yi] Juhwa. His grandfather is [Yi] Gwangho (n.d.), ''tonghundaebu'' [senior third rank] and acting<ref> Acting is a translation of ''haeng'' 行. When a person was given a position lower than his rank, the prefix 行 was added to the title. When a person was given a position higher than his rank, the prefix ''su'' 守 was added to the title.</ref> assistant proctor at the office of ceremonial tent installment. His great-grandfather is [Yi] Seong (1562-1624), ''gaseondaebu'' [junior second rank] and acting vice-minister of personnel and concurrent deputy director of the bureau of state records, and duke of Wan-gye. His maternal grandfather is the late scholar Gwon Siheung, whose ancestral home is Andong.
  
The wife is Ms. Wŏn, aged 61 and born in the year of Pyŏngja, whose original place is Wŏnju.
 
  
Her father is the registered student Ch'idea.
+
妻元氏㱓六十一丙子籍原州 父學生 治大 祖學生 承賢 曾祖通訓大夫行結城縣監 徽 外祖 學生李士一本洪州
  
Her grandfather is the registered student Sŭnghyŏn.
+
His wife is Lady Won, aged 61 and born in the year ''byeongja'' [1696], whose ancestral home is Wonju. Her father is the late scholar [Won] Chidae. Her grandfather is the late scholar [Won] Seung-hyeon. Her great-grandfather is [Won] Hwi, ''tonghundaebu'' [senior third rank] and acting magistrate of Gyeolseong<ref> Gyeolseong 結城 is located in the present-day Hongseong 洪城 in South Chungcheong province.</ref> prefecture. Her maternal grandfather is the late Yi Sa-il, whose ancestral home is Hongju.<ref> Hongju 洪州 is the present-day Hongseong in South Chungcheong province.</ref>
  
Her great grandfather is T’onghundaebu<ref>a senior third rank title</ref>, the holder of the magistrate of Kyŏlsŏng county(縣), Hwi.
 
  
Her maternal great father is the registered student  Isail, whose ancestral hometown is Hongju.
+
[奴婢秩] 仰役奴丁山 年四十丁酉 買得奴五生 年四十三甲午 故母私婢莫礼 買得婢占德 年三十丁未 母私婢惡礼 買得婢金礼年四十六辛卯 同婢一所生婢丁今 年二十九戊申 二所生婢丁毋年十三甲子 三所生奴莫男年八己巳 買得婢允功年四十三甲午
  
<The slaves list>
+
[The Slave List] Corvee laborers: male slave Jeongsan, aged 40 and born in the year ''jeong’yu'' [1717]. Purchased male slave Osaeng, aged 43 and born in the year ''gabo'' [1714], whose late mother is Makrye, a private female slave. Purchased female slave Jeomdeok, aged 30 and born in the year ''jeongmi'' [1727], whose mother is Akrye, a private female slave. Purchased female slave Geumrye, aged 46 and born in the year ''sinyu'' [1711], whose children are as follows: the first-born female slave Jeonggeum, aged 29 and born in the year ''musin'' [1728], the second-born female slave Jeongmu, aged 13 and born in ''gapja'' [1744], and third-born male slave Maknam, aged 8 and born in the year ''gisa'' [1749]. Purchased female slave Yungong, aged 43 and born in the year ''gabo'' [1727].
  
A master-serving male slave Chŏngsan, aged 40 and born in the year of Chŏngyu,
 
  
A bought male slave Osaeng, aged 43 and born in the year of 甲午,
+
故癸酉戶口相準
  
Aunt’s personal female slave 莫礼,
+
Recorded in accordance with the old household register of the year ''gyeyu'' [1723].
  
A bought female slave 占德, aged 30 and born in the year of 丁未,
 
  
Mother’s personal female slave 惡礼,
+
率婢夫七宗年六十八甲子
  
A bought female slave 金礼, aged 46 and born in the year of 辛卯,
+
Household female slave Buchiljong, aged 68 and born in the year ''gapja'' [1684].<ref> An alternate translation is that “Household female slave’s husband is Chiljong, aged 68 and born in the year ''gapja'' [1684].” This is additional registration information which is not found in the old household register of the year ''gyeyu'' [1723].</ref>
  
The first-born female slave of the above slave, 丁今, aged 29 and born in the year of 戊申,
 
  
The second-born female slave 丁毋, aged 13 and born in the year of 甲子,
+
  
The third-born male slave 莫男, aged 8 and born in the year of 己巳,
+
Ratified
  
A bought female slave 允功, aged 43 and born in the year of 甲午,
 
  
Hereby, confirms mutually with the household register from the year of 癸酉.
+
大都護府使 [官押]
  
Including the husband of a female slave 七宗, aged 68 and born in the year of 甲子.
+
The Magistrate of the Special City [Government Signature]
  
Confirmed by the magistrate of the grand first rank prefect(大都護府使).
 
  
  
Line 125: Line 116:
  
 
=='''Discussion Questions'''==
 
=='''Discussion Questions'''==
#
+
#How was this register made? Was it done by the voluntary work of the households, the result of the government survey over the local society or both? Is there any punishment if one fails to submit this register to the government?
#
+
#Why does a government register of a household needs to include ancestors who were long-dead with even his titles and offices?
 
+
#Also, is it a common practice to include an ancestral hometown in government household registers in other countries, too? What is it like in other East Asian countries and even European countries? Is it a unique phenomenon in Chosŏn.
 +
#We can read this document together with other old documents that show the government intervention in the private exchanges. Do these documents show the increase in the infrastructural power of the Chosŏn state, i.e. the ability to provide socioeconomic infrastructures such as public transportation and statistics? In other words, how was this register used and by whom?
  
 
=='''Further Readings'''==
 
=='''Further Readings'''==
Line 135: Line 127:
 
</div>
 
</div>
 
-->
 
-->
*
+
*Mann, Michael. 1984. The Autonomous Power of the State: Its Origins, Mechanisms and Results. ''European Journal of Sociology'', 25(2), 185-213; Also, Mann, Michael. 2008. Infrastructural Power Revisited. ''Studies in Comparative International Development'', 43(3-4), 355-35.
*
+
*문현주. 2011. 조선후기 호구단자(戶口單子)와 준호구(準戶口)의 작성과정 연구: 경주부(慶州府)의 호구단자와 준호구를 중심으로. 고문서연구. 제 38권.
 
 
  
 
=='''References'''==
 
=='''References'''==
 
<references/>
 
<references/>
  
=='''Translation'''==
 
 
==='''(sample) : Jaeyoon Song'''===
 
----
 
 
*Discussion Questions:
 
 
 
==='''Student 1 : (Write your name)'''===
 
----
 
 
*Discussion Questions:
 
 
 
==='''Student 2 : (Write your name)'''===
 
----
 
 
*Discussion Questions:
 
 
 
==='''Student 3 : (Write your name)'''===
 
----
 
 
*Discussion Questions:
 
 
 
==='''Student 4 : (Write your name)'''===
 
----
 
 
*Discussion Questions:
 
 
 
==='''Student 5 : Inho Choi'''===
 
----
 
 
*Discussion Questions:
 
 
==='''Student 6 : (Write your name)'''===
 
----
 
 
*Discussion Questions:
 
 
 
==='''Student 7 : (Write your name)'''===
 
----
 
 
*Discussion Questions:
 
 
 
==='''Student 8 : (Write your name)'''===
 
----
 
 
*Discussion Questions:
 
 
 
==='''Student 9 : (Write your name)'''===
 
----
 
 
*Discussion Questions:
 
 
 
==='''Student 10 : (Write your name)'''===
 
----
 
 
*Discussion Questions:
 
 
 
==='''Student 11 : (Write your name)'''===
 
----
 
 
*Discussion Questions:
 
 
 
==='''Student 12 : (Write your name)'''===
 
----
 
 
*Discussion Questions:
 
 
 
==='''Student 13 : (Write your name)'''===
 
----
 
 
*Discussion Questions:
 
 
 
==='''Student 14 : (Write your name)'''===
 
----
 
  
*Discussion Questions:
 
  
  
 
[[Category:2018 Hanmun Summer Workshop]]
 
[[Category:2018 Hanmun Summer Workshop]]
 
[[Category:Advanced Translation Group]]
 
[[Category:Advanced Translation Group]]

Latest revision as of 16:09, 25 August 2018

Backward.png


Introduction

Original Script

Classical Chinese English

乾隆二十一年正月日 江陵府戶口

府北嘉南鏡湖里第一統統首林千相統內

第二戶幼學李內蕃年六十四癸酉本完山

父學生 冑華

祖通訓大夫行典司別坐 光湖

曾祖嘉善大夫行吏曹參判兼春秋館事完溪君 惺

外祖學生權始興本安東

妻元氏㱓六十一丙子籍原州

父學生 治大

祖學生 承賢

曾祖通訓大夫行結城縣監 徽

外祖 學生李士一本洪州

<奴婢秩>

仰役奴丁山年四十丁酉買得奴五生年四十三甲午故母私婢莫礼買得

婢占德年三十丁未母私婢惡礼買得婢金礼年四十六辛卯同婢一所

生婢丁今年二十九戊申二所生婢丁毋年十三甲子三所生奴莫

男年八己巳買得婢允功年四十三甲午故癸酉戶口相準

婢夫七宗年六十八甲子

大都護府使[官押]


III-3. 乾隆二十一年正月日 李乃蕃 戶口單子


乾隆二十一年正月日 江陵府戶口

The household register of Gangneung Special City on a certain day of the first month of the 21st year [1756] of Emperor Qianlong’s reign is as follows:


府北嘉南鏡湖里 第一統 統首林千相 統內第二戶 幼學李內蕃 年六十四 癸酉 本完山 父學生 冑華 祖通訓大夫 行典司別坐 光湖 曾祖嘉善大夫 行吏曹參判兼春秋館事完溪君 惺 外祖學生權始興本安東

Im Cheonsang, the village headman, is charge of the first tong[1] in Gyeongho-ri, Ganam [-myeon] north of the city. In the second household of the [first] tong lives Scholar Yi Naebeon, aged 64 and born in the year gyeyu, whose ancestral home is Wansan.[2] His father is the late scholar [Yi] Juhwa. His grandfather is [Yi] Gwangho (n.d.), tonghundaebu [senior third rank] and acting[3] assistant proctor at the office of ceremonial tent installment. His great-grandfather is [Yi] Seong (1562-1624), gaseondaebu [junior second rank] and acting vice-minister of personnel and concurrent deputy director of the bureau of state records, and duke of Wan-gye. His maternal grandfather is the late scholar Gwon Siheung, whose ancestral home is Andong.


妻元氏㱓六十一丙子籍原州 父學生 治大 祖學生 承賢 曾祖通訓大夫行結城縣監 徽 外祖 學生李士一本洪州

His wife is Lady Won, aged 61 and born in the year byeongja [1696], whose ancestral home is Wonju. Her father is the late scholar [Won] Chidae. Her grandfather is the late scholar [Won] Seung-hyeon. Her great-grandfather is [Won] Hwi, tonghundaebu [senior third rank] and acting magistrate of Gyeolseong[4] prefecture. Her maternal grandfather is the late Yi Sa-il, whose ancestral home is Hongju.[5]


[奴婢秩] 仰役奴丁山 年四十丁酉 買得奴五生 年四十三甲午 故母私婢莫礼 買得婢占德 年三十丁未 母私婢惡礼 買得婢金礼年四十六辛卯 同婢一所生婢丁今 年二十九戊申 二所生婢丁毋年十三甲子 三所生奴莫男年八己巳 買得婢允功年四十三甲午

[The Slave List] Corvee laborers: male slave Jeongsan, aged 40 and born in the year jeong’yu [1717]. Purchased male slave Osaeng, aged 43 and born in the year gabo [1714], whose late mother is Makrye, a private female slave. Purchased female slave Jeomdeok, aged 30 and born in the year jeongmi [1727], whose mother is Akrye, a private female slave. Purchased female slave Geumrye, aged 46 and born in the year sinyu [1711], whose children are as follows: the first-born female slave Jeonggeum, aged 29 and born in the year musin [1728], the second-born female slave Jeongmu, aged 13 and born in gapja [1744], and third-born male slave Maknam, aged 8 and born in the year gisa [1749]. Purchased female slave Yungong, aged 43 and born in the year gabo [1727].


故癸酉戶口相準

Recorded in accordance with the old household register of the year gyeyu [1723].


率婢夫七宗年六十八甲子

Household female slave Buchiljong, aged 68 and born in the year gapja [1684].[6]


Ratified


大都護府使 [官押]

The Magistrate of the Special City [Government Signature]


Discussion Questions

  1. How was this register made? Was it done by the voluntary work of the households, the result of the government survey over the local society or both? Is there any punishment if one fails to submit this register to the government?
  2. Why does a government register of a household needs to include ancestors who were long-dead with even his titles and offices?
  3. Also, is it a common practice to include an ancestral hometown in government household registers in other countries, too? What is it like in other East Asian countries and even European countries? Is it a unique phenomenon in Chosŏn.
  4. We can read this document together with other old documents that show the government intervention in the private exchanges. Do these documents show the increase in the infrastructural power of the Chosŏn state, i.e. the ability to provide socioeconomic infrastructures such as public transportation and statistics? In other words, how was this register used and by whom?

Further Readings

  • Mann, Michael. 1984. The Autonomous Power of the State: Its Origins, Mechanisms and Results. European Journal of Sociology, 25(2), 185-213; Also, Mann, Michael. 2008. Infrastructural Power Revisited. Studies in Comparative International Development, 43(3-4), 355-35.
  • 문현주. 2011. 조선후기 호구단자(戶口單子)와 준호구(準戶口)의 작성과정 연구: 경주부(慶州府)의 호구단자와 준호구를 중심으로. 고문서연구. 제 38권.

References

  1. Tong (five-family group) is a smallest local administrative unit. Five tong makes one ri. Several ri makes one myeon (township).
  2. Wansan is the present-day Jeonju in North Jeolla province.
  3. Acting is a translation of haeng 行. When a person was given a position lower than his rank, the prefix 行 was added to the title. When a person was given a position higher than his rank, the prefix su 守 was added to the title.
  4. Gyeolseong 結城 is located in the present-day Hongseong 洪城 in South Chungcheong province.
  5. Hongju 洪州 is the present-day Hongseong in South Chungcheong province.
  6. An alternate translation is that “Household female slave’s husband is Chiljong, aged 68 and born in the year gapja [1684].” This is additional registration information which is not found in the old household register of the year gyeyu [1723].