2018 GGHS Team 5

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Topic : The measures for Unified Korea based on the diplomacy and the internal policy in Goryeo Dynasty

Introduction

Motivation and Purpose of Research

We will remember the spirit of Goryeo to mark the 1100st anniversary of the foundation of Goryeo and connect it with the present. Based on the historically popular diplomacy of Goryeo and internal policies of Goryeo kings, we would like to suggest ways to unify the two Koreas, which are now facing the reunification phase. Gwanghaegun of Joseon reportedly said, " Please learn Goryeo's diplomatic policies. " The Joseon Dynasty, which lasted for 519 years, also called for Goryeo to be taught. Thus, Goryeo would be a model for both internal and internal politics and future generations. Therefore, we will investigate and explore the diplomatic policies of Goryeo and the policies of each king throughout the Goryeo Dynasty and draw up a plan for reunification between the two Koreas. Hopefully, the research will give us a new perspective and bring us closer to reunification as we face a new phase of reunification.

Expectancy Effects

There is a famous Korean saying, "前事之不忘 後事之師也", which means the first thing the bunch don't forget the divisions. In other words, this quotation implied we should learn the lessons of past history as teachers and solve future coming events. Following this, we are going to draw the policy of unification between north and south by facing the 1100st anniversary of Goryeo foundation.

Firstly, we are announcing the policies of unification in Goryeo by remembering beautiful Goryeo's history.

Secondly, we are suggesting that the unification policies of the Two Koreas, one and only divided country in the world, by seeing at the new sight in domestic and foreign ways.

Thirdly, We are contributing the world's peace according to suggest the measures not only two Koreas but also whole world make peacefully based on the Goryeo's unification to make peace in the Korean Peninsula.

Historical Background

Accomplishing Diplomacy Based on Political System between South and North Korea

In order to better understand the external diplomatic relations between the two Koreas, the understanding of the system between the two Koreas should come first. South and North Korea are the Korean race, but they are in a different regime and live absolutely different lives being influenced by different societies. South Korea is a liberal democracy and North Korea is a people's democracy. Liberal democracy, consists of liberalism and democracy, is a political ideology that points individual freedom and rights out as highest values. At this point, freedom is a state in which each person has opportunity to choose and decide what they want with minimum of limitation. Equality is a state in which the intrinsic values of an individual are equal and hereditary privilege is denied. Since liberal democracy values individualism and private property rights, it combines with the capitalist economic system. In our society, if we do not put any modifier on the word democracy, we refer to liberal democracy. This is because the U.S. and South Korea, the world's strongest nations, have been aiming. Therefore, South Korea naturally has a close relationship with the United States. People's democracy is a political ideology that has been adopted as a goal of equality for the people in socialistic countries. With the same logic as free democracy, people's democracy naturally combines with the socialist economic system. Communism is ultimately aimed at an ideal society in which every human being in the world works by capacity and is distributed by necessity. China is the powerful country that is advocating communism. Therefore, China and North Korea are leading to close ties.

Diplomatic Relation between the Two Koreas

Since Republic of Korea had had a Korean war with Democratic People's Republic of Korea, neighbor us and nearby the ceasefire line, South Korea still in military confrontation, and has had social influences a lot. Meanwhile, it has close ties with the U.S. which supported the Republic of Korea in the Korean war. Moon-Jae-In government was launching the Korea-U.S. summit meeting between Trump's currency as quickly, and on June 29, 2018, held in Wasington ; and finally, it worked.

It was not until the end of the Cold War that Russia and China, which intervened in the Korean War while supporting the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, that they established diplomatic relations. The relations with neighboring countries such as the United States, Japan, China, and Russia have been at the core of Korean diplomacy based on geopolitical and historical significance, and the establishment of Korean independence, the establishment of Korean wars, and so on.

North Korea has put more spurs to its nuclear and missile development since the inauguration of North Korean leader Kim Jong Un in 2012, and the U.S. has responded with the UN Security Council's resolution to impose sanctions on the North. From 2012 to 2017, North Korea conducted 41 ballistic missile launches and three nuclear tests, and the U.N. Security Council adopted eight resolutions to impose sanctions against the North during the same period.

Moon Jae-in, however, the government a result of trying to patch things up North America, 2018, held in Singapore on June 12, Donald Trump, president and Kim Jong Un, North Korea. The Secretary of State of the summit was held.

Relations between North Korea and China have been close enough, both politically, economically and militarily. However, the North Korea-China relations had to worsen as China demanded a hard currency in trade with North Korea from 1991 and established diplomatic relations with South Korea in August 1992. The estranged bilateral relationship, including a decrease in high-level personnel exchanges, began to recover in September 1998 when the Kim Jong-il regime was officially launched in North Korea. The two sides have maintained their relations by only occasional exchanges of high-level personnel due to the North's continued nuclear and missile development and China's participation in sanctions against the North. Then, he visited China for the first time since Kim Jong Un took power in March 2018 and had a meeting with Chinese President Xi Jinping.[1]

Body

Plural of Diplomacy

This is a photo of Later Three Kingdoms.

Taejo Wang Gun

During the early 10th century, the region of East Asia was in a state of transition. In this turbulent period, it was the new and powerful East Asian power that unified the northern nomadic world by growing power outside the generals. The first step Wang Gun took when he ascended the throne was to make it clear that he would succeed Goguryeo in competition with Hubaekje and Silla. If Wang Gun's push for the unification of the three kingdoms is called the Southern Policy, also Goryeo was representitive name as " Northern Policy, " which was declared publicly by the national vision of Goryeo. This Northern policy may be assessed as being the foreign policy of Goryeo and the ambitious vision of Wang Gun.[2]

Wang Gun, who was not in a hurry to unify the south, pushed for Northern policy first. He continued to think seogyung as important as a capital city, Gaeseong. He approached the Northeast with a strategy of engagement. Wang continued to build castles in various parts of the northern region, immigrating the people to make the area a territory.

Internationally, he maintained peaceful coexistence with the Hubaekje and Silla. Even when Gyeon Hwon invaded Silla, Wang sent a rescue soldier to Silla to fight against Gyeon Hwon and did not enter into a peace treaty with Hu Baekje. Wang Gun lost the Daegu Communist Battle and struggled with the Hubaekje, but won the battle of Gochang to gain an upper hand in the competition with the Hubaekje. This friendly policy of Wang Gun was advantageous in gaining the cause of the Silla tradition and authority, and it was very important to overthrow Gyeon Hwon, who was then militarily powerful. It also greatly helped bring in local Hosu from Silla territory for consideration. Later Gyeongsun surrendered to Goryeo due to difficulties in maintaining the kingdom, while Gyeon Hwon escaped from Geumsansa Temple and defected to Goryeo. Overall, Wang was able to mitigate the aftereffects of reunification and achieve political stability by embracing the people of Balhae and using them to strengthen the internal regime and defend the Northern frontier, while winning without fighting with Silla. By utilizing the achievements of the Northern policy, the unification of the three kingdoms in the South was completed.

External factors that influenced the process of unification of Korea should also be examined briefly. During the Three Kingdoms Period, Goguryeo collapsed even though it was the strongest because it made a strategic mistake of placing hostile relations in both the northern and southern regions. Unlike Goguryeo, Goryeo managed its external factors well, which enabled the subsequent unification of the three kingdoms. Goryeo did not take any hostile action in consideration of its limits in its relationship with Khitan and did not engage with him in the invasion of Balhae by refraining from sending troops. Wang Geon-geon said, " Through strategic thinking considering the external environment, we were able to successfully push for unification and advancement into the North by balancing and managing the internal and external environment.

Gwang Jong

Goryeo already had active diplomatic relations with countries on the Chinese continent from Taejo.[3] Kwang-jong also took this trend and showed great enthusiasm for diplomacy and cultural exchange. In particular, it actively traded with the latter and the latter. In 951 (Kwangjong 2), Huzhu's era name was implemented, and in the following year, an envoy was sent to send a gift. In response, Hu Zhuang sent envoys to Gwangjong in 953 (4th year of Kwangjong) and gave him the high status. Since then, the two countries have continued to exchange envoys.

These exchanges were naturally followed by cultural, institutional, and human interaction. Although it is difficult to find many records due to the characteristics of this period, it is difficult to find many records, most of them brought thousands of pieces of silk into consideration in 958 (Gwangjong 9). In the next year, Goryeo sent 50,000 geun copper and 2,000 rolls and white amethyst pieces to the city. They also sent horses, clothes, bows and knives with them. Records show that such exchanges occurred with other continental nations besides Hu Jintao. For example, in 960 years (Gwangjong 11), it was found that he sent an envoy to Korea in May to request a book on Cheontae, and that he sent it to him.[4]

In particular, it is noteworthy that Kwang-jong invited a large number of Chinese people to participate in politics. A prime example is the twin. The twin boys who came to Goryeo as a member of the Huzhu delegation fell ill and stayed for a while for treatment, but were completely left in the temple at the request of Gwangjong, who recognized his talents. Since then, the twins have suggested implementing the past system and have served as the head of the agency on several occasions.

In addition to the twin brothers, many Chinese officials were favored by Gwang-jong and others, who protested against him. There are not many naturalized Chinese officials to be identified, but the names of graves such as Chae In-beom still exist, demonstrating the circumstances of the time.

He also used the name Geondeok, Song's last name, to deepen diplomatic relations with the North. The two dates are Gwangdeok and Jungpung.

Later in 960, Goryeo, which had cultural and economic purposes, began military repatriation, enter into friendly relations, and its name and name followed Song's. Naturally, he ignored the Khitan kingdom and called it a "brother country," and joined forces with them to attack the country. This caused one of the wars against the Liao Dynasty along with the Manbukyo incident of Taejo Wang Gun, and later kings, King Suro and Hyeonjong, had to engage in a long, long war with the Liao Dynasty.

Seong Jong

In the 10th century, Goryeo was surrounded by strong countries, such as Song, Kitan and Yeojin. Among the relative dominance of the Kitan, in which compete Song, and Goryeo are placed in the middle has emerged. Song considered the Goryeo Dynasty to be a partner. In order to prevent the expansion of the powerful clans such as the Kitan and Yeojin and protect midfield, They needed Goryeo. On the other hand, the idea of Kitan and Yeojin was to cut off the relationship between Goryeo and Song in the rear regions. Goryeo fully understood the diplomatic intentions of the three countries. Therefore, rather than having a one-sided relationship with either side, the two sides pursued diplomatic strategies in the direction most favorable to the Goryeo Dynasty. At the heart of the Goryeo diplomacy was the pursuit of territory and cultural benefits.[5] Goryeo did not consider Song to be a true ally.

In 986, Song requested the dispatch of troops to Goryeo, saying, "We need to find land taken from China by the York-Korea." Goryeosa Jeolyo, According to the book, King Suro, the king of Goryeo, intentionally evaded an answer. When Song threatened and kept asking for the troop dispatch, King Sungjong seemed to be ready to send troops, which made Song happy.

But in the end, they did not send troops. He decided that there was no need to consider the war to increase China's land. They were not worried about how to maintain an alliance with Song, but how to maximize the benefits of Goryeo.

" Even if the alliance between Goryeo and Song is not strong, Korea's conquest of China can not be achieved as long as this alliance is maintained, " York-Korea concluded. So, the Liao decided to break the alliance between the two countries. What has been done is the 993 invasion of Goryeo.

Suh-hee is a famous diplomat as a relief pitcher. Thanks to Suh-hee's diplomatic skills, Goryeo blocked war with the Liao dynasty in the interest of Goryeo. The Goryeo decided to honor the Liao kingdom as a condition that the kingdom understand that the kingdom takes over Gangdong-6, the land of North Pyeongang Province and the region of Yeojin.

Thus, the alliance between Goryeo and Song was broken and the alliance between Goryeo and Liao was formed. Instead of fighting with Liao to maintain loyalty to Song, Goryeo formed an alliance with Liao on the condition that it benefited from Gangdong 6. The first principle in the alliance diplomacy of Goryeo was the interest of Goryeo.[6]

Goryeo was a country that performed "parallel diplomacy" and " equidistant diplomacy, " a multi-language diplomacy, in a very strategic manner, having diplomatic relations with several countries but taking practical benefits at the crucial moment.[7] Until the beginning of the 12th century, Goryeo had diplomatic relations with Song and Khalitan, and later maintained diplomatic relations with Geum and Song. After the end of Geum in 1234, Goryeo formed a multidisciplinary diplomatic relationship with the Korean people, Yüan and Song. In the late 14th century, the Ming Dynasty appeared, and Goryeo conducted diplomacy amid the competition between Korea and China. The Goryeo Dynasty was one of the pillars of the world order of East Asia in this multidisciplinary manner, when East Asian relations greatly influenced on the development of Goryeo history.

Center of trades, Byeorando

Byeorun-do, located in Gyeonggi Province during the Goryeo Dynasty, is a symbol of openness to Goryeo. Byeorun-do was an international port located at the mouth of Yeseonggang near Gaegyeong. The origin name of Byeolan-do was Yesung port, but there was an official residence called "Byeollangjeong" on the hill near Byeorun-do. The reason why they were changed their name their own international port as Byeorundo.

Byeorun-do was close to Gae-gyeong, the capital of Goryeo, and became the center of trade during the Goryeo Dynasty because the river was so deep that a large or small boat was able to enter freely with the tide. We exported paper, ginseng, najeon lacquer, and imported silk, medicine, and books. At this time, the public trade was more important than the trade between individuals. The merchants of Song came in the summer and stayed in Goryeo for about six months before returning in February and March the following year. More than 5,000 Chinese merchants came and went to Byeorun-do, and in 1162, about 400 Chinese merchants came into Byeorun-do. Byeorun-do was prosperous. The Goryeo merchants were trading with foreign countries.

There were many foreign ships in and out of Byeorun-do. Not only Chinese merchants but also Japanese and Arabian merchants entered Gaegyeong through Byeorun-do. It is assumed that the English name of Korea has been given to the West as the Korean word " Korea " was given to the English name of Korea when it came to Byeorun-do for trading.

Many foreigners visited Byeorun-do, where interesting and imaginative work took place. There were also pawnshops as well as bars and lodging facilities, and there were performances aimed at foreigners. Byeorun-do was also a city that distributed foreign high-quality information. This is where the weapon inventor Choi Moo-sun of the late Goryeo Dynasty obtained information about gunpowder.[8]

There is a heart-wrenching story set in Byrulan-do. The foolish husband, blinded by money, lost his beautiful wife to a merchant from Song, but he did not move anymore because the boat carrying the merchant passed by a woman. " Yesunggangak, " a Goryeo folk song about the necessity of returning a woman to Byeorun-do, was performed in Byeorun-do.

One of the tasks that the Ganghwa people should continue and learn as they celebrate the 1100st anniversary of the foundation of the Goryeo Dynasty is something to pay more attention to and explore with more interest in the culture of the Goryeo Dynasty.

Internal Policies of Goryeo

Taejo Wang Gun

This is a drawing of Taejo Wang Gun

King Taejo's domestic policy that placed the greatest importance on the people's safety from the beginning of the throne was the policy of public stability. The land system that had been damaged since the end of the Silla Dynasty was corrected, and a measure was taken to mitigate the severe taxation on the land since the Imperial Household. He set up a policy of integrating the Hoses into his own right to control the clans and families of the powerful, married daughters of the clans, and gave them government positions and land. As part of his marriage policy, Taejo had six queens and 23 wives. They were the daughters of the Ho-joo family from Jeolla Province, Gyeongsang Province, Gangwon Province, Chungcheong Province, Hwanghae-do and Gyeonggi Province. There were so many children, 25 sons and 9 daughters, all 34. It was to tie local householders to one place. Powerful clans refers to people who lived a long life in a province with large territory and armies. He was born and lived in the land for a long time, and was like a king to the people of the region. Wang Reung, the father of Taejo, was also a member of the powerful family of Songak. At the time of Wang Gun's establishment of Goryeo, the king's power was weak and the power of the powerful local family was strong. Some of the powerful family had thousands of military personnel. They trusted their strength and did not listen to the king. So King entered into the good of the powerful local clans through marriage. They marry the daughters of the family and associate themselves with their son-in-law as father-in-law.

This is a photo of 훈요 10조 from goryeosa.

Taejo had the political capacity to meet a new era request not seen by Gungye or Gyeon Hwon, and was able to stabilize the royal authority of the new dynasty to some extent in a short period of time.

Taejo had the political capacity to meet a new era request not seen by Gungye or Gyeon Hwon, and was able to stabilize the royal authority of the new dynasty to some extent in a short period of time. Thus, it moved to Gaesong in January of 919 (the second year of King Taejo). As a policy for stabilizing the lives of the people, taxes were collected according to principle in order to reduce the burden of the people, and too much tax was imposed on the Ho-s. The North Korean government valued Seokyeong (Pyongyang) and tried to restore the territory of ancient Goguryeo. They built castles in the north, kept troops in, and gradually expanded their territory.

Soon before his death, he invited Grand Park Sul-hee to the Queen and asked his successors to set an example for him by adopting '훈요10조' of King Seong-yo's reign is a valuable reminder of Taejo Wang Gun's political ideas. The policy of national integration was to actively accept not only Silla but also Yu-min including the prince of ancient Goguryeo, Baekje, and Balhae as a policy of national unity.[9] The monarchy and its power was established to stabilize the royal authority, keeping the royal family in check. However, the marriage policy led to a struggle for the succession of the throne, causing much confusion later on.

Contents of Article 10 (Hunyo10jo)[10]
1. Buddhism established the country by the power of Buddhism, so you should always respect Buddhism.
2. The temple should not be built on the basis of Doseon's feng shui theory.
3. The throne is subject to the succession of the firstborn, but if the firstborn is unwise, let the other son do so.
4. Our country and China do not need to follow Chinese culture as they differ from region to character. 
   Also, do not take their example, because it is the same country as the beast.
5. Go west longitude (Pyongyang) during the month of February, August, and stay more than 100 days a year.
6. Must faithfully conduct Buddhist events such as the lanterns and Palgwanhoe.
7. Must listen to the upright opinions of your servants and keep the faith of the people.
8. People south of the Chahyeon mountains and outside the Gongju river should not be used.
9. The government should not recklessly reduce or increase the salaries of its officials, but lighten the tax burden on farmers.
10. The king should read the scriptures and history books to learn how to reflect on the past.

Gwang Jong

The stability of the royal authority took place after the reign of King Gwangjong. While on the throne for 26 years, Gwangjong pushed forward various policies to strengthen the royal authority.[11]


First, in 956, the Slave Review Law was enforced to free slaves illegally owned by the local gentry, and in response to the proposal of a pair of naturalized slaves from Huzhu, China. In the past, the system was designed to select management by testing Confucian scriptures and sentence abilities based on individual skills. This allowed the king to choose new people who were loyal to him. In 960, all the officials cloths were established to restore discipline and strengthen the royal authority. These measures were also caused by resistance from the powerful clans but Gwangjong pushed ahead with them through oppression.

And, Gwangjong made a policy of favoring Ssangi and other naturalized groups during the reform process, forcing them to take property away and giving it to Ssangi.

Gwangjong purged its founding meritorious retainer and the powerful clans who were unhappy with his policy to strengthen the royal authority. Gwangjong, who strengthened the royal authority, made him call himself an emperor and used the dates of Jungpung and Gwangdeok.

Gwangjong ordered the slave to be saved and to be measured. This made it impossible for a servant to betray his master. The spirit of the man, 
which was destroyed by this, was loudly practiced, and everyone complained. The queen tried to stop him, but he didn't listen. 
- " Goryeosa Jeolyo " -

Gwangjong is in stark contrast to the second and third generation of King Hyejong. First, the reign of King Hyejong was 26 years, which is much longer than the second year of his reign and the fourth year of his reign. And while Hyejong and Jeong-jong relied on the power base of their close aides, represented by Park Sul-hee and Wang Sil-ryeom, respectively, King Gwang-jong secured the throne based on his own power base.

Thus, Gwang-jong was able to strengthen his royal authority without the influence of neighboring powers. As a result, the royal authority, which had been in the inferior position since King Taejo, was able to gain the upper hand over the royal family. The fact that they used their own dates such as " Gwangdeok " and " Jungpung " and " Gaekyeong, " the capital city, is called " Hwangdo " in their later years is all.

Although it is true that the system of the state has been refined thanks to the efforts of King Gwangjong, at the same time the royal authority limits were also exposed. Though the royal authority or the administrative power of the central government failed to penetrate the provinces and purged the royal power and strengthened the royal authority, it was not a unilateral victory over the royal power. This is evidenced by the massive anti-gloss movement following the death of King Gwangjong and the inauguration of the Gyeong-jong. However, Gwang-jong's achievements can be highly appreciated because he reorganized the national system and formed a new political order.

Seong Jong

This is a photo of Choi Seung-ro

King jeoung-jong ,who succeeded Gwang-jong, sought new stability by reinstating the founding public rather than political purge. Later, King sungjong established a centralized ruling system based on his enhanced royal authority during the reign of King Gwangjong. After he took office, he ordered officials of the central government to post comments on policy criticism and suggestions to reform the nation's operations. Choi Seung-ro raised Article 28 to urge the government to run based on Confucian ideology. He stressed that Buddhism is a religion for personal cultivation and that Confucianism should become an ideology of national rule. He also called for suppression of Buddhist events, dispatch of local government officials, reduction of soldiers and slaves in the royal palace, improvement of treatment for the descendants of Samhan, and improvement of slave related trials.

He accepted Choi Seung-ro's suggestion and reorganized the governance system needed for the central government. The central control center was established, focusing on parts 6 of the second province, and dispatched local authorities to establish the local administrative system. In addition, the Commission improved the national heritage and the past system, and sent Gyeonghakbaksa to provincial areas to promote education.[12]

The new political system, which was adopted by the Chinese government, was the first time in Korea's history that the Chinese system was adopted and implemented in earnest. It should be noted in particular that it is not a simple imitation, but that the maturity and development of the nation's political and social conditions require the acceptance of such an advanced system. In other words, it has become impossible for the existing political system to embrace a new political force that has grown enormously since the birth of the Goryeo Dynasty.

The nature of the political dominance of the ruling party differed according to the period. In the first half of the reign of King Sung-jong, Confucian scholars focusing on the six-pack system had the upper hand in politics, and in the latter half of the reign, the founding public or the family members appeared. Despite differences in degree, however, it is true that the new regime has significantly increased its participation in the core of political structure since the Silla Dynasty.

Thus, to lead this new society, he felt the need to introduce advanced Chinese institutions and adopt Confucian ideology as the guiding ideology of politics and education.

He worked hard to develop Confucian political ideology, including respecting studying abroad and abolishing anti-Confucianism and Palgwanhoe. And they tried to appoint talented people to help realize such political ideology.

"If we do not build a great deal of learning, we will not be able to see the good, and if we do not appoint a good man, we will not be able 
to make a great achievement. As a result, scholars opened schools in Seoul to respect the arts, set up schools to teach cadets in rural areas, 
opened places to compete in literary arts, and expanded their academic careers. "All men with no resources shall come out to the royal palace 
and give thanks." After a while, he will teach again.

In addition, they established Royal Ancestral Shrine and chose god of land and grain, and cultivated scholars and saved a good man by providing wealth to grand academician. And they actively prepared new policies for political, social and cultural development, encouraging the people to benefit, and encouraging filial piety to improve their customs.

Conclusion

Drawing Solutions of Unification

Plural of Diplomacy between China and the United States of America

It is no exaggeration to say that the world is controlled by China and the U.S. to be called the G2.[13] Although it is a problem between South and North Korea, the reunification policy of the two Koreas has long been an international war. Furthermore, it can no longer be a domestic problem as the North has had a bad influence on the international community by continuing its nuclear program. Currently, the nation has to deal with not only North Korea but also other major powers, and with different policies every time the administration changes, the nation is showing an inconsistent attitude in this situation. We intend to derive a solution for this through the policy of Goryeo. Goryeo kept back the king through friendly policy, while keeping him in check at the time of reunification. As a result, the Korean peninsula was not taken away by the Japanese, and Silla surrendered and became a power of Goryeo.[14] As such, Korea should implement policies to check and win over. Then, which country should we check and which country should we win over? In fact, the best solution is for North Korea and South Korea to achieve reunification without being affected by other countries. However, Korea can not help being affected by such powerful countries as the U.S. and China. First of all, China and the United States have the greatest influence on the issues of unification between North and South Korea. China is a socialist country, relatively closer to North Korea than to South Korea, while the United States is closer to South Korea. However, the United States and China should never be missed when Korea looks not only at unification but also at political, economic and social levels. I think it is necessary to maintain closer relations with China than it is now and to maintain closer ties with the United States but a little further away. Because China, which has relatively close relations with North Korea, is currently in a state of turmoil, and we should not overlook it and attack China. Also, by bringing China on our side, we can reduce the U.S. influence in our country. However, under the circumstances, it should not build a hostile relationship with the U.S. and should only strengthen China's influence on the Korean Peninsula. If this happens, the United States will be able to reduce its influence within the country, thus making the country less sensitive to the U.S. and maintain close relations with China, thus making our country the subject of inter-Korean dialogue. In other words, both the U.S. and China should be brought to our side so that China and the U.S. can balance their power and the South and North can achieve reunification without their influence. Just as the Goryeo Dynasty held in check Hu Baekje through its pro-China policy, the Republic of Korea should also lay the groundwork for reunification with pro-Chinese policy. Also, I think we should try to hold dialogue while maintaining friendly relations with North Korea. The way to achieve this is by using Japan. North and South Korea have in common is that through Japanese occupation together. In other words, a painful history, such as Japan is not accept actions they did during Japanese occupation in North and South Korea is located on the same side. South Korea, along with North Korea, should keep Japan in check, so that it can feel ' we are one. ' Goryeo reacted sternly to the fact that it was a check against the North. Such a countermeasure can be used as a platform for the unification of South and North Korea in modern society.

Based on Opening Policy of Kwang Jong

Gwangjong is the King of Goryeo that pioneer the way of open policy. Especially, Gwangjong is evaluated high in terms of being participated many Chinese at that time. Lee Jae hyun who is the historian in the later Goryeo graded Gwangjong highly in terms of raising the level of scholar and culture in Goryeo by appointing Ssanggi and excavating great scholar through imperial examination.


“The fact that Gwangjong appointed Ssanggi can be said ‘He didn’t make a difference using wise people'.
If we see the thing that he implemented imperial examination and appointed the government official, we can
know that Gwangjong tried to reform custom as civil administration with his high meaning. Also, Ssangi did his
best to accomplish the great things due to the meaning. So, we cannot say that there was not any help by him.”
-<Goreosa> Critism of Lee Jae hyun about Gwangjong[15]


A prime example is Ssanggi. Sanggi is Huju people who have been in Goryeo as members of the Huju delegation. Due to the requirement of Gwangjong, Sanggi left completely in Goryeo. After this, Ssanggi propose the implement of imperial examination and he was in charge of examiner many times. In modern times, we rarely see foreigners sitting in political or important positions. If the Chinese, Japanese or even Westerners, who are not Korean, lead the country in an important position, we will not see them in a good way. Even though we are opposed to this in the present, it is expected that in the past, the recruitment of Chinese people had taken a lot of opposition. Regardless, Gwangjong favored many other Chinese officials and placed them in politics. Has a foreigner ever been a high-ranking official in our history to formulate and implement important policies? People with abilities will find it hard to appoint any person regardless of nationality. In this regard, Gwang-jong's policy of appointing talented people is surprising. This is what a unified Korea should learn. In modern terms, Goryeo is the founder of the " Global Korea, " a dynasty that successfully achieved globalization and globalization.

If the two Koreas were to reunite, the unified Korea would be a symbol of unification. In order to achieve this genuine unification, we should try to create a capacity-oriented society no matter what background we come from. A society built with capacity-oriented policies that do not tackle origin will lead to an equal society, and an equal society will soon lead to a vigorous leap toward reunification. The same was true in Gwangjong, Goryeo, about 1,100 years ago. Shortly after Goryeo's reunification, Gwangjong carried out this policy of opening policy. There will also be political and ideological conflicts after our reunification. At that point we'll have to find a suitable solution. Solutions such as the opeing policy in Goryeo. Then, a truly " unified Korea " can be achieved.

Based on Diplomatic Negotiation of Seohee and Seong Jong

Khitan was uneasy about Goryeo's unilateral North Korean policy and friendly diplomacy, prompting Sosunyung to invade Goryeo. Khitan led about 800,000 troops, which led to Seohee's diplomatic negotiations. Seohee's diplomatic negotiations ended successfully and also secured Gangdong-6. At that time, Seong Jong of the Goryeo Dynasty gathered several officials to discuss the issue in an urgent situation where hundreds of thousands of the armed forces invaded the country, and there were many different opinions. Seo's wise move came from such a mood of skepticism. Above all, he avoided a large-scale war because of the responsibilities and patriotism of the king, Seong Jong, who immediately gained power, and Seo-hee, who risked his life.

With the security crisis on the Korean Peninsula escalating due to North Korea's nuclear and missile threats, neighboring countries are only focusing on their own interests including calculation. On the other hand, the South Korean government has no practical measures. Of course, if Seohee's diplomacy and diplomacy techniques were implemented 1,000 years ago, the North and South can not be called today's " Flattering Tongue, " as much as Seohee did. However, the environment of the political mechanisms, the leadership of the Goryeo Dynasty, and Seo-hee's wisdom and courage to penetrate the enemy's situation and intentions need to be in the negotiation between four countries such as the United States of America, China, Japan and Russia. In particular, the two leaders from China and the United States of America, resolve the issue of Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD), which is a stumbling block between South Korea and China due to the joint achievement of political diplomacy and the strategy of the West Hee diplomatic team, they will, and resolve the issue of the issue of the issue of reneraing the North Korean nuclear weapons.

Unification of Measures Based on Domestic Policies in Goryeo

Post-Unified Korea Politics Based on Public Stabilization Measures of Taejo Wang Gun

This is a photo of a statue of Taejo Wang Gun

Let's link the two issues which are the reunification of Goryeo and the unification of the two Koreas. Although the period of the reunification of Goryeo and the present situation of the two Koreas are much different. There may be some differences to this effect, but I judged that the significance of the reunification of the Goryeo Dynasty can provide sufficient suggestions and directions from the present. The reunification plan between the two Koreas will lead to problems when the two Koreas unify. The problem is also most of the reasons why many people in South Korea oppose reunification. In order for us to unify, many of these problems must be solved. Therefore, we are now going to propose ways to reunite the two Koreas, based on Wang Gun's policies that achieved 'reunification of the Goryeo Dynasty.'

However, when presenting unification measures, the elements necessary for unification are listed mainly.

First, unification comes from gaining public sympathy. It is also the people of those countries that are directly affected by one another and interact within the country after achieving unification. Therefore, winning the hearts of members of an integrated country is an important factor in achieving unification. Wang Gun, who unified Goryeo, seems to have taken this element as an important way for reunification. Wang Gun delivers this in Article 10. The 10th anniversary of the reign of King Taejo Wang Gun is the last will that he left to his descendants and summarizes the items that must be carved to rule the country.[16] In Article 10, Article 7 of the Act reads, ' If a king becomes king, he or she will get the people's trust by handling things fairly. ' Below is part of article 10 and paragraph 7.

"It`s very difficult for a king to win the hearts of his officials and his people. The point is to follow 
the words of the liver and to keep away from the dwelling. For if the words of the season are holy, then 
the words of the season, they will not believe in good-sweet chasses. 
If the people are timely, make their labor lighter, pay less tax, and know the difficulties of farming, 
the kingdom will be rich and the people will be comfortable." 

According to Article 10 of the Theses above, Wang Geon has corrected the ritual he must have as a king to win the hearts of the people. The nation has implemented several policies to become rich and to make the people comfortable. First of all, it is said to follow the terms of the season and stay away from the reference, which means that the government will listen to the advice of its officials and reflect it on its management of state affairs, based on the interpretation. Also, Wang was able to implement politics for the people because of the timely treatment for them, light labor, tax cuts, and awareness of farming difficulties. I think this is what the South and North should accept. As mentioned above, the first thing that needs to be corrected for successful reunification of the two Koreas is the people's "public sentiment." To capture that "people's sentiment," we must develop not only the politics of Wang Gun's "for the people," but also the politics of the people, so that we can truly think of unification.

Post-Unified Korea Politics Based on Gwang Jong

Gwangjong's policy seems to be very extreme. However, the policy has resulted in developments, which are necessary for relations with the North. We need an extreme and exact method. Gwangjong performed the slave review law. What does this have to do with unification? The slave review law can be said to be a law that shows Gwangjong's desire for powerful royal authority. We need that, too, a strong desire for unification, and that is the absolute way we can achieve it. The slave review law is about freeing up slaves who were originally commoner. This has led to the weakening of the powerful clans. The unification of our country is now being delayed by opposing forces like the powerful clans. Just as the royal authority of Goryeo was threatened. At this moment, all we have to do is persuade them. There is no time to be interrupted when there is not enough time to prepare for unification. We should show our strong desire for unification by persuading them. And on the suggestion of Ssangi, chinese naturalized students from Huzhou, Gwang-jong implemented the 958 years civil service examination. In the past, the system was designed to select management by testing Confucian scriptures and sentence abilities based on individual skills. This allowed the king to choose new people who were loyal to him. Through this, Gwangjong was able to strengthen the royal authority and national power. Although the Korean Peninsula is currently divided, South Korean talent has little awareness and concern about the need for unification. Therefore, it is necessary to train talented people who can contribute to a unified society for the sake of a unified society after achieving unification. To solve this problem, we need to foster human resources and achieve stable unification by focusing on social issues of unification, such as the Gwangjong system of the Goryeo Dynasty, which focused on understanding the Confucian scriptures. Gwangjong also established a emperor country system by calling Gaegyeong into Hwangdo and using its own reign name. A emperor country is a way of expressing the country's high status at the time. At that time, the situation in Goryeo seems a little different from that in our country. Although Goryeo suffered from the effects of the Khitan, Jurchen and the Song, it still has an attitude that should not be binding on anyone. But South Korea is not, at the top, to China, to Japan to the side, and to the other side, to the United States, too much interference from powerful nations. Even Korean people think of their country as being interrupted. Our government should take a Gwangjong’s attitude to solve this problem. In order to change the perception of the nation in a narrow way, we must achieve uninterrupted reunification through changing the perception of the global people in a broader way.

Post-Unified Korea Politics Based on Seong Jong

King Seong Jong, who repeatedly emphasized the academic side, united the people's opinions through Confucianism. Although Korea ranks among the highest in basic education level, however, it lacks specific education in terms of unification. Many efforts are being made, including writing unification essays and drawing unification posters. Though, unification is the controversial topic within the nation, as there is a lack of education on why it is necessary. Therefore, among the many important policies for reunification, a practical and specific education for the growing future generation has great necessity and importance.

In addition, considering Korea's actual circumstances with domestic policies of Goryeo, what Seong Jong's policy could accept is that it established a certain standard of rulling system. Goryeo had been a Buddhist faith until the end of the reign of King Seong Jong, but political domination was still empty. It was not until Goryeo entered the reign of King Seong- Jong that it adopted Confucianism as a political ideology that laid the foundation for a rational national management. Since the two Koreas ' governing ideology is completely different now that there will be inevitable conflicts in the process of reunification. To narrow the gap and to establish a better post-unification regime, the two Koreas also need to set a benchmark like Seong Jong. A system without standards is likely to end up in chaos. Considering the situation between the two Koreas, it is important to find ways to maximize profits and minimize losses. Judging from the internal politics of Goryeo, the nation must come up with a plan to unify the two Koreas as soon as possible. In order to lead a new society, the Confucian government of King Seong-jong introduced the advanced system of China and adopted Confucian ideology as the guiding ideology of politics and education. Same here. After reunification, we will have to prepare for a new Korea. We should be able to deal with problems that could be found after reunification. They must overcome inflation, cultural and economic differences that will occur after reunification.We should be able to explore the policies of King Seong Jong and apply them to modern times. He established the national treasure and accepted Choi Seung-ro's Article 28. The Korean goverment too, should develop new talent for effective unification, while existing forces must come up with stable ways to achieve unification..

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